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Summary

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Timelines - Decade
28y Physical 36y Emotional 44y Intellectual
American Cycles 1960s
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).


THE SIXTIES

The overall energy in the 1960s was high and the Emotional and Intellectual Cycles peaked.  Moral issues  exploded onto the scene, Eastern religions emerged, Modern art and Modern music were hailed.  By the end of the decade, "Woodstock" became a symbol for a generation and a human being man walked on the moon.  The Physical Cycle, however, troughed during the decade and we lost a war in Viet Nam that was controversial and undeclared.

We varied from the Unification of the 1950s.  A Double 2nd Qtr. brought a time of diversification, fruition and subculture groups.  New forces challenged old majorities like the Civil Rights Movement, Women's Liberation, and the Hippies.  The economy was up, but values became more humanistic than materialistic.  Three tragic assassinations brought untimely ends leading idealists, President Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.  Despite these loses the nation went on to thrive.  It was a decade that we will remember for a very long time.

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America rose from the "return to normalcy" of the latter 1940s and the "middle of the road" policies for the 1950s to very exciting times in the 1960s.  America burgeoned into diversified realms with new hopes and ideas.  Despite a Physical Low, President Kennedy successfully demanded that the Soviets dismantle a nuclear missile base they were building in Cuba in 1962.  Times were expansive, sub-cultural groups gained momentum, and women made the greatest advances since the 1920s.  A country that was once united in war, however, became divided over the war in Viet Nam. 

The Presidential Elections reflected the energy levels of a Physical Low - Emo-Intellectual High.  President Kennedy came from the Intellectually-based region of New England, (see Chapter XII GEORHYTHMS), and was himself an intellectual and idealist.  He had to overcome some opposition from Texas conservatives in the Physically-based Southwest.  To sure up his position in the Southwest, Kennedy chose Lyndon B. Johnson from Texas as his running mate.  The 1960 election was a close race against another intellectual and former attorney, Richard Nixon, but Kennedy won.  Vice president Johnson succeeded to the presidency after the tragic assassination of Kennedy.  Johnson ran against Goldwater in 1964 and won by a landslide.  Goldwater's military views were not popular during a Physical Low, and his conservative policies were not popular during an Emo-Intellectual High.  Johnson, however, pursued a military policy in Viet Nam.  This decision was so unpopular that popular that Johnson chose not to run in 1968.  Nixon's comeback defeated Vice-president Humphrey in 1968.  George Wallace also ran in 1968 on the newly formed Independent Party, but he advocated racial separatism and received only 13.5% of the vote.

1. Political  1960s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Low (1957 - 1971)

The Bay of Pigs Invasion Failed during a decade with no military victories.  After Castro's Soviet backed coup of Cuba in 1959, he demanded a reduction of US embassy staff in Havana.  President Eisenhower ended diplomatic relations in 1960.  President Kennedy ordered an invasion in 1961.  The CIA trained and equipped 1,500 Cuban refugees to invade at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba, but the attack failed within forty-eight hours.  All were killed or captured by Cuban armed forces.  They sentenced survivors to thirty years in prison.  Our military strength was down during a Physical Low. 

The Undeclared War in Viet Nam was Lost.  Pacifism increases with a Physical Low and the Peace Movement was conflicting with the war effort.  President Johnson ordered the bombing of military targets in 1965, abolished blanket student deferments, and doubled the draft quota.  US troops in Vietnam increased from more than three thousand in 1961 to more than one half million in 1968.  Despite valiant efforts, we still failed to hold the line. 

Anti-Vietnam War Protests Increased.  Opposition came on moral grounds during the Physical Low - Emotional High.  Protestors burned draft cards and were arrested in rallies at forty US cities in 1965.  Protests were nationwide in 1966.  Seven hundred thousand people marched against the war in a Fifth Avenue parade in 1967.  Protests continued everywhere.  A quarter million people marched on Washington in 1969, in the largest rally in history.  War is a hard sell during a Physical Low - Emotional High, and may be opposed on moral grounds.  We attempted a "police action" with a defensive posture, which is to fight a war without winning.  We did not win.

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) Received Public Support when they began between the US and the Soviet Union in Helsinki in 1969.  We signed the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons.  Support came because America became less nationalistic and less ready for a fight during a Physical Low. 

 The Purge of Communism Died Down as the Physical Cycle declined in the Low Half.  A 1965 Supreme Court decision ruled that an individual may refuse to testify as a member of the Communist Party because of Constitutional rights against self-incrimination.  This set back the McCarran Act of 1951, (a Physical High near the peak), that required testimony from Communists and authorized detention of supposed subversives in case of emergency.  Territoriality had lessened. 

Immigration Laws Changed and Nationalism Declined with the Physical Low.  New criteria classified immigrant applicants in the 1960s such as family condition, refugee status and skills.  This changed from an older law from to 1921, (a Physical High near the peak), that was based on more territorial concerns.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1964 - 1971)

Decay of the Inner Cities Came Under Reform in the Physical 3rd Qtr.  The Housing Act in 1965 appropriated $5 billion for the clearing of city slums, and the building of housing projects.

Conservation of the Natural Resources has often come with the Physical 3rd Qtr.  President Kennedy asked Congress for a "renewed interest and momentum" toward preservation in 1962, and to  establish a land conservation fund to acquire recreational land.  This came after US acreage of wilderness had declined from fifty-five million in 1926, to seventeen million in 1961.  It was time to reform this consumption.

The 24th Amendment Brought Voting Reform by eliminating the cost of voting in 1962.  Many southern states had used a nineteenth century poll tax keep African Americans from voting. Five states retained the law in 1960, so Congress passed  Amendment to the Constitution during this Physical 3rd Qtr. forbid the use of a poll tax as a voting requirement in federal elections.  We ratified it in 1964 during a Physical Trough and Emotional Peak.  Fences were down.  Morality was up.

1. Political  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

The Emotional High of the 1960s brought advancements in human rights, new arts greater social awareness.  It was an explosive time as old values fell to new ones.

President Kennedy Worked With the Arts.  Kennedy appointed August Hexler to the newly created post of Special Consultant on the Art.  The White House invited world class cellist Pablo to give a recital.  Mrs. Kennedy took an active role in redesigning the White House and encouraged collectors to donate elegant pieces.  The Kennedys were the first in a long time to improve the presidential garden and they helped inspire a rising tide of interest in the arts.  These initiatives echoed the national mood.

The Equal Rights Amendment, (ERA), was first proposed in 1923, (the previous Emotional High).  It bannered equality under the law regardless of sex.  The ERA was revived in 1970 amid the Emotional High.  Congress passed the amendment in 1971 and sent to states for ratification.  Thirty states approved within one year, but the Amendment fell eight states short of the thirty-eight required states for passage, despite support from a popular majority.  Ratification was delayed until 1982.  This timing worked against the amendment.  The Emotional cycle was in a Trough in 1982.  Even the 3rd Qtr. that began in 1973 might have given the ERA momentum with an element of reform, but that ended in 1982.

1. Political  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1951 - 1973)

Kennedy Appointed Intellectuals to Administrative Posts as a matter of preference.  Less than a decade before when the Cycle was lower, intellectual were dubbed, "eggheads."  Kennedy's selection process drew so many out of Harvard faculties that some newspapers asked, "Who is left in Cambridge to teach the students?"  It was an Intellectual High.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1951 - 1962)

Televised Debates of the 1960 Presidential Campaign were the first of their kind.  The four, hour long debates between Kennedy and Nixon set a new standard for presidential races.  After the election, President Kennedy held the first live television press conference.  The Agency for International Development was established by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.  These were Intellectual precedents in the 1st Qtr.

1. Political  1960s Polyrhythms top    
Emo-Intellectual High (1955 - 1973)

Poets and Politicians were the subject of a question posed to President Kennedy at the beginning his presidential career.  A reporter asked Kennedy about the conflict that sometimes arises between poets, and the government.  Kennedy said that if more poets learned something about politics, and more politicians were to read poetry, America would be a better place.  That was a timely statement that reflected an Emo-Intellectual High. 

Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955 - 1962)

The New Frontier was the theme of President Kennedy's inaugural address that  looked toward the future.  His speech was replete with the words, new, anew, and renewal.  This was the trend in the Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr.  No Cycle was in 3rd Qtr. Review.  Some twenty-five measures of reform came before Congress for economic recovery, defense, foreign aid, natural conservation, and housing, but few were enacted.  Kennedy was somewhat ahead of the reform movement that would come with the double Third Quarter in 1973.  His contemporaries were more focused on looking ahead in the 1st Qtr., than on reforming the past.   

The Peace Corps was founded by executive order in 1961.  It was a helping hand of hope and idealogy in the Emo-Intellectual High.  Thousands of young recruits were sent to help undeveloped peoples around the world.  These measures helped to draw support from other nations that might have been triangulated between the US and the Soviet Union. In the Physical Low - Emo-Intellectual High, our more successful bids for peace came without force.  It was an "army for peace" that was more successful than our army with guns at the time.  An Emo-Intellectual 2nd Qtr. after 1964 brought variation to the corps.  This was incorporated into "Action," a larger agency, in 1971.  After both of the Cycles crossed into the low half in 1973, the Peace Corps declined with a loss of recruits and funding.

Physical Low with
     Emotional High
(1957 - 1971)

The Civil Rights Movement exploded on the scene.  Old walls fell, and human values rose with the Physical Low - Emotional High.  Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., led the nonviolent movement for rights.  "Sit-ins" across the South had begun in 1960 to oppose "jim crow" practices at lunch counters where they required that African Americans use rear entrances.  The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) formed in North Carolina in 1960 to aid sit-in demonstrators, (Emotional 1st Qtr).  A Supreme Court decision nullified arrests in "Garner v. Louisiana," which ruled that sitting un-served at a lunch counter was not a breech of the peace.  More demonstrations, institutional support, and legislation continued throughout the decade for Civil Rights.   

Mass Public Demonstrations for the Civil Rights Movement were pervasive.  Many were hurt, arrested, and sometimes, killed.  Hundreds of were arrested in Birmingham 1961, during nonviolent demonstrations.  Four schoolgirls were killed in a church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963.  Riots broke out in a 500 square block area of the Watts District of Los Angeles in 1963 after accusations of police brutality.  There was burning looting, and more than 12,000 National Guardsmen, and thousands arrested in the area where thirty-four were killed.  More than 200,000 people arrived in Washington, D.C., to hear Dr. King deliver his powerfully moving, "I have a dream" speech in 1963, but a sniper killed NAACP Field Secretary, Medgar W. Evers, in this year.  Demonstrations continued, the nonviolent Civil Rights Movement would prove more powerful than bullets during the Physical Low - Emotional High.   

Institutional Support Came for the Civil Rights Movement came from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).  Dr. Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. led the American Civil Rights Campaign and he was arrested in that Birmingham, Alabama for joining a civil rights march.  President Kennedy forbid racial and religious discrimination in federally built housing in 1962.  The Supreme Court that racial segregation in courtrooms was unconstitutional.  In Birmingham, Alabama, US attorney General, Robert F. Kennedy halted police action in the city after hundreds of civil rights demonstrators were arrested.  Human rights were continually chosen over attempts of force during the Physical Low - Emotional High.

Legislation Came for the Civil Rights Movement. President Eisenhower appointed the Civil Rights Commission under the Civil Rights Act of 1957 that found many voting rights violations.  Eisenhower then signed the Civil Rights Act of 1960 and  empowered federal judges to appoint referees to assist voter registration.  The crossing of state lines with explosives for bombing or to avoid prosecution became a federal crime to halt bombings of churches and schools.  The Supreme Court also outlawed segregation in bus terminals in 1960.  The Senate passed the Civil Rights Bill of 1964, which President Johnson called, "a challenge to all Americans to transform the commands of our laws into the custom of our land."  Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. was awarded  the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his advocacy of black civil rights and world peace.  King pledged every penny toward the civil rights movement.  The Voting Rights Act passed in 1965 to ensure nondiscriminatory practices in all federal, state and local elections, and, to enforce the 5th Amendment of 1870 that recognized the right to vote to all African Americans.  The president federalized the state national guard after demonstrators were attacked.    A unanimous decision by the Supreme Court ruled against any law forbidding interracial marriages in 1967.  The power had shifted.  New laws tore down old fences during the Physical Low, and new freedoms came with the Emotional (and Intellectual) High. 

New Positions Were Attained by African Americans.  Edward W. Brooke was elected to the US Senate in Massachusetts in 1966, as the first black senator elected since the Reconstruction period of 1866-77.  Black mayors were also elected in Gary, Indiana and Cleveland, Ohio in 1967.  Walter E. Washington was appointed chief executive (commissioner) of the District of Columbia.  Thurgood Marshall, great-grandson of a slave, received Senate confirmation as the first black justice on the Supreme Court.  Mississippi, Louisiana and Virginia elected their first black legislators.  Americans were judged more by their ideas and the content of their character than by the color of their skin.  It was a Physical Low - Emotional (and Intellectual) High.

Black Muslims were a voice in the 1960s, but a limited one.  They spawned from the Nation of Islam, founded in 1930, and proclaimed the inherent superiority of blacks over whites.  They advocated separatism under their spiritual leader, Elijah Muhammad.  A former leader of the Black Muslims, and founder of the Organization for Afro-American Unity, Malcolm X, was shot and killed in NYC, in 1965.  Three Black Muslims were arrested for the murder.  Separatism is difficult to advocate during a Physical Low.  To the contrary, more people were coming together during the Emotional High.  The Civil Rights Movement gained a far greater following by advocating racial harmony through nonviolence during the Physical Low - Emo-Intellectual High.

Native American Concerns gained greater recognition.  Emancipation has never come for those who have dual citizenship within a single nation.  To this day, Native Americans exist in enclaves amid a mutually exclusive nation, the United States.  Many prefer to stay on impoverished reservations than to live in white America.  By the end of the decade, about 67% of the more than one million Native Americans lived within the 260 Indian reservations in the US.  The few liberties that have come to those living in internal exile have mostly emerged during Emotional Highs.  This time, an Emotional High came with a Physical Low, and old walls were falling.  Main stream America saw spiritually-based ideas in a different light.

 Native American Independence made gains.  The Bureau of Indian Affairs of the Department of the Interior began to allow more independence and authority to tribal councils in 1966.  Education of Indian youth became a focus.  By the end of the decade, most Indian leaders declared autonomy against the government by the end of the decade and handled their own tribal affairs.  Tribes throughout the nation began business ventures in such fields as coal, oil, crafts and tourism.  A militant element was nonetheless there.  Some seventy-eight Indians seized Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay in 1966, and demanded it for the Indian Community.  Then came the 70-day seizure of a trading post and church at Wounded Knee, South Dakota in a tense standoff.  Nevertheless, public opinion was open to Indian grievances as we transcended old walls with compassion, (Physical Low - Emotional High).

 Feminism rose in the 1960s.  The Emotional Cycle peaked in 1964 and brought a rise of feminine energy, (yin).  The Physical Cycle troughed that same year that brought a decline of masculine energy, (yang).  The Intellectual Cycle was high but it is neutral in gender, (yang), intelligence is neither masculine nor feminine.  Feminists their biggest strides since women won the right to vote in 1919, (upward Emotional Crossover).  Women in the work force over the age of fourteen increased from 25% in 1940 to 34% in 1960.  President Kennedy established a Commission on the Status of Women in 1961 and Congress passed the Equal Pay Act in 1963.  Although the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was set up in 1964 to handle racial discrimination, about 40% of its complaints were from women.  Women appeared on the American Stock Exchange for the first time in 1965.  Times were changing.

 The National Organization for Women, (NOW), was established by Betty Friedman in 1966.  Its goals were to advance political and economic goals for women, to remove "sex object" stereotypes, and to bring an end to male domination.  An  advantageous time to advance these goals is in a Physical Low - Emotional High.  Friedman had published "The Feminine Mystique," in 1963 that called for women to take a greater role in American Society. The book went from being seen as the isolated views of a disgruntled housewife, to being the voice of women across the nation.  During Emotional 2nd Qtr. Expansion, NOW spawned spin-off groups around the nation as women took up the cause.  The media picked up on spectacular events such as bra-burning and beauty pageant protests.

 Lesbianism was More Open as some women advocated this as an alternative to men.  Lesbianism itself may increase during a Physical Low - Emotional High, (just as male homosexuality may increase during a Physical High - Emotional Low, i.e., 1970s & 1980s).  While lesbianism is not the aim, or the result, of the feminist movement, it came with the energies. 

 Civil Defense Measures Declined.  By 1962, the fallout shelter business went bust.  Conscientious Objectors were recognized when the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that one who holds a true belief in a Supreme Being may be exempted from military combat and training.  Americans were building less for a fight and speculating more on a brighter future.  It was a Physical Low - Emotional High.

Humanism Over Materialism was reflected in President Nixon's oath of office speech in 1969.  He said, "We have found ourselves rich in goods, but ragged in spirit, reaching with magnificent precision for the moon, but falling into raucous discord on earth.  We are caught in war, wanting peace.  We are torn by divisions, wanting unity."  These words were well accepted.  When President Nixon later attempted to draw support for fighting in Viet Nam and spoke against the antiwar movement, his words were not well accepted.  "The great silent majority," he sought to appeal to in a speech, was not as Physically-based and unified as they were in Eisenhower years.  It was now a Physical Low - Emotional High and different values had come to the forefront.  That was a phrase that worked against him.

Physical Low with
     Intellectual High
(1957 - 1971)

The US Supreme Court Ruled Against  Capital Punishment in 1961, pending new state legislation.  The Court also ruled against the use of illegal evidence in cases prosecuted by the state courts.  Force was down with the Physical Low, and ideology was up with the Intellectual High.

The "Military-Industrial" Complex was Reviewed and President Kennedy kept civilian control over the military.  In a Physical Low - Intellectual High, the military is likely to fall under control of the government.  Secretary of Defense, Robert MacNamara, kept control over the Joint Chiefs of Staff and implemented the use of computers and new policy techniques, (Intellectual 1st Qtr.).  Even President Eisenhower, a top army general, warned the country against too much Physical emphasis during his farewell speech in 1961, (a Physical low year.  In his speech he referred to the increasing power of a "military-industrial complex."  It was the concern of a new generation.

Trirhythmic

No Third Quarter, No Big Deal.  When Senator Edward Kennedy drove a car off a bridge on Chappaquiddick Island in Martha's Vineyard, no Cycle was in 3rd Qtr. Reform.  Though 28-year-old Mary Jo Kopechne died in the crash, Senator Kennedy waited eight hours before reporting it to the police.  It was an accident, but one that could have raised questions.  The senator's career survived despite the potential for scrutiny.  When Kennedy ran for president in 1980, however, There was a Double 3rd Qtr.  Political opponents raised the Chappaquiddick issue against him that proved to be more effective years after the fact, than at the time.  It may have contributed to his loosing the primary.  The facts were the same, the time was different.

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2. Business & Economy  1960s Physical Cycle top    

The 1960s began with unprecedented productivity.  Great momentum carried over from a Three-Way High in the 1950s.  Prosperity continued an Emo-Intellectual High lasted throughout the decade, and no Cycle had a Crossover.  In the Physical Low - Intellectual High, however, industry lost jobs to automation.  Business was still booming, though, and speculation was up in the Emotional High.  Government expanded, private businesses mushroomed, and the nation was thriving.

Physical Low (1957 - 1971)

The War on Poverty addressed packets of poverty in rural and urban America, despite a strong economy.  The Physical Cycle was low.  Studies in 1965 showed that cities were becoming more dangerous and the crime rate more than doubled by the end of the decade.  The young in impoverished sections committed most crimes of cities.  President Johnson's anti-poverty bill in 1964 called for $947 million in aid against illiteracy, unemployment and other conditions in impoverished areas.  The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 provided around $1 billion for the "war on poverty."  We established community-action projects for health improvement and better housing and Job Corps training for the young.  The Office of Economic Opportunity was established and Peace Corps director R. Sargent Shriver Jr. was chosen to head it.  The Appalachian Regional Development Act was passed in 1965 which authorized that $1 billion for relief from poverty along Appalachian mountain range, which includes eleven states.  The Department of Housing and Urban Development was the new department in 1965 to improve urban housing and community life.  It was headed by Robert C. Weaver (who became the first African American cabinet member).  With the Physical Low came scattered poverty, but the Emo-Intellectual High spawned caring and new ideas to try to counter it.

 Toy Guns Were Discouraged by many families who no longer wanted their boys to emulate cowboys and war heros.  After the assassinations of Dr. King, and Bobby Kennedy,  Sears & Roebuck Co. removed toy guns from its Christmas catalog in 1968, and ordered an end to their advertisement in 815 stores.  This decision was carried out in its stores nationwide.  The Physical Cycle was low and in 3rd Qtr. Review after 1964.  We raised children to be more caring and smart, and less tough.

 Labor Unions Laced Unity in the Physical Low.  The UAW separated from the AFL-CIO in 1968 after years of disagreement.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1964)

Business Reform came in the late 1950s to the mid 1960s.  Twenty electric equipment manufacturers were convicted of Price Fixing in 1961.  Texas agricultural financier, Billie sol Estes was involved with the Department of Agriculture and was sentenced to eight years in prison on numerous charges.  In the biggest antitrust case in history, E.I. du Pont de Nemourts & Company divested sixty-three million shares of GM stock in 1962.  Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy indicted eighty-one Teamster officials in 1963 with fifty-eight convictions.  Mobster Joseph M. Valachi identified the leaders of organized crime on a televised Senate hearing.  Jimmy Hoffa of the Teamsters was convicted of fraud from the misuse of union funds and jury tampering.  He was sentenced to thirteen years in prison in 1967, but did not resign as president of the Teamsters until 1971, (a Physical Crossover year).  Physically-based organizations were under Reform.    

Tax Reform came in 1962 with the enactment of Trade Expansion Act and a tax-reform law in 1962.  Another important bill came before Congress in 1963 calling for more tax reform.  Cut backs can come in a Physical 3rd Qtr.

 "Recycle" became a term to describe the return of waste and scrap for reuse in new form.  Though the idea was not new, it became implemented in 1961.  The old practice of waste would never be viewed the same.  This is a classic Physical 3rd Qtr. Reform.

2. Business & Economy  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

A Brighter Outlook Came as the Emotional Cycle rose in the High half.  President Eisenhower's pointed out in his State-of-the-Union message of 1960 that we had a $200 million surplus in budget.  He predicted that 1960 would "be the most prosperous year in our history."  Americans fully believed in a brighter future.  

2. Business & Economy  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1951 - 1973)

Business Expanded with the Intellectual High, 10% of what Americans spent on food in 1961 went to the packing industry which came up with such innovations as the see-through meat tray that year.  Cigarette manufacturers spent $115 million advertising their products on television in 1964.  Some 2.5 million people were on the federal payroll by 1962 as government jobs expanded.  Improved technology allowed the average farm worker to produce enough food for thirty-one people in 1963 (up from 15.5 in 1950).  Workers averaged more than $100 per week for the first time in 1963.  We made two thirds of all autos in the world in in 1963.  Profits for auto makers exceeded $3 billion two years later, their biggest ever.  Business boomed with the High.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1951 - 1962)

The "Certificate of Deposit," or CD was Established in 1962 as a fixed-term interest generator.  It was set up First National City Bank of New York and it was an Intellectual 1st Qtr. Precedent.

2. Business & Economy  1960s Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1964 - 1973)

"New and Improved" became the most common slogan to sell products.  It is what people wanted in the Dbl. 2nd Qtr.  Spin-offs of standard products brandished this title on cartons and advertisements across the nation.

Physical Low with
     Emotional High
(1957 - 1971)

"The Great Society" came as President Johnson outlined his program for a "Great Society" in his State-of-the-Union address in 1965.  We addressed the poverty of the Physical Low with hopeful plans in an Emotional High.  Johnson called for the socialization of health services and financial services, signed the Medicare Bill in 1965, and increased the Social Security Tax.  He also created the Department of Housing and Urban Development in 1965, as a new Cabinet-level department.  Showing further confidence that we could solve our problems, Johnson's  State-of-the-Union address of 1966, proposed a $112 billion budget that included a $1.8 billion deficit.  Johnson asks for $4 billion more for defense and $3 billion more for the Great Society.  He created the Department of Transportation as another cabinet-level department.  Congress approved "Great Society" funds to finance the rebuilding of large urban areas in need of renewal in 60 to 70 cities.  This bill targeted $25 million for the planning in 1967, and $900 million for projects in 1968.  Social Security was to increase by 20%.  Included were programs such as "Head Start" for job training.  To pay for these, Johnson asked Congress for a 10% surcharge on individual and corporate income taxes.  All bills passed with optimism that we would maintain these commitments.  Over time, our hopes proved sometimes to outrun out strength.  Government became overgrown driving some tax payers into poverty and creating disincentives for business.  It was a Physical Low - Emotional High. 

Physical Low with
     Intellectual High
(1957 - 1971)

President Kennedy Effected a Move Against the Steel Industry.  Kennedy obtained a tacit agreement from steel producers in 1961 that they would not raise steel prices.  This was to curb inflation.  The US Steel Corporation broke their promise to the president in 1962 by announcing a sudden price increase.  Five other producers followed suit.  Kennedy called the increases were "wholly unjustified and irresponsible." He immediately diverted government contracts to other steel firms.  This compelled the offending companies to cancel their increases.  Big industry did not have as the muscle over government that it had during the Physical High.  It was now a Physical Low - Intellectual High.

Congress Ended the Most Extensive Rail Strike in History which in 1967.  Some 600,000 members of the AFL-CIO's International Association of Machinists went out on strike, affected 95% of the nation's railroad tracks.  A bill was passed to end the strike and demand that workers to return to work.  The president was authorized to establish a board to settle dispute in case of an impasse after ninety days.  This executive power over business reflected the Physical Low - Intellectual High. 

Liberties for Industry Declined as government enacted legislation in the Physical Low - Intellectual High.  The Fed Could Regulate Auto Emissions after 1965.  Further Auto Safety Legislation was signed in 1966 that established the use of anchored seat belts, emergency flashers, recessed dashboard knobs, and safety recalls - as sense over action was legislated.  President Johnson signed the Clean Water Restoration Act that required states to set antipollution standards for interstate water in 1966.  Congress passed the Air Quality Act in 1966, with $428.3 billion directed toward air pollution over the next three years.  We were less likely to let business strength outrun governed  sense. 

  "Endangered Species" Laws were Passed in 1967 to save wildlife.  The Department of Agriculture also banned the use of DDT in residential areas in 1969.  We were less likely to act without thinking in the Physical Low - Intellectual High.

  The Value of Gold Declined with the Physical Low and value of the dollar rose with Intellectual High.  The result was lower gold prices.  The US negotiated a gold price system with European nations in the London Gold Pool in 1968 and set the international price for gold at $35 an ounce.  Contrast this with the 1980s when the Cycles reversed to a Physical High - Intellectual Low and the price of gold rose some 1,500%.  Who knew?  A precious few with instinct and foresight saw.  It could have also been calculated on a Kalarhythm chart.  The Cycles in the latter 1990s are similar to the 1960s in that there again is a Physical Low - Intellectual High.

Internal Aberration  

How can one tell the difference between a time of crisis and Aberration?  Look at the chart.  If no Cycle is in a Crossover, any significant mishap might be an Aberration, and therefore brief.  The largest stock loss since the Crash in 1929 happened on May 28, 1962.  The New York Stock Exchange lost $20.1 billion in one day.  No Crossovers came in 1962.  The market recovered quickly and America went on to one of the most prosperous times in history.  It was a brief Aberration.  Another Aberration occurred in 1987.  Computer trading triggered a mass sell-off until 508 points or 28% of the market was lost.  No Crossovers came in 1987, either.  The market recovered quickly from this artificial decline and the economy was stable.  Had it been a Crossover year and time for a crisis, it would have lasted longer and had greater effect.  It pays to know.

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A good economy enabled us to produce new inventions.  Science and engineering reached new highs, and the space program boldly went where no one had gone before, and the times advanced.

3. Science & Technology  1960s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1964)

Pesticide Research Led to Reform in 1963 while the Physical Cycle was in 3rd Qtr. Reform.  The president's advisory committee called for the research and caution.  The US Public Health Service charged in 1964 that insecticides were the cause for thousands of fish dying in the Mississippi River since 1960.  It was time to amend. 

The Surgeon General Denounced Cigarette Smoking after following proof that it causes lung disease.  The Federal Trade Commission called for all packages of cigarettes to carry warning labels announcing the hazards of smoking.  Cigarette advertising was halted in magazines, radio stations, and other sources.  Greater protection came in the Physical 3rd Qtr.

3. Science & Technology  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1951 - 1973)

Electronics manifests the intellectual.  It was the nation's fourth largest industry and the fastest growing in 1960.  The industry was up 30% in one year and sales totaled almost $13 billion.  When the Intellectual Cycle peaked in 1962, 90% of homes had a television set, and 13% had two.  We had more than 500 million radios, in 1964, 100 million telephones in 1967.  The Electronic nervous system of the nation evolved with the Intellectual High.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1951 - 1962)

Precedents were Reached in Defense Technology.  A banner year for 1st Qtr. Intellectual Precedents was 1960.  The US Nuclear Submarine, "U.S.S. Triton," circumnavigated the globe underwater.  A New Depth Record was set by a small submarine, "Trieste."  The First Ballistic Missile was fired from a submerged submarine.  The X-15 Rocket plane set a new altitude record of 136,500 feet.  The World's First Nuclear-Powered Aircraft Carrier, "USS Enterprise," also appeared in 1960.  The First Solid-Fuel Rocket, the "Minuteman ICBM," was fired by the US in 1961.  Precedents were set. 

Other Precedents in Technology were numerous in the Intellectual High.  Here is another list of events.  The Digital Display for Pocket Calculators was invented in 1960.  The First Robotic Hand was used in a nuclear plant, also in 1960.  US Scientists Developed the Laser in 1960, (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). Lasers were then used in delicate eye surgery in 1963 during Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion.  The Nobel prize for physics was awarded to Donald A. Glaser in 1961 for The Invention of the Bubble Bath Chamber in which atomic particles.  It was awarded to Dr. Willard F. Lobby for the development of the Atomic Time Clock.  R. L. Massbauer also made Discoveries About the Gamma Ray in 1961.  Cryobiology was Established in 1962 as a low temperature biology.  Some 200 Nuclear Reactors were in the US in 1962.  Patent Number 3,000,000 was issued by the US patent office to General Electric for an automatic reading system.  These are typical 1st Qtr. Intellectual events.

 Satellites Were Among the Precedents.  The first communication satellite, the "Echo I," was launched in 1960.  This new satellite technology allowed Bell Systems to announce that a true worldwide telephone and television communications system was in operation.  The world's first weather satellite, "Tiros I," was also launched in 1960, and so was "Midas II," the first in a series of military reconnaissance satellites.  Another communications satellite, "Transit 4A," became the first spacecraft to use nuclear power in 1961.

The First Man in Space came in 1961 as part of Six Mercury missions by NASA that led the way to the upcoming Gemini program.  Commander Alan Shepard, Jr., made a suborbital flight of 300 miles in the Mercury capsule, "Freedom VII."  The first American in orbit was John Glenn who orbited the earth three times aboard the Mercury capsule, "Friendship 7" in February 1962.  New York's Fifth Avenue became "Astronaut Way" for the March 1st parade in which four million New Yorkers came out to salute him.  This came near the Peak of the Intellectual Cycle, (and an Emotional High).

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1962 - 1973)

Enhanced Satellites Began in 1962.  The communication satellite "Telestar" enabled TV and radio signals between American and Europe.  "Telestar II" was launched the following year.  President Kennedy signed a law creating the Communications Satellite Corporation, (COMSAT), in 1963.  "Ranger" satellites went on to the moon and sent back pictures to precede a manned flight.  Satellites went commercial in 1965 as the "Early Bird," was launched to transmit telephone and television signals.  The unmanned spacecraft "Mariner II" passed within 21,600 miles of Venus in 1962.  "Mariner IV" transmitted twenty-one photos of Mars in 1965.  "Mariner V" later flew within 2,500 miles of Venus.  "Mariner VII" passed sent back clear pictures of Mars in 1969.  In 1966, NASA made its first soft landing on the moon with "Surveyor I," three months after the Soviets had done so.  Testing of lunar soil began in 1967 with NASA's "Surveyor V."  The invention of the satellite was branching out in typical 2nd Qtr. Fashion.

 The "Gemini" Program Spun Off the "Mercury" Program in 1963.  This was a step toward the moon.  Astronauts began making space walks outside the spacecraft when "Gemini 4" was launched in 1964.  "Gemini 7" was launched on a 14-day mission that proved that astronauts could last a round trip to the moon. "Gemini 8" became the first spacecraft to dock in space when it linked with a previous launch.  Then the very successful Gemini program ended with the splashdown of "Gemini XII" in October 1966.

The "Apollo" Program Spun Off the "Gemini" Program.  "Apollo 8" made a manned flight to the moon and back in 1968.  "Apollo 10" took men around the moon in thirty-one orbits, then back to Earth in 1969.  Then, on July 20, 1969,  "Apollo 11" Landed on the Moon with astronauts Neil Armstrong, Col. Buzz Aldrin and Lt. Col. Michael Collins.  This was a landmark in history, the likes of which reflects the culmination and fruition of progress that comes with a Second Quarter.  A lunar capsule was left on the moon, along with an American flag and a plaque which says, "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the moon July 1969, AD.  We came in peace for all mankind."  A second manned flight went to the moon on November 11th.  The 1st Qtr. saw the first US satellite in space and the 2nd Qtr. saw the first man on the moon.

Computer Improvements Mushroomed in the 2nd Qtr.  The MOS (metal oxide semicondenser) integrated circuit was developed by RCA scientists to increase information that could be stored on a computer chip.  IBM introduced the use of chips into its 360 system in 1964, and demonstrated its Word Processor.  IBM's stock split in 1968 after rising from $320 to $667.50 in two months.  Integrated Silicon Circuits were marketed in 1965.   Bubble Memory was introduced in 1969, which allow computers to keep memory even after being powered down.  This and other Intellectually-based industries reflected 2nd Qtr. Expansions. 

Second Quarter Improvements Came to Aeronautics as Lockheed Aircraft developed a jet that could travel at 2,000 miles per hour in 1964.  The space program saw the development of Multiple Independent Reentry Vehicles (MIRV) in 1967 that allowed numerous separate missiles to branch off a single launch.  Passenger service began the era of wide-body jumbo jets with the development of the Boeing 747 in 1969.

Major Medical Improvements Also Came.  A heart patient was kept alive for several days when Surgeons Implanted a Plastic Heart in 1966.   Har Gobind Khorana Completed Deciphering the DNA Code in 1966.  The structure of the enzyme, ribonuclease (RNA) Was Discovered in 1967.

Other Improvements Were Made on Technological Advances as Britain experienced a "brain drain" from its scientist leaving for the US to work in aerospace and computer industries while our Intellectual Cycle was High.  Our Nuclear research was also advancing.  The US had 200 Atomic Reactors in 1962 while Britain and the USSR had thirty-nine each.  The Semicondenser Laser was developed in 1962.  This power spun off to the Nuclear Lighthouse which went into operation in Baltimore in 1964.  (The use of this power would become questioned when the Cycle entered Third Quarter Reform in 1973).  Tape recording found a new form as Phillips introduced the Compact Cassette Tape in 1963.  Murray Gell-Mann Proposed the Existence of Quarks in 1964 as the three subatomic particles that make up a hadron.  The Navy began Sealab Experiments to see if they could support human life under the sea for long periods.  A crew stayed under water for forty-five days in 1966.  Microwave Ovens appeared in 1967.  RCA introduced the Integrated Circuit in Television Sets in 1966.  Electronic Composition set books in 1968.  The Scanning Electron Microscope made stereoscopic images possible in 1969.   It was an eventful 2nd Qtr. of Improvements.

3. Science & Technology  1960s Polyrhythms top    

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The high economy in America boosted the auto industry.  In 1960, Detroit's new "small" cars were bigger in 1963 and eighty-two million cars, trucks, and buses were on the roads.  The one million motel rooms in 1963 were an increase of 60,000 from just five years earlier.  In the fall of 1966, auto makers offered 367 basic models in their 1967 lines, and consumers had the money to buy them.

4. Mechanical  1960s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Low (1957 - 1971)

"They Just Don't Make Things Like They Used To" was the common phrase as Quality was declining in many products.  As the Physical Cycle declined, so did a range of Physically-based things from houses, to can openers.

Antique Cars Were Reviewed with reverence during the Physical 3rd Qtr. of Review.  Youths were fond of restoring older cars into "souped up" machines, cherished as "hot rods." 

4. Mechanical  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955 - 1964)

The Ford Mustang first Appeared on the 1964 line, (in showrooms in 1963), just before the peak of the Emotional Cycle.  This V-8 powered small car had lots of style and was later declared a classic, (during the string of 3rd Qtr. Reviews  that began in 1973).

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955 - 1964)

The Ford Mustang was Copied Spun Off into variations by other manufacturers during the Second Quarter.  These "pony cars" included the Plymouth "Barracuda," the Chevrolet "Camaro," and the Pontiac "Firebird."  Also during the Emotional High in 1966, Pontiac released the "Pontiac GTO."  This youthful design appealed not only to the young, but to the young at heart.

4. Mechanical  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1960s Polyrhythms top    

Physical WHATEVER with
     Emotional WHATEVER

Labor Jobs Were Lost to Automation.  Hard labor in the coal mining districts of West Virginia and nearby regions were substituted to such an extent that many were impoverished.  Mechanization had widespread effects.  The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimated in 1962 that 200,000 to 300,000 workers would lose their jobs annually to automation for the next decade.  As Walter Reuther pointed out in 1963, they had eliminated some 68,000 jobs in the auto industry over the previous fifteen years while its annual output increased by more than three million automobiles.  Some two to three million workers were replaced nationwide by new technology around 1964.  Americans were also spending $3.5 billion yearly in vending machines in by 1964.  The power shift was moving away from labor, (Physical Low), and toward high technology, (Intellectual High).

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5. Education  1960s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Low (1957 - 1971)

Military Education Declined as many universities made ROTC voluntary or eliminated it altogether in 1964, (Physical Trough).  Defense Department contracts with universities fell from 400 to 200 during the decade.  The military declined with the Physical Low.

 Dress Codes in Public Schools Relaxed during the Physical Low, as students demanded less structure in attire.  Instead of the uniforms and formality found in the previous 1st Qtrs., casual dress prevailed.

5. Education  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

The Civil Rights Movement Was Felt in Education.  Governor Merideth Barnett denied a black student admission to Mississippi U 1962.  Merideth did take his place at the University, but US marshals and 3,000 soldiers responded to riots.  Then Alabama Governor, George Wallace, backed down to the threat of federal troop intervention in 1963 and allowed two black students into the University of Alabama.  After that, however, Wallace had the Tusckegee High School surrounded to prevent desegregation, but, the Alabama National Guard was federalized and Wallace lost to a stand-off with federal authorities.  Some 465,000 students were absent from New York City schools in 1964 in a one-day protest against segregation.  US Commissioner of Education, Francis Keppel, announced in that all public school districts were to desegregate by the fall of 1967.  This was based on the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that barred federal aid to schools which practiced racial discrimination, (Physical Low - Emo-Intellectual High).  The moral issue of equality emerged victorious in this emotional battle over age old systems, (Physical Low - Emotional High).

Coed Dorms Came to Many Colleges across the nation in 1967.  Yale admitted women in 1968.  Black Studies also became a subject at many universities that same year.  Yin was in.  Old was out.

5. Education  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

  Intellectual High (1951 - 1973)

Education Increased Across the Nation during the decade.  About 85% of the nation's youth was in school in 1960, (up from about 10% at the turn of the century, which was an Intellectual Low).  The nation was spending $654 per student in public schools in 1965 and a total of $262 billion overall.  College enrollment almost doubled from 1960 to 1967, (from 3.6 million to 6.9 million).  SAT scores were at a high, and the times were Intellectual.

Second Quarter Expansion Brought New Topics to Education as students demanded greater latitude.  The school system also came forth with the "new math" in 1964.  Colleges offered new esoteric and relevant courses.

President Kennedy Granted Draft Deferments to 1.9 Million College Students.  Students were valued to the point of sparring them from war during the Physical Low - Emotional High.

5. Education  1960s Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual High (1955 - 1973)

Hopes for Education Were High.  President Johnson called for "full education for every citizen to the limits of his capacity to absorb it, and good health for every citizen in the limits of our ability to provide it." A plan, and a forecast of the Emo-Intellectual High.

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Changing social times reflected in churches and synagogues across the nation.  Some religious leaders took part in issues like women's liberation, racism, poverty, environmental concerns, and the Viet Nam War.  The Emotional High centered many around moral values.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1960s Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

Sexual Matters Were Viewed More Liberally by Many Churches.  The 100th General Assembly of the Southern Presbyterian Church decided in 1960 that marital sex relations without intent of procreation is not a sin.  Bishops and leaders of the Protestant Episcopal Church approved some methods of birth control in 1960, and the National Council of Churches accepted birth control in the following year.  The Catholic Church saw celibacy in the priesthood became challenged in 1968.  Some 800 theologians in the US opposed Pope Paul VI's ban on contraception during the Quarter, (Emotional High - Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives).

Women Made Gains in Organized Religion.  Some denominations of the Protestant Church began admitting women into the ministry in the 1960s.  Judaism saw the acceptance of women in both the Conservative and Reform branches who permitted women to take part in the conducting services and to hold lay offices, including president.  Both feminization and religion rise and fall with the Emotional Cycle.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955 - 1964)

African Americans Set Precedents in Churches.  Reverend John Melville Burgess was consecrated as Suffragan Bishop of Massachusetts in 1962, becoming the first African American bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church to serve a mostly white diocese in America. All Roman Catholic schools in the New Orleans dioceses ended segregation that same year.  Human rights and churches were setting precedents together.

Emotional 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1964 - 1973)

Various Religions and Eastern Beliefs Became Spread during the Second Quarter.  The I Ching became popular in 1965 as sales of the book went from 1,000 to 50,000 in 1968.  The International Society for Krishna Consciousness also appeared in 1968 and the Hare Krishna sect grew in cities across America.  Gurus became renown in America in 1967.  Colleges offered more courses in Oriental theologies and the occult in 1968.  Greater interest came as fads in such areas as Astrology and Tarot card reading.  The 1968 critic's choice in publishing was "The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge," (Native American Spiritualism).  Religion was strong.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1960s Polyrhythms top    

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Art was in a heyday during the Emo-Intellectual High.  More galleries open nationwide in 1960 than in any previous year.  Many more were in the works, such as the Gallery of Modern Art in New York which opened in 1964.  The National Council for the Arts was founded in 1965.  Museums' art shows expanded and traveled.  Art pieces drew record bids.  The highest price ever paid by a museum to a living American artist occurred in 1962 when the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts gave to Andrew Wyeth for "That Gentleman." The art movement also drew support from President Kennedy as  he said in 1961, "We must regard artistic achievement and action as an integral part of our free society."

7. Arts & Design  1960s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1964)

Nostalgia Rose and values increased for works from previous Quarters.  America was looking back.  The Dallas Museum of Fine Arts paid $58,000 in 1962 for Andrew Wyeth's painting, "That Gentleman."  It was the highest sum received by a living American artist by a museum.  The next year, William A. Farnsworth Library and Art Museum in Maine paid $65,000 for Wyeth's painting, "Her Room."  Some review of the Art Nouveau style came in the early 1960s, (Art Nouveau was developed in France around the 1890s, but  caught on in the US shortly afterward).  We also reviewed Dadaism, (an experimental art form from the 1920s).

Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1964 - 1973)

The Time Turned Experimental and Abstract Art Emerged.  Marshall McLuhan developed his much quoted concept, "the medium is the message" in 1964.  In this idea, the experience of seeing and hearing something is more important that its content.  A "sculpture renaissance" occurred in shows that featured avant-garde pieces at major centers throughout the US.  Welded metal forms, such as those created by David Smith, featured the abstract figures in massive forms.  They were placed outdoors, being too big to go in buildings.  Minimalist Art emerged in 1966, as well as "object" art, "primary structures," "kinetic sculpture," "systemic painting," and "modular" painting.  These methods reached into the void, and often focused on the formless.  The 4th Qtr. Is the nebulous stage of the Cycle when ideas are gestating.

7. Arts & Design  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1960s Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955 - 1962)

Pop Art was Established during the Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. in the 1950s.  Short for popular, this art form was born out of the abstract and non-representative styles that came with the Double Fourth Quarter Experimentation of 1940s.  Pop art works, in contrast, were understandable by the public.  Common, everyday objects were sometimes used from mass-culture, mass-media, consumer-oriented America.  Andy Warhol became one of the most recognized artists with paintings from 1962 like "Green Coca-Cola Bottles," "100 Cans," (soup cans on supermarket shelves), and "Marilyn Six-Pack," (three rows of like portraits of Marilyn).  Also in 1962, Jim Dine created "Five Toothbrushes on Black Ground,"  and Richard Stankiewicz's made the abstract junk machine part sculpture, "Untitled."  The Guggenheim Museum in New York opened the first major pop art exhibition in 1963, (while the Intellectual Cycle was still in the First Quarter), and featured works of Any Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, and Jasper Johns.

Architecture Made Design Precedents in a modernist fashion.  A prime example of precedents in idea and design is the 600 ft. Space Needle, at the Century 21 Exposition in Seattle in 1962.

Emo-Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1964 - 1973)

Op Art Spun Off Pop in the Emo-Intellectual 2nd Qtr.  This showed up in painting, such as the painting by Poons title, "Nixes Mate," in 1964.  It also showed up in bright and wildly designed clothing.  This was a vivid take off Pop art that lasted no longer than the Double Second Quarter.

Psychedelic Art developed from the Emo-Intellectual High and was on the scene by 1967.  Colors were as bright and flamboyant as ever as bold and wild designs came to clothing, posters and art.  Isaac Abrams produced his "Untitled" works in psychedelic style in 1966.  This term was also applied to the music coming out at the time.  Rock bands also featured "psychedelic music."  Virtuostic lead guitarists stretched beyond 1st Qtr. bounds with mind bending riffs that flywheeled out from conventional forms.  

The "Mod" Look Also Came In.  Art not only depicted everyday life, it became part of it.  The "Mod" look was found in living room furniture, clothing styles, and common objects.  Water beds started on the West Coast in 1968 and spread across the nation.  Balloon furniture and bean bag chairs were in.  We saw polka dot shirts with long hair.  Wild posters hung on walls.  Everything "groovy" was "in," man, like real in.  Things come to fruition during the spin-offs of the Second Quarter, not at the peak. 

Architecture Varied Modern Designs.  A colossal example is Eero Saarinen's Gateway Arch in St. Louis, MO, erected in 1965.  Modern art made a strong showing in the Emo-Intellectual 2nd Qtr.

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8. Literature & Publication  1960s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1964)

History Became More Popular in Literature.  William Shirer published "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" in 1960, which became a best seller the following year.  Other examples include the 1961 works of John Dos Passos, who published the first volume of "Bicentennial History of the Civil War; Midcentury," and, Irving Stone's "The Agony and the Ecstasy,"  Heller authored "Catch 22" in 1961 with a reformist view of the military that suggested that the solution is part of the problem.  It was in Physical 3rd Qtr. Reform.

A Reformist Movement Came in Literature.  "Beat" novels criticized the overly materialistic values of society.  James Baldwin's  "The Fire Next Time" challenged old systems in 1963 and warned that violence could erupt if conventional America did not change.  Environmentalism became widespread after Rachel Carson's, "The Silent Spring," described the effect of chemical pesticides on supportive habitats in 1963.  The very title of the book became a metaphor for violations on nature.  Not only the way we lived came under review, so did the way we die.  Jessica Mitford attacked the American funeral and burial system, also in 1963.  It was reform time.

Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1964 - 1973)

"Underground" Publications Came In.  Underground newspapers could be found in any major city in 1966.  They often contained "revolutionary" ideas and focused on alternatives.  In 1968, "Zap" comics epitomized the underground comic fad with bizarre images and cartoons.  Experimentation became the object, not just the means, in the Physical 4th Qtr.

8. Literature & Publication  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

Poetry Increased as did books on poetry.  Poetry readings in coffee houses and centers throughout.

Censorship in Literature Lessened with the Emotional High.  We tolerated vivid sexual descriptions in explicit language.  Bans on pornography became more lax as publications found unprecedented permissiveness among censures.  Henry Miller's "Tropic of Capricorn," and "Tropic of Cancer" were first allowed in the US in 1961 after a 30-year ban.  The US Supreme Court ruled obscenity laws unconstitutional in, 1969.  The Court  decided in June 1973, while the Cycle was crossing down, that juries may establish prurient appeal of what its community standards. 

Feminism Made a Greater Appearance in Writing in the Emotional High.  Betty Friedman published "The Feminine Mystique" in 1963 which attacked the myth of the happy housewife and called for women to have a broader role in society.  It proved to speak the views of many women and grew in popularity.

Human Rights Was an Issue in the Emotional High.  Eldridge Cleaver described black rage in "Soul on Ice" in 1968.  The times, they are a-changing, (Bob Dylan).

 

8. Literature & Publication  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1951 - 1973)

Americans Were Reading More and Publication Increased.  Paperback sales which accounted for 14% of the market sold in 1961 rose by 31%.  More than 250 million sold in 1964 alone.  Some 30,000 new books appeared in 1965, daily newspaper circulation was more than 60 million.  We read more books, covered more subjects, and were interested during the Intellectual High.  

Psychology Became a Fad.  Big hits came like, "Games People Play" by Eric, Berne, M.D., in 1965, and "I'm OK, You're OK," by Thomas Harris.  Transactional analysis was popular.  "Anti-Intellectualism in American Life," by Richard Harstadter in 1964 took a pro-Intellectual view and won the Pulitzer prize.  Tom Wolfe's "The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test," in 1968 focused on mind expanding that challenged the imagination.  Minds focused on minds in the Intellectual High.

Sex Was Analyzed from an Intellectual standpoint.  The sex-research team of William J. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson published "Human Sexual Response" in 1966.  Their views on a woman's sexuality went beyond conventional limitations.  Their 1970 book, "Human Sexual Inadequacy," examined the physiology of sexual response with challenging conclusions.  

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1951 - 1962)

Landmark Works in Literature appeared in the 1st Qtr. again.  Harper Lee's Pulitzer prize winning novel, "To Kill a Mockingbird," and Daniel Bell's, "The End of Ideology," both appeared in 1960.  Robert Heinlein released the classic science fiction novel, "Stranger in a Strange Land," in 1961.  These works juxtaposed the individual against the uniformity and moderation of the times, (Physical 3rd Qtr. Review - Intellectual 1st Qtr.).

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1962 - 1973)

Spin Offs of the News Media Flourished as the media itself became less standardized and centralized in the 2nd Qtr.  The rise in televised news caused many newspapers to end or merge with other papers, (in addition to other factors like rising overhead costs, and strike demands for higher wages by the printer's union and others).  A middle class shift to the suburbs also shifted the market to local papers.  Americans were more interested in the news.

8. Literature & Publication  1960s Polyrhythms top    

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More leisure time, more technology, and more disposable income came in the 1960s.  This was a boost to entertainment.  Movie attendance was up to about forty million weekly in 1960, and growing.  Some forty-six million homes had television sets, (up from about 15,000 in 1946), and average viewership was about five hours a day and growing.  This also grew.  Americans spent more than $1 billion on TV sets in 1963 alone.  All avenues of entertainment were expanding.

9. Entertainment  1960s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1964)

Folk Music Carried Social Criticism in the early 1960s and the Physical 3rd Qtr. Reform.  The most famous American folk song, "Blowin' in the Wind" by Bob Dylan, came in 1962 with metaphoric messages.  Other folk singers like Joan Baez and the group, Peter, Paul and Mary, became nationally renown.  "Hootenannies" gained air time and Folk was popular.

Beside the Music of Reform, Came the Reform of the Music Business.  Radio stations were investigated for payola among disk jockeys in 1960.  They allegedly accepted money for broadcasting certain records.  A Special House Subcommittee looked into the doings of top DJ's.  It was Physical Review and Reform.

The "Blues" Came Back during the Physical Review.  Recordings from the 1930s & 40s served as inspiration for new songs that reflected the Emo-Intellectual High.  Styles of guitarists like B.B. King influenced songs such as Chuck Berry's "Roll Over Beethoven," and the Rolling Stones' "Confessing the Blues" in the 1960s.  Soon, the Blues returned under its own name.

 Westerns in Cinema Looked Back to the Physical time of our wild West.  The big screen showed the West being "tamed" by "cowboys" in 19th century Hollywood adventures.  We gave this period the most review in the 3rd Qtr.  Our most famous actor, John Wayne, was a top box office draw at this time. 

 Westerns Dominated Television.  Shows of this genre included, "Wagon Train" (1960), "Have Gun Will Travel" (1960), "Gunsmoke" (1960-61 & 1968-69), "Bonanza" (1961-69).  After the Third Quarter ended in the mid-1960s, this genre decreased significantly.

The Second World War Was Reviewed in Cinema as well a television and literature during the 3r Qtr.  Many war movies became popular during this time such as "The Guns of Navarone"  and "Judgement at Nuremberg" in 1961, and many, many more.

The Second World War was Reviewed in Television As Well with such programs as   "Combat" about (top 10, 1964), and "Hogan's Hero's." 

Television Parodies Were Seen while the Physical Cycle was Low.  We reviewed the previous Physical High and military parodies became popular.  The program, "Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C." premiered in 1964 as a comedy with a back woods country boy juxtaposed into the rigors of the Marine Corps.  It was in the top ten from 1964 to 1969.  We parodied horror in "The Munsters" and "The Addams Family" which both premiered in 1964. 

Horror Made a Brief Comeback in 1962 as we reviewed this Physical genre, (horror is Physical with terror and violence, Suspense is Emotional with anticipation of danger, and mystery is Intellectual with who-done-it puzzles).  After the Physical 3rd Qtr. ended in 1964, horror faded out in favor of suspense - Alfred Hitchcock style, and mysteries increased with detective stories, (Emo-Intellectual High).

 Past Settings of Different Sorts Were Portrayed by Cinema in the Physical Review.  Popular films with huge success included, "Lawrence of Arabia" starring Peter O'Toole, and "Mary Poppins," a musical tale of 19th century England that Disney brought forth in 1964 s tis most popular film to date, (Physical 3dr Qtr. - Emotional High).

 Theater Revivals Were Big in the Physical 3rd Qtr.  Top on Broadway shows came back like, Eugene O'Neal's, "Strange Interlude," and when "My Fair Lady" which reviewed a 19th century setting closed after 2,717 performances in 1962, it was the longest running Broadway musical in history.  "My Fair Lady" was made into a film that won an Academy Award in 1964.

Other Past Times were Reviewed in Television in the Physical 3rd Qtr.  "The Untouchables" was set in the 1920s and was in the top ten in 1960.  "The Flintstones" premiered as the first prime time cartoon in 1960 (with Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. Precedents).  This was inspired by the 1950s hit comedy, "The Honeymooners" and it characterized the machine age in a humorous setting of the stone age.  Renown journalist, Charles Kuralt, began "Eyewitness to History."  This review went back through many revolutions of the Cycle.

Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1964 - 1973)

Experiments in Music gained major recognition in this Quarter of experimentation.  John Cage was one of the more noteworthy composers experimental music whose music was often devoid of harmonic and rhythmic patterns.  His "chance" compositions were such that the elements of pitch and note duration determined by drawing playing cards or throwing dice.  Performers of his work have even found orders that some sections of the work were either to be played, or, thrown away, (that's definitely 4th Qtr.).  Cage's "Musicircus," in 1967 was one of his most supreme efforts where he brought dancers, mimes, singers, rock and jazz musicians to perform simultaneously as slides and light shows were added.  He sequeled this with "HPSCHD," which he composed with Lejaren Hiller, and presented with computer modification, played through fifty-one speakers simultaneously.  These works exemplify the 4th Qtr. trend of the time.

  Freeform Music, by its very name, suggests the abandonment of structure found in a Physical 4th Qtr.  Free-Form Jazz gained prominence in the 1960s as a departure from traditional jazz.  One leading figure was Ornette Coleman, who emerged in 1969 with his own style in New York City.  He claimed that old forms of jazz were exhausted and that new ones needed to be explored.  Freeform Guitar was also found in Rock and Roll.  Songs in the late sixties often featured breaks in which improvisational guitarists vamped. The style was often free form and mixed with wild riffs, (Emotional High).  Experimental use of sounds was achieved with electronic gadgetry.  Feedbacks from amplifiers were used, as well as the pulling and slapping of guitar strings, and even the destruction of the guitar itself, as with "The Who" and Jimi Hendrix who set his guitar on fire. 

Progressive Rock emerged in the late sixties with such groups as "Rush," "Genesis," and "Yes."  They departed from conventional Rock and Roll to search for new directions.  The groups were successful.  Frank Zappa fused jazz and Rock and Roll in his group, "The Mothers of Invention."  He not only incorporated bizzarity into his work, he made it the subject.  The group was founded in 1964, at the beginning of the Fourth Quarter.

9. Entertainment  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

Music Recording Sold at Record Levels as the Emotional Cycle reached a peak in 1964.  This was also the year that The Beatles landed in America and appeared on the Ed Sullivan program.  They quickly sold ten million records had eight gold records.  Their first movie, "A Hard Day's Night" earned $5.6 million.  The Rolling Stones came also entered America's top 40 in 1964.  Many groups arose in America.  The rock musical "Hair" opened in New York in 1968 and featured nudity.  Critics hated the 1969 erotic musical "Oh! Calcutta!," but the public loved it and made it a success.

 Dance Was Wild.  The "Bossa Nova" in 1962, was surpassed by the more energetic "Watusi."  "The Twist" became the most popular dance of the decade after recordings by Chubby Checker.  Discotheques in 1964 had many coming out to dance the "Frug," the "Monkey" and more.  Dance became "psychedelic" and fluidic in motion in the Emotional High.

Appreciation of Fine Music Appreciation Increased rose with the Emotional High.  Halls opened like the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C..  The Ford Foundation contributed a record $7.7 million for the development of a ballet in 1963.  The Philharmonic Hall and the Metropolitan Opera House came to New York's Lincoln Center in 1962 and 1965, respectively.  Record contributions came for musical arts from organizations like The Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the National Council on the Arts in 1965.  We attracted world class performers to the US and more than 70% of the world's orchestras had their home here in 1965.  Opera companies throughout the nation drew larger audiences, orchestral performances were more popular, and ballet became very successful here for the first time.

 Cinema Increased, and in 1967 alone, movie receipts exceeded a billion-dollar mark before exports for the first time.  Censorship Declined.  "Lady Chatterly's Lover" was ultimately judged not obscene in a 1960 ruling by the New York Circuit Court of Appeals.  The racy, "Butterfield 8" was released in 1960.  Kubrick's provocative, "Lolita," appeared in 1962 and was based on Nabakov's popular novel.  The US Supreme Court eliminated state and local censorship in films in 1965.  "Georgie Girl," became the first to carry the "suggested for mature audiences" label in 1965, followed by "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum."  Andy Warhol then ventured between conventional movies and pornography in 1967.  "I am Curious (Yellow)" premiered in 1969 after several court battles over frontal nudity and simulated intercourse.   It served to usher in many erotic films, (Emotional 1st Qtr. Precedent).

Romance Was a Major Genre.  During the filming of "Cleopatra" in 1962, (set in the past during a Physical Third Quarter), the love affair between Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton seemed to receive as much publicity as the film, and never failed to sell papers.  This $37 million dollar film was the most expensive to date, and it was hugely successful, (it was set in the past in Physical 3rd Qtr., and it focused on romance in the Emotional High). 

Suspense Was More Popular and Alfred Hitchcock produced many classics during this time.  Memorable films included, "Psycho," (1960), and "The Birds," (1963).  Suspense could also be mixed with mystery as the series of "James Bond" films began.  Television picked up on this fad with shows like "The Man from U.N.C.L.E," (Emo-Intellectual High).

Comedy Was Up.  Plays emerged like Neil Simon's plays, "The Odd Couple," in 1965, and "The Sunshine Boys" in 1972, and many, many more.  The television series debut of Rowan and Martin's "Laugh-In" in 1968 played heavy on humor and shot straight into the top ten.

9. Entertainment  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1960s Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955 - 1962)

The "Docudrama" in Television Began in 1960.  It was another new form of entertainment information that combined documentary and drama to combine appeal with knowledge.  Both the Emotional and Intellectual Cycles were calling for precedents.

"Motown Records" was founded when Berry Gordy borrowed $800 dollars in 1960 to start it.  The Motown sound went straight to the heart.  The First Discotheque in the US was "Le Club," which opened in New York in 1961.  Many followed.  The Three or Four Chord Progression of Rock "n' Roll became the back bone of things to come.  The following Dbl. 2nd Qtr. Expansions all branched from this base. 

Emo-Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1964 - 1973)

Rock and Roll Evolved Into Various Forms "Rock."  Many song styles switched from the major key to the minor key, (in the Dorian mode or the Blues scale).  This led to "Acid Rock," with virtuoso guitar in wild riffs after 1966.  The music became diversified and eclectic.  Eastern Indian music, for one, merged with Pop music after India's master musician, Ravi Shankar, met the Beatles.  The music became more sophisticated, sometimes with simultaneous melodies, (counterpoint), as two lead guitars would play together.  Discotheques turned into psychedelic dance halls with strobe lights, lava lights, black light, and psychedelic posters after 1966.  Even computer variation came to some songs in 1967, and Americans were no longer just listening to top 40 songs.  Listeners switched from AM radio station to new FM programs for the latest music.  "Rhythm and Blues" Evolved into "Soul" Music in the latter 1960s.  Names like James Brown, Aretha Franklin, The Supremes, The Box Tops and more were high on the popular charts.  Many consider the release of "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" album by the Beatles in 1967 as the greatest pop album ever created in all aspects, including its elaborate cover.  Although the Beatles are British, their full developed style found a timely audience here during our Emo-Intellectual 2nd Qtr.  The US found 1967 to be "The Summer of Love," and Rock was coming to fruition.

Super Concerts came into being.  The Monterey International Pop Festival in 1967 included Janis Joplin, The Grateful Dead, the Who and more.  Huge concerts became numerous and the Mecca of them all was the Woodstock Music Festival in New York State in 1969.  Some one-half million fans showed up for days of music from many artists.  It was a pinnacle of the Emo-Intellectual 2nd Qtr.

  "Star Trek" made its debut in 1966.  It was the television classic of the Emo-Intellectual High.  They explored many moral and philosophical issues during its seventy-eight episodes.  Fictional characters on the original series personified parts of the self.  They were aboard the starship "Enterprise" which functioned like a single being exploring its environment.  Tending over the ship's engines was "Scotty," the Physically-based engineer.  The ship's doctor, "Dr. McCoy," was the Emotionally-based archetype who argued the moral element when different sides of an issue arose.  The science officer, "Mr. Spock," was the half "Vulcan," (from the planet of Intellectuals), and half human who portrayed the Intellectual.  Captain Kirk represented the autonomous self who mediated between the elements to make decisions.  The show is now an American icon that reflected the Cyclic High of an Emo-Intellectual 2nd Qtr.

 Disneyland Spun Off Into Disney World.  After Disney's first amusement park, opened in Anaheim, California in 1955, (Physical High - Emotional First Quarter), and the latter opened near Orlando, Florida in 1971.  The timing proved good in the Double 2nd Qtr., and it is very successful.

Physical Low with
     Emotional High
(1957 - 1971)

Music moved to the more lyrical and romantic.  Love songs were the most popular.  Dance was less acrobatic a physical manner than the bebop era now that the Physical Cycle was Low, but it was more wild and esctatic with an explosion of Emotional energy in fluid and ecstatic motion.

The Twist sung by Chubby Checker stands out from all of the the No. 1 songs on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in that it ranks as the most popular single. Checker said that compared The Twist to the creation of the telephone as a groundbreaking moment because he said it was the first time people were dancing "apart to the beat." This fun expression that transcended rhythms reflected an Emotional High with a Physical Low.

Tiny Tim was an unusual figure who defied masculinity in 1968.  During the Physical Low, (male/yang), and the Emotional High, (female/yin), Tiny Tim emerged.  He wore long curly hair, donned "Mod" outfits with very bright colors, and sang his memorable hit, "Come Tiptoe Through the Tulips" in a high-pitched voice while strumming a ukulele.  Not exactly macho.  Imagine this act competing against Sylvester Stallone and Arnold Swartzeneggar in the 1980s when the Cycles reversed to a Physical High - Emotional Low.

Morality-Over- Materialism Became a Movie Genre, and with some classic films.  "The Graduate," starred Dustin Hoffman and Anne Bancroft in 1968.  It featured a young college graduate dismayed by parents who would rush him off toward a career of usury and opportunism in the materialistic world.  "Plastics" was the magic word in the film, "Get into plastics."  The hero of the story rejected Physically-based ideals in favor of feelings within himself.  It is a classic portrayal of an Emotional High over a Physical Low.  

Love Transcended Social Boundaries in the 1968 classic, "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner."  It portrayed a white woman, (Katherine Hepburn), who falls in love with a black man, (Sydney Poitier), to the shock of other, (including Spencer Tracy).  The racial caste system in America was crumbling in the Physical Low, and the human factor was emerging in the Emotional High.

 "Easy Rider" in 1969, starred Peter Fonda, Dennis Hopper, and an early Jack Nicholson.  This biker classic portrayed two spirited individuals who traveled about the country on their motorcycles with  freedom, (Emotional High), and sense of abandonment, (Physical 4th Qtr.).  They were in contrast to small towns they passed through that viewed them as a threat to their old way of life.  These are only three very influential films from the decade that made many in this genre.  Spirit was emphasized over order In the Physical Low - Emotional High.

 The Juxtaposition of Opposites proved humorous.  The Physical Cycle troughed in 1964, the same year that the Emotional Cycle peaked.  Their contrast became a theme  of the hit television show, "The Beverly Hillbillies."  This situation comedy portrayed a poor mountaineer who struck rich after finding oil on his land.  Newfound wealth moved his hillbilly family to a Beverly Hills neighborhood where they held onto back woods traditions amid the high glitz of a Hollywood community.  America laughed at itself and the show ranked in the top ten from 1963 through 1965.

Trirhythmic  

"2001, A Space Odyssey" reflected all three Cycles with a classic science fiction film.  Physical 4th Qtr. Experimentation lent appeal to astronauts traveling through unknown space.  Special effects showed colorful nebulae, light flashes, and a metaphoric glimpse of a human fetus in deep space.  An Emotional High lent to the positive portrayal of our future in space.  The Intellectual High lent appeal to the high-tech element of the gadgetry and computers in the film.

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10. Sports  1960s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Low (1957 - 1971)

America was less Physical during the decade.  The nation was far less sports crazy than it would be in the next two decades.  Sports continued, but did not reign.  Athletes might even be labeled as "jock" with some disdain.  A couple of records were still broken, however.  Wilt Chamberlain scored 100 points in one basketball game in 1962.  Jim Ryan ran a record mile 3:51.3, then 3:51.1 minutes in 1966 & 1967.  Overall, however, it was not a sports decade.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1964)

Football Drew From the Past in 1962 to bring back the defensive halfback, or "cornerback."  This was a new name for an old idea.  Reform Came to College Basketball after a bribery scandal in June 1961 showed that point shaving was widespread.  Four former players were indicted in New York.  It was 3rd Qtr. Review and Reform.

 

10. Sports  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

Player Personalities emerged in addition to field performance during the Emotional High.  "Broadway Joe Namath" became a media star in 1968 and even bought a mink coat.

 Boats and Boating Increased greatly with sales exceeding $1 billion in 1967.  It is a sport that provides recreation for gregarious people.  This is in contrast to the individualism of competitive sports.

10. Sports  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  1960s Polyrhythms top    

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11. Fashion  1960s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1963)

The Cowboy Look Returned in the early 1960s as part of the Physical 3rd Qtr. Review.  During the early part of the sixties, the cowboy look was in with cowboy boots, bandannas, blue jeans, and yoke designed shirts.  Children were often dressed western as well with toy guns and hats.

11. Fashion  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

Fashion changes with the times.  Hair was long, clothing was wild, furniture was Mod, and Pop Art and Op art designs were all around.

 Women's Clothes Became More Revealing Than Ever Before.  Fashion had the "young look" in 1963 with sleeveless dresses, knee-high skirts, and turtle neck sweaters.  Bras were discarded, and colors were bright, the "nude" followed with body stockings, translucent blouses, "invisible lingerie," and peek-a-boo fashions.    The "Mod look" came from London in fishnet stockings, colorful designs, and the "little girl" look.  The miniskirt was introduced with a hemline several inches above the knee by fashion designer Mary Quant in 1965, (which spun off to the even shorter micro skirt during the 2nd Qtr.).  The "super-feminine" look had replaced the "sporty" look during the Emotional High.

 A "Do-Your-Own-Thing" Style came with the Emotional 2nd Qtr.  Bright colors, and more flamboyant clothing showed a feminine influence in 1968.  Fashion became varied and eclectic in 1969  and a "gypsy" look was in.  Collars and lapels were very wide and ties were 3 1/2" to 5" wide with bright patterns, (width and brightness rises and falls with the Emotional Cycle).  For the first time ever, traditional men's wear varied from the norm to add flared pants and wide lapels to the rack, (Physical 4th Qtr. - Emotional High).

11. Fashion  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1960s Polyrhythms top    

Physical Low with
     Emotional High
(1957 - 1971)

Styles Were More "Feminine" For Both Men and Women.  The Beatles brought long hair styles for men after their US visit in 1964, (physical-cycle/yang Trough - emotional-cycle/yin Peak).  Long hair on men created quite a stir, and women's hair became even longer.  Clothing incorporated unisex fashions that were more feminine than androgenous.  Bell bottomed trousers came into style in 1965.  Rudi Gernreich introduced the topless bathing suit, and although it was more talked about than seen, it inspired the no-bra fad.  Op art entered the fabrics with colorful swirls, (Physical 4th Qtr. Experimentation - Emotional High).  The body building ads of the 1950s were virtually gone, (Physical Low), and ads for men's colognes and face lotions were up eightfold since 1960, (Emotional High).  By 1967 men's fashion saw bright colors, double-breasted jackets, turtlenecks instead of ties, wider collars and French cuffs.  Many wore Indian love beads, including Sammy Davis Jr., and Nehru jackets made a brief appearance.  Men's hair got longer and they were focusing as much attention on their hair as women. It wasn't the 1950s anymore.

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BORING NUMBERS: The US population in 1960 was about 179 million after a record increase, and the world's population hit three billion for the first time.  California gained eight seats in the House of Representative after the 1960 census and it passed New York as the populated state in 1964.  The number of European immigrants had declined and the numbers of Mexican and Asian immigrants increased.  Births were 23.7 / 1,000, deaths were 9.5 / 1,000.   The birthrate declined from 1962 to 1965 as the number of women of childbearing age declined.  The life expectancy was 66.6 years for men and 73.1 for women, a record high.  Marriages were 8.5 / 1,000, divorces were 2.2 / 1,000, and both increased during the decade.  One out of ten Americans was living on a farm.  Women 48% of all African Americans lived outside the eleven states of the old Confederacy, which has an 18% increase from 1940.  When the Census Bureau reported in 1967 that the US population doubled in fifty years to reach 200 million, they projected that the population would reach 500 million by the year 2015, barring catastrophes.  As argued here, however, things don't form a straight vector from where they are.  They move in Cycles.

MORE BORING NUMBERS: The Federal Budget was $92.3 billion in 1960 the National Debt was $286.3 billion, and the Consumer Price Index was up to 88.7 for the first time, (1967 = 100).  Inflation was 6.1%, (the highest since 1951), the Prime Rate was 3.9%, Social Welfare stood at $52.3 billion, and the Average Salary was $4,743.  From 1960 to 1970, the GNP rose from $503.7 billion in 1960, (almost %150 above the 1940), to 977.1 billion in 1970.  The average salary was $4,743.  Unemployment remained around 4.4 million or 5% throughout the decade.  It reached a 15-year low from 1965 to 1968 around 3 1/2%.  Tax freedom day fell on April 17th, (this is the day of the year by which it is assumed that one has made enough money to pay their federal, state and local taxes).

12. Lifestyles  1960s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Low (1957 - 1971)

Urban Infrastructures Proved Less Adequate after waning during the low.  New York City had a water shortage in 1965, and a large blackout.  Other cities had resources in need of repair and overhaul.  Despite the financial prosperity of the time, major reconstruction of inner cities would not take be pervasive until the Physical High of the 1970s. 

 Physical Fitness Declined to such a point that the White House decided to get involved.  The President's Council on Physical Fitness began in 1961 and came to schools soon afterward.  This type of encouragement in the following decade when the Cycle was high and the fitness craze came in.

Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1964 - 1973)

"Chicanos" Rose in the Southwest as the Physical Cycle began to rise from the trough.  The Physically based region of the Southwest has the largest group of Hispanic-Americans in the US, (see Chapter XII "GEORHYTHMS").  They numbered 7.7 million in Los Angeles alone and 23.5% of the population by the end of the decade.  Employment was often difficult to find, and often meant substandard pay.  After the Physical Cycle began to rise, so did the lifestyles of Mexican Americans.  Communities organized to draw attention to their social and economic conditions.  Some adopted the term "Chicano" with a rising feeling of sub-nationalism.  All sought better jobs, more pay, and improved living conditions.  Political seats were gained and communities rose.  Mexican-American culture was also emphasized with beauty, (Emotional High).

 Communes Appeared as an Alternative Lifestyle across the US.  These communities were in classic 4th Qtr. mode.  Living systems were in departure from the distribution of wealth, the use of resources, the division of territory property, and more.  Experimental or "utopian" communities rose with shared resources, or "communal property" among a collective.  Territoriality, fences and materialism were down with the Physical Low.  Some 2,000 communes appeared with a population of 250,000 or more  from 1965 to 1973.  Many more existed with smaller populations.   Sections of large cities became home to the "Hippies" such as New York City's East Village and San Francisco Haight-Ashbury district.  These societies declined quickly after the end of the 4th Qtr. just as utopian communities before them had from previous 4th Qtrs.

 

12. Lifestyles  1960s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

Drug Use Was Up, both legal and illegal.  Although the Federal Bureau of Narcotics that reported that addictive drug abuse was down, (1 in 4,000 Americans was addicted in 1962 in contrast to 1 in 1,070 in 1930), non-addictive drug use included things such as anti-anxiety medication like librium and valium in the early 1960s.  Many were seeking to calm their nerves during excited times.  More than $60 million was spent on weight-loss prescription drugs in 1965, 100% from 1960.  Alcohol consumption was also up during the festive decade and the last dry state in the nation went wet in 1966.  Illegal use of marijuana and LSD was nationwide by 1965 and increasing.  Users claimed that it was a means of getting into life, and the self, not a cop out from misery.  Harvard professor Timothy Leary published "The Psychedelic Reader" in 1965 that urged students to "Tune in, turn on, drop out."  Other authors such as Ken Kesey advocated LSD in 1966, and the "San Francisco Sound" in music became known as "Acid Rock."  A 1969 issue of "Newsweek" spoke of drug-age Bedouins who roamed the land.  Peace, love and trips reigned in the Emotional High.

            Sexuality Increased Greatly.  One invention that added to the sexual revolution as much as the automobile it was the pill.  The first oral contraceptive, Envoid, was marketed in 1960 for 55 cents a pill or $10 to $11 for a month's supply.  The following year, an inert plastic contraceptive, known as the intrauterine device (IUD), was introduced.  We had a growing demand for them.  Illegitimate births among teenage girls in 1963 were up 150 percent from 1940, and there was less social stigma against unwed mothers.  Children's dolls were made "Anatomically correct," to replace their neutered predecessors.  Premarital sex was at a high and many couples lived together before getting married. Los Angeles had the first singles community in 1965 and singles bars became popular across the country by 1967.  Extramarital sex proliferated and some couples engaged in "swinging."  The Supreme Court ruled unanimously in 1969 that laws that prohibit the reading or viewing of obscene material in the privacy on one's home are unconstitutional.  Times are more permissive during an Emotional High.

12. Lifestyles  1960s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1951 - 1973)

Psychology Became a Fad in the Intellectual High.  Books on the subject became popular and therapy groups sprang up around the nation and psychologists like B. F. Skinner became household names.  The Esalen Instituted in Northern California grossed $1 million in 1967 with "Third Force Psychiatry," a type of Gestalt therapy of acting out feelings.  Study of the mind was up (and searching one's feeling was up with the Emotional High).

12. Lifestyles  1960s Polyrhythms top    

Physical Low with
     Emotional HIgh
(1957 - 1971)

"Peace Through Understanding" was the motto of the New York World's Fair in 1964.  Passivism often accompanies a Physical Low, and love and peace often accompanies an Emotional High.  We urged these things through understanding which reflected the Intellectual High. 

  The Hippies were the sub-cultural group that epitomized the Physical Low - Emo-Intellectual High of the times.  They Appeared about 1964 with the emergence of the Berkeley Free Speech movement.  With an anti-Physical appearance they wore weathered and patched clothing to not be judged by their physical appearance, conspicuous consumption, or materialistic values.  Values focused more on content of one's character and ideals.  Eastern religions were popular among college campuses that were filled with interested students.  Many students chose college over the draft.  Hippies opposed the Viet Nam War, big business, and money-based values.  Figures of authority encountered opposition by 1968 as public officials and police officers, (sometimes called pigs), found more rebellion than conformity.  A motto among the youth was "Don't trust anyone over thirty."  Peace signs that featured the footprint of the dove of peace in a circle where everywhere.  During a 1965 antiwar rally at Berkeley, Allen Ginsberg coined the phrase, "Flower Power."  First Quarter Unification of the 1950s was gone, and the youth of America challenged "the establishment."

 "Yippies" Spun off the Hippies in the Double 2nd Qtrs of Expansion.  Yippies, short Youth International Party, were part of a short-lived group with few members, but they made a notable impact at the 1968 Democratic National Convention where they confronted police in a riot. They chanted "The Whole World is Watching" chanted to taunt police in front of television cameras.  Leaders of the group became known as the "Chicago Seven" and were tried for conspiracy to incite a riot.  Though they were found not guilty in 1970, a lesser charge of crossing state lines to incite a riot brought convictions to Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Rennie Davis, Jerry Rubin and David Bellinger.  This was a radical 2nd Qtr. Spinoff.

 Hippies Faded as the Cycles Changed.  William Burroughs said in 1964, "The youth rebellion is a worldwide phenomenon that has not been seen before in history.  I do not believe they will calm down and be ad. execs. at thirty as the Establishment would like us to believe."  Nevertheless, when Physical Cycle crossed up in the following decade, many of these Hippies were on Wall Street, including former radical, Jerry Rubin.  Large computer firms and small businesses saw Hippies merge into society.  As the Emotional and Intellectual declined, some ex-Hippies become part of the new materialism.  By the end of the next decade they would be among the "Yuppies."

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The 1960s were an exciting time in America.  The Emotional Cycle peaked in 1964 and the Intellectual Cycle peaked in 1962.  Artists and romantics led in social aspects and Intellectuals led in politics.  The Physical Cycle troughed in 1964.  There were some pockets of poverty in rich times.  We also lost military objective as politicians superseded generals.  It was a Physical Low - Emo-Intellectual High.  There was some conflict, but in very exciting and jubilant times.

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