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American Cycles 1950s
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).

The overall energy level of the 1950's decade was high. The Physical Cycle was high and in the Second Quarter until 1957, industry was thriving. An upward crossover came in the Emotional Cycle 1955 and the civil rights movement burst onto the scene. The Intellectual Cycle was high and rising after 1951 and advances soared in electronics, medicine, space and aeronautics. A Three-way High came in the Cycles for a brief time and the decade was indeed fabulous.

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The First half of the decade was calm, but we were involved in a "cold war" against communism and a standoff war in Korea. The latter half of the decade was increasingly energetic, although Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. brought unification throughout schools, businesses, and life styles. We also had prosperity. Alaska and Hawaii joined in 1959 as our 49th and 50th state, respectively, and the fifty star flag then appeared on the 4th of July 1960.

1. Political  1950s Physical Cycle top    


Physical High (1943 - 1957)

Territoriality increases with a Physical High. We can see it in national, regional, and local levels.

The Purge of Communism continued in 1950. The Physical Cycle was High, and so was defense. Soviet consular official Valentin Gubitchev was expelled from the US after being found guilty of conspiracy and espionage. They required that communists register with the government and they could be detained in case of national emergencies after Congress passed the Internal Security Act in 1950. This Act also established a Subversive Activities Control Board. The Supreme Court then ruled that speaker who displays "a clear and present danger" of inciting to riot can be arrested, (Feiner v. United States, 1951). Convictions came for more than ten top American communists for conspiracy to overthrow the government in 1952 who were imprisoned under the Smith Act of 1939. Alger Hiss was suspected of being a communist while employed by the State Department and imprisoned on related perjury conviction. A federal jury in New York convicted thirteen Communists in 1953 on charges of conspiracy to overthrow the United States government. President Eisenhower signed the Communist Control Act in 1954 that striped the Communist Party in America of privileges and immunities. The Communist Party became subject to the Internal Security Act later that year and the Civil Service Commission dismissed more than 2,600 persons from federal employment. Construction began on an Early Warning Radar Net reaching 3000 miles across northern Canada was announced in April 1954. Ike also signed the Espionage and Sabotage Act in 1954 and the Supreme Court ruled that being a member of the Communist Party was sufficient grounds for deportation of aliens. Some 78% of those polled agreed with reporting friends and relatives to the FBI if they were suspected Communists. It was Physical High. One figure in particular was over zealous at this time.

McCarthyism became the term for the witch hunt against communist sympathizers. Senator Joseph R. McCarthy arose during the tide of nationalism and amid a threat, but the manner in which he addressed it was outrageous. In a speech to a woman's Club on February 1950, he charged that the State Department was harboring Communists. On February 20, he claimed to have a list of persons under suspicion of communist connections. McCarthy even went as far to accuse Presidents Roosevelt and Truman of being conspirators and spoke against Radio Free America. The charges were declared to be a hoax by a Senate subcommittee in 1950. Senator Benton attempted to have McCarthy expelled from the Senate in 1952. The Senate censured and condemned him and in 1954, and both Truman and Eisenhower denounced him. Was he a communist himself, using aversion tactics as a form of reverse psychology to turn people away from the purge of communism? Was he an opportunist on a band wagon in search of personal power? Was he a misguided paranoic? In any case, his aberrations spun off a high tide of nationalism.

Government Became More Involved in Construction. President Eisenhower proposed a highway modernization program in 1954 for both state and federal governments. Congress voted in favor of building 45,000 public housing units in 1955 to be done the following year. These, and other projects added to an already booming construction era during the Physical High.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1964)

Military Reform came in 1957 when Secretary of Defense, Charles E. Wilson, stated before the House Armed Services Committee that the National Guard harbored draft-dodgers during the Korean conflict. More reform came as the Physical Cycle was Low and fences were down. Citizenship was restored to almost 5,000 Japanese Americans in 1959 after they had renounced it during World War II. Rising humanism, (Emotional), in contrast to declining nationalism, (Physical), prevailed.

The Purge of Communism Declined with the Physical Low. When the American National Exhibition in Moscow took place in 1959, Representative Frances E. Walter, (Democrat, Pa.), claimed that many of the sixty-seven artists on display were communist sympathizers. President Eisenhower sided with the artists.

1. Political  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

The Emotional Cycle crossed from low to high in the middle of the decade and the 1950's was split between 4th and 1st Qtrs. Abstract experiments emerged into precedents. The times became more permissive. Oklahoma repealed fifty-one years of prohibition in 1958. This left Mississippi as the last dry state left in the Union. Social groups were less divided, sexuality was more open, and enthusiasm was rising.

Emotional Upward Crossover (March 21, 1955- March 21, 1956)

Rosa Parks Refused to Give Up Her Bus Seat to a white man in Montgomery Alabama in 1955 and Police were called to arrest her. This led to the Alabama bus boycotts and protests by African Americans across the South. It was the beginning of a new movement that burst onto the scene during an upward Emotional Crossover.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955 - 1964)

The Civil Rights Movement gained momentum and drew support from many directions. The Methodist Church called for an end to all segregation in the church during its annual conference at Minneapolis in 1956. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., said in 1956 that "Nonviolence is the most potent technique for oppressed people in. Unearned suffering is redemptive." The Supreme Court followed suit in 1956 by invalidating the Montgomery, Alabama law that allowed segregation in interstate bus travel. Congress passed a new civil rights law in 1957 that protected the right to vote against local officials. Desegregation came to the Tennessee Valley Authority and all of its parks by 1957 and began hiring more African Americans at all levels. President Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which established the Civil Rights Committee to provide penalties for voting rights violations. The Supreme Court came back in 1959 to support peaceful protests against local opposition in "Garner v. Louisiana." Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., became the first black Major General in 1959, to set a precedent during the 1st Qtr. It was an Emotional, and moral High.

1. Political  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual Upward Crossover (March 21, 1951- March 21, 1952)

Crisis in decision can result during an Intellectual Crossover. One of our most controversial decisions came out of this time.

The Firing of General MacArthur during the Korean War was President Truman's response when the general disobeyed his executive command. It also came during an Intellectual Crossover. A difference of strategy about the war came that began in 1950. A Soviet backed militia from North Korea attacked South Korea in an attempt to bring the entire peninsula under communism. Both US and UN troops came to defend the region. They held the line until the Chinese joined the North Koreans and attacked on the South later that year. MacArthur wanted to attack Chinese positions north of the Yalu River, both Truman and the UN said, no. Such an attack, some believed, could have provoked a direct response from the Soviets, who had just conducted a successful test of the nuclear bomb. Despite the president's order for public silence about the war, General MacArthur made a press release with his, "Fresh Plan to End the War." Truman, with a consensus from other generals, drafted orders that relieved MacArthur of his command. A crisis and reaction came with protests of dismay. American flags were lowered to half mast, Senator Nixon demanded immediate reinstatement, and President Truman faced the threat of impeachment. When MacArthur returned the US, a sympathetic public greeted him with a parade of cheers. In a speech to both Houses of Congress, the exiting General gave a quotation from an army ballad, "Old Soldiers Never Die, They Just Fade Away," which drew tears from a viewing television audience. This struggle between a political objective, (Intellectual), and military might, (Physical), was viewed as a questionable and disturbing decision. It came during an Intellectual Crossover.

The Rosenbergs were Sentenced to Death in April 1951, after being found guilty of giving top secret information on nuclear weapons to the Soviet Union. In June 1953, Julius Rosenberg and his wife, Ethel, became the first Americans executed for treason during peace time. This decision was rendered during an Intellectual Crossover and it turned out to be one of the most controversial executions in US history. Some advocated that their guilt had not been proved and that they fell victim to an over zealous hunt. Others maintained that they were the means by which the Soviets developed the bomb. This controversial enforcement that came during a Physical High - Intellectual Crossover was debated for years.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1951 - 1962)

The Setting of Precedents marked the times in many ways. The Supreme Court rendered landmark decisions in civil rights, defense, and internal matters, too numerous to list here. Significant new laws also came about. One small note of the times, the first televised press conference with President Eisenhower came in 1955, and the first televised debate between presidential candidates came in 1960.

1. Political  1950s Polyrhythms top    

General Dwight D. Eisenhower Was a Two-term President during Physical times. His strong, common sense, "middle-of-the-road" policy was favored over the compendious, Adalai E. Stevenson's Intellectual appeal and compendious speech making. Stevenson had the support of intellectuals and professors, which Eisenhower dubbed, "eggheads," but the Physical Cycle was near its peak as the decade began, and the Intellectual Cycle was Low until 1951.

Physical High with
     Intellectual Low
(1943 - 1951)

The Supreme Court Ruled in Favor of Police Intervention in 1950 despite ideologies over their right to seize property without a search warrant, (US V. Rabinowitz). This approval of force over conceptualized boundaries came during a Physical High - Intellectual Low.

Physical High with
     Intellectual Low
(1951 -1957)

The Physical Cycle peaked in 1950 and the Intellectual Cycle was high after 1951. This double high affected business, technology, and the armed forces.

The United States Air Force Academy was Established near Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1954. This Air Corps version of West Point advanced the military, (Physical High), with a foundation for education, (Intellectual 1st Qtr.).

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Postwar methods of mass production geared up to build suburban housing and mercantile centers for a booming population. Everything improved from public schools to kitchen appliances. America's hopes and ambitions were rising. The "Populux" era of the late 1950's and early 1960's was a time of popular luxury in a Modern world.

2. Business & Economy  1950s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1943 - 1957)

The Rise in Labor came with more say in government, higher wages, shorter hours, and "fringe" benefits during the Physical High. Organized labor was fifteen million strong by 1955. Its first guaranteed annual wage agreement came between the United Automobiles Workers and Ford in this year. A contract created a $55 million unemployment benefit fund for laid-off workers. Strong arm organizations, like the Teamsters Union under Jimmy Hoffa, threw their weight around. Unions now held power even over its own members. Also in business, the Special Committee to Investigate Crime in Interstate Commerce reported in 1950 that organized crime was taking over legitimate business. This revealed the element of tough guy forces moving in and taking over. It was the strong who ruled during the Physical peak.

The AFL and CIO Merged during 1st Qtr. Unification, bringing together the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations into the powerful AFL-CIO. This combined force with seventeen million members made powerful gains under the leadership of George Meany.

Power Strikes, and the threat of strikes, were means for making headway by the unions. They were numerous and effective. When the steel mills in Youngstown, Ohio, were about to go on strike in 1952, President Truman ordered a federal takeover to preempt the strike. The Supreme Court, however, ruled the seizure unconstitutional, ("Youngstown Sheet & Tube v. Sawyer," 1952). This decision, favoring the Physical, was the most limiting on presidential powers to date. With the strong in power, the steel industry reverted to private ownership and 600,000 workers went out on strike for three months win wage and price increases.

Contrast this court decision with one handed down in 1902 when the anthracite coal miners went on strike. When the Physical Cycle was low, President Roosevelt ended the strike with just the threat of federal intervention. Union recognition and the eight-hour work day were withheld until 1916, (just after the Cycle became high again in 1915). Also contrast the 1952 decision that favored the unions to a Physical Low in 1959 when executive powers were used to end a union strike, (see "Physical 3rd Qtr. Reform (1957 - 1964)" in this subcategory).

Physical Downward Crossover (March 21, 1957- March 21, 1958)

The "1957 - 1958 Recession" in industry came with the downward Crossover. Unemployment rose to a postwar high of more than five million, or 8%, by February 1958. The crossover year ended in Spring of 1958 when the recession bottomed out and recovery followed

The Teamster's Union was Expelled from the AFL-CIO during the downward Physical Crossover in 1957, amid controversy. Jimmy Hoffa had become president of the Teamster's Union that year. The McClellan Committee then denounced him, and a Senate subcommittee opened hearings concerning his alleged harboring of criminals. When Hoffa refused to expel the criminals, and the union refused to expel Hoffa, the Teamster's Union was expelled from the AFL-CIO.

The AFL-CIO Expelled David Beck From its Executive Committee during the Downward Crossover in 1957, on charges of "gross misuse of union funds." A federal grand jury also charged Beck in 1957 on charges that he evaded paying $56,000 in taxes in 1950. An investigation followed concerning the misuse of union funds for personal use.

A Mafia Meeting at was Raided in Appalachian, NY, by police during the Downward Crossover year in 1957. The "Mafia" term is used for underground, Physically-based organizations that rely on power and dominance.

The Edsel was an All Time Marketing Flop in the Crossover year of 1957. Ford invested $250 million in the car named after his son, the Edsel. It was supposed to be a success...Not!

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1964)

Power Waned in Strikes during the Low and declining Physical Cycle. Unlike the Physical High of 1952 when executive powers were ineffective against striking unions, the president halted a strike during the Physical Low in 1959. A nationwide steel strike began on July affecting 28 companies that produced almost 95% of the nation's steel. Eisenhower invoked the Taft-Hartly Act in October and had an injunction served successfully against the strikers. The Cycles had changed, and power shifted

Labor Reforms Acts were Passed by Congress with 3rd Qtr. Reform. They took action to curb serious abuses within the unions, like, reigning officials who grew rich from borrowing from union funds and accepting bribes to call off strikes. Codes of ethics were set up and federal supervision began. Congress then passed two Labor Reform Acts in 1959. The first, titled the Labor Reform Act, restricted power of the unions. This was followed by the Landrum-Griffin Act that helped curb racketeering and blackmail in labor organizations.

The Food Additive Amendment in 1958 forbid the use of any substances that caused cancer in animals or people. Reforms like one this were carried throughout the 3rd Qtr.

2. Business & Economy  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional Upward Crossover (March 21, 1955- March 21, 1956)

The Market Dropped Sharply in response to President Eisenhower's heart attack in the Crossover year of 1955. The New York Stock Exchange lost $14 billion with 7,720,000 shares traded on the floor on September 26. This was the worst drop since 1929, and the heaviest single-day dollar loss in history. It was dubbed, "Black Monday." As massive as the loss was, we nonetheless recovered 58% percent of the loss just two days later on September 28. This showed that the anomaly was an emotional reaction not based on substance.

A Significant Strike hit Westinghouse Electric Corporation on March 20, 1956. Not all strikes occur during Crossover years, but this one did. Agitation may have added to it. Union and company spokespersons did come to terms to end the strike, however.

2. Business & Economy  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual Upward Crossover (March 21, 1951- March 21, 1952)

Stock Prices Declined Sharply during the Upward Crossover in 1951, despite a strong postwar rise in the economy. This was only a timely bump on the way up, however, as Upward Crossovers often are. The economy resumed its rise the following year, but President Eisenhower needed to sign the Emergency Housing Act to stimulate housing.

Intellectual High (1951 - 1973)

The National Economy Improved with the rising Intellectual Cycle and a decade of advancement ended on a good note. Commerce and Labor Departments reported that in 1959, unemployment dropped from 4.75 million to 4.36 million from February to March. The US Stock Exchange reported in 1959 that as many as 12 1/2 million people owned stock in publicly held US corporations. Corporations offered a record amount of jobs for proper white collar employees in gray flannel suites who fit the mold during 1st Qtr.

2. Business & Economy  1950s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1951 - 1957)

The Rise in Business was Unprecedented from 1953 to 1956. This was a Physo-Intellectual High when consumer demand was driving industry to new heights. A Physical peak in 1950 brought strength. An Intellectual High came in 1951, bringing ideas. Business boomed. Secretary of Defense Charles Wilson said in 1953, "What is good for our country was good for General Motors and vice versa." It was a view that prevailed, (until the next the end of the Physical High).

The Fabulous Fifties Compares With the Roaring Twenties in some ways. With Cycles in the High half, and the absence of any 3rd Qtr. Review, America was more in the business of business, than in social or economic reforms. With this first Physo-Intellectual High since the 1920's, historians drew comparisons between the two eras. Both were times with businessmen appointed to high government positions, policy was laissez-faire, and we put reforms on hold.

Trirhythmic High (1955 - 1957)

The Rise in Business was Unprecedented from 1953 to 1956. This was a Physo-Intellectual High when consumer demand was driving industry to new heights. A Physical peak in 1950 brought strength. An Intellectual High came in 1951, bringing ideas. Business boomed. Secretary of Defense Charles Wilson said in 1953, "What is good for our country was good for General Motors and vice versa." It was a view that prevailed, (until the next the end of the Physical High).

The Fabulous Fifties Compares With the Roaring Twenties in some ways. With Cycles in the High half, and the absence of any 3rd Qtr. Review, America was more in the business of business, than in social or economic reforms. With this first Physo-Intellectual High since the 1920's, historians drew comparisons between the two eras. Both were times with businessmen appointed to high government positions, policy was laissez-faire, and we put reforms on hold.

Internal Aberration (XXX)

Strikes can also be unpredictable. A nationwide steel strike took place with the United Steelworkers in 1959 and lasted 116 days. The 28 affected companies affected produced 95% of the nation's steel. This was the longest steel strike in US history. Though few and far between, aberrations do, and will happen.

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The 1950's was a time of great advances in technology and medicine during the Intellectual High. By the end of the decade, electronics was the fourth largest and fastest growing industry in the US with sales of almost $13 billion. The development of antibiotics such as streptomycin and vaccines were largely responsible. Average life expectancy rose 6.8 years during the decade to 69.7 years.

3. Science & Technology  1950s Physical Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundatoin (1951 - 1962)

The Space Age in the United States Began in 1958, during the Intellectual 1st Qtr. when "Explorer I" was launched by the US Army at Cape Canaveral, Florida. This was one year after the Soviet Union launched its first artificial satellite, "Sputnik I." and "Sputnik II," that carried a dog, "Lyka" aboard. Now the US was in the space race. The Atomic Energy Commission had developed atomic powered rockets earlier in the 1st Qtr. in 1956, and the US Air Force tested its first Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, (ICBM), in 1957. The US Navy also launched a second satellite in 1957, the 3 1/4 pound "Vanguard I," as the first weather satellite in space. This is one of the more significant beginnings that marks an Intellectual 1st Qtr.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was Founded in 1958 to handle the space program. President Eisenhower signed a bill that provided millions of dollars for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA built and launched its first satellite, "Explorer IV," in 1959. The Pioneer IV space probe in 1959 passed the moon, headed into solar orbit, and transmitted TV pictures of the earth. "Tiros I" and "Tiros II" were launched as camera bearing satellites min 1960. Major precedents continued throughout the Intellectual 1st Qtr. in 1960. Overall, it was a time of precedents.

The First Large Scale Commercial Computer was Remington Rand's UNIVAC. The US Bureau of Census purchased the first one in 1951, as the Intellectual 1st Qtr. began. Two years into the Quarter, IBM produced its first computer, the IBM 701. Princeton University demonstrated an electronic analog computer capable of mathematical logic in 1954. When General Electric bought its first Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) from Remington Rand in 1954, "Harvard Business Review" announced the beginning of the computer revolution. The number of computers in use in the US rose from 300 in 1955, to 100,000 by 1970. In 1957 alone, 1,000 computers were built, bought and shipped, and the numbers were climbing. The all important Integrated Circuit was invented in 1958 as Jack Kilby described the "monolithic idea," the basis of the microchip. This was the Intellectual 1st Qtr. of the information age.

The BCS Theory of Superconductivity, focused on today, was developed in the previous Intellectual 1st Qtr. by John Bardeen and Leon Cooper in 1957. Developing it in various forms in the coming 2nd Qtr is likely, (2006 - 2017).

Solar Energy Was Implemented when the solar battery was developed in 1954 by two different laboratories, (the Air Research and Development Command in Baltimore, and Bell Telephone Laboratories). This is a 1st Qtr. Precedent that will doubtless play a major role in the future. Bell also invented the first solar-heated and radiator-cooled house in Phoenix and the commercial solar telephone this year. The first solar heated commercial building appeared shortly afterward in the 1st Qtr. in 1957.

Other Breakthroughs were made everywhere during the Intellectual 1st Qtr. The First color Television Broadcast occurred in 1951. Small Transistors Were Developed by RCA in 1952 to replace the 1947 vacuum tube. The First Transatlantic Telephone Cable, some 2,250 miles long between Scotland and Newfoundland, tripled the circuits between the US and Europe in 1952. The First Use of Video Tape was in 1956, and the first nationally broadcast video tape was of the presidential inauguration in 1957. Firsts are far more numerous during a 1st Qtr.

3. Science & Technology  1950s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1951 - 1957)

Precedents in Nuclear Energy Pervaded during the Physo-Intellectual High. The First Thermonuclear Reaction was set off in 1951 by scientists led by Edward Teller. Electricity was Generated From Nuclear Fuel at the US Reactor in Idaho this year also. The US conducted its First Test of a Hydrogen Bomb at Einwetok Atoll in the Pacific in 1952. The First Atomic Artillery Shell was fired at the Nevada proving grounds in 1953. President Eisenhower attended ground-breaking for the First Nonmilitary Atomic Power Plant near Pittsburgh, Pa. Atomically generated power was used in the US at Schenectady, NY IN 1954. An Atomic Powered Railway Locomotive was developed at Utah University, and Eisenhower promoted "atoms for peace." A nuclear power reactor at Fort Belvoir, Va., was dedicated by Army Secretary Brukner IN 1957. We developed power while establishing new standards during a Physical High and Intellectual 1st Qtr.

The First in a Fleet of Nuclear Powered Submarines was "The U. S. S. Nautilus" launched in 1954. This was another precedent of power that traveled 1800 miles under the north polar ice cap four years later. The second nuclear submarine, the "Sea Wolf," was launched in 1955, and third one, the "Skate," was launched in 1957. Intellectual 1st Qtr. Precedents emerged with power during the Physical High.

Medical Breakthroughs came as physicians got new tools. The first plastic artificial heart valve was used on a patient at the Georgetown Medical Center in 1952. The heart-lung machine was developed by John Gibbons to allow the separation of the heart from the circulatory system during surgery that same year. We boosted physical care be the 1st qtr. Precedents of an Intellectual High. In 1953, the first successful open-heart surgery was performed at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The first sex change operation was performed on George (Christine) Jorgensen in 1953. Jonas Salk formally certified and tested a vaccine in 1953 to prevent infantile paralysis from polio. Mass inoculations began in 1955. Watson, Crick, and Wilkins discovered the structure of DNA, the basic unit of heredity, to be a double helix in 1953. Alfred C. Kinsey produced "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female" in 1953, (a Physical 2nd Qtr. sequel to "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" from the Physical 1st Qtr. in 1948)

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During the record breaking economic expansion of the decade, existing we improved products in a Physical 2nd Qtr. of Expansion. Consumer confidence rose with Emotional Cycle that crossed up in the middle of the decade. The Intellectual Cycle, 1st Qtr. Foundation brought new methods for a new market.

4. Mechanical  1950s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1950 - 1957)

Automobile Improvements came as autos increased. Some 1.68 million miles of paved roads in existed in 1950, and 1 in 3.75 persons owned an automobile, (up from 1 in 5.5 in 1930). Cars became more elaborate with power steering installed in 10,000 new Chrysler Crown Imperials in 1950. GM also introduced the first plastic laminated car, the Chevrolet Corvette, for $3,250. These were 2nd Qtr. Expansions on a Physical product. Automobile accidents were up, however, and would exceed the death rate for Americans in all US wars by the end of the decade. Safety devices for automobiles would appear in the following Third Quarter.

Aviation Advancements and new records came with 2nd Qtr. Expansion. Charles Yeager flew at a record 1,600 mph in a Bell X-1A aircraft from Edwards Air Force Base, Ca. in 1952. Aviation went from propeller planes to jet service in 1952 when the first turbojet airliner entered scheduled service. The Air Force in 1954 ordered the first supersonic bomber, the B-58, into construction in 1954. The jet-powered transport jet, Boeing 707, was also tested in 1954. Jet passenger service began 1958 as National Airlines brought two 707s into service. While some mechanical advancements occur all the time, the most improvements and record breaking will occur during 2nd Qtr. Expansion.

Other Improvements came during the 2nd Quarter as devices were electrified, motorized and otherwise altered. A new transatlantic speed record was set in 1952 by the "USS United States," both eastward and westward. Conventional lawn mowers became mechanical in 1952. In 1954, America introduced the Basic Oxygen Process of steel making, launched the largest warship ever built - the USS Forestal, and set a new land speed record with an Air Force rocket powered sled that traveled at 632 miles per hour. The first transcontinental helicopter flights took place in 1956. The world's longest suspension bridge to date, the Mackina Straits Bridge, was built in 1957 at a cost of $100 million to connect Michigan's upper and lower peninsula. Major improvements and enhancements came during the building frenzy of a Physical High with 2nd Qtr. Expansions.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1964)

The Physical Cycle began its decline in the lower half in 1957, and a 3rd Qtr. Of Review and Reform came in. Directors of the Automobile Manufacturer's Association decided in June 1957 that Speed and Horsepower Would No Longer Be Emphasized in the selling in automobiles. American auto makers also decided that They Would No Longer Formally Support Auto Racing. A car then came into our market from Germany whose success relied less on Physical appeal and speed, and more on practicality. It was the Volkswagen. Americans purchased some 200,000 "Beetles" in 1957. Sales soared throughout the Physical Low for a car considered cute. (Emotional High).

4. Mechanical  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1950s Polyrhythms top    

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More emphasis and funding were placed in education during the decade. Standards were up and illiteracy was down. It was a burgeoning time for the sciences and learning.

5. Education  1950s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1943 - 1957)

The Purge of Communism in Education came as territoriality was up with the Physical High. Some 15% of the Faculty of U. of CA Was Discharged in 1950 for their failing to sign noncommunist affirmation pledges. The US Supreme Court ruled in 1952 that persons termed to be Subversives Could Be Barred From Teaching in public schools. Eight Teachers Were Dismissed by the Board of Education later that year as alleged communists. The walls were up, it was a Physical High, and enforcement held up the format of things.

Physical Downward Crossover (March 21, 1957- March 21, 1958)

Crisis Came to Schools that held onto separatism came as walls came down with a Physical Crossover. Arkansas Governor Faubus tried to prevent desegregation when old walls were due to fall. He called out the national guard in 1957 and they blocked two African American children from entering Central High School. After a chat with an unhappy President Eisenhower, Faubus withdrew the guard, but rioting ensued and African American students withdrew from the school. It was a crossover and a time for crisis. President Eisenhower dispensed federal troops to Little Rock on September 23. They held order and escorted nine students to class. Faubus tried to close four schools in retaliation but a Federal Court declared that unconstitutional in June 1959, (during Third Quarter Reform). Territoriality declines when the Physical is Low. This ruling and others brought reform some morality and ideology surpassed territoriality. It was a Physical Low, Emo-Intellectual High.

5. Education  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional Upward Crossover (March 21, 1955- March 21, 1956)

The US Supreme Court Banned Racial Segregation in US public schools in May 1955. To enforce the order in Louisiana, a federal court judge banned all state laws that countered desegregation in February 1956. This upward Crossover, brining new morality and unification, challenged old systems.

5. Education  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual Upward Crossover (March 21, 1951- March 21, 1952)

A Scandal Rocked the US Military Academy at West Point. It was a crisis at school during an Intellectual Crossover. The Academy dismissed ninety cadets, including most of the members of the football team, for cheating on examinations. This event reverberated through the nation.

Intellectual High (1951 - 1973)

Education was on an Upswing. In 1950, $5.84 billion was spent on public education, and the illiteracy rate fell to a new low at 3.2%. Stiffer requirements were enacted on secondary schools and colleges. We had more than 3.500 educational foundations by 1955, (up from 600 before 1939 when the Cycle was low). Industry lent much support to education during the Physo-Intellectual High. The Ford Foundation made a $550 million in 1955. It donated an additional $455.5 million the following year to more than 4,000 private colleges, universities and hospitals to upgrade salaries, services, and educational television. National Merit Scholars were first sent to 160 colleges in 1957. Classic Highs came in this decade with Intellectual Foundations.

President Eisenhower signed the National Defense Education Act for government backed student loans in 1958. This act supported education in the sciences. Secondary education was also rising and by 1960, some 85% of teenagers were in high school. This was up considerably from the turn of the century, when some 10% were in school, (Intellectual Low).

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1951 - 1962)

"New Math" Came to Education in the Intellectual 1st Qtr. The New Math was to replace the old system of memorizing times tables and other methods across the country. It phased out after the 1st Qtr., however, and many schools went back to conventional methods. One that didn't make it.

Brown Verses the Board of Education was the landmark precedent for education in this Intellectual 1st Qtr. The US Supreme Court ruled unanimously in 1954 to declare that "separate but equal" has no place in education - only racial integration could produce equality in schools. In 1954, an Intellectual High exceeded the Physical High for the first time since 1920. Equal education took precedence over factional boundaries. This decision overturned the Supreme Court case of "Plessy v. Ferguson," in 1896, (Physical High & Intellectual Trough). This inevitability liberation was likely to emerge during a 1st Qtr.

5. Education  1950s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1951 - 1957)

The Physical Sciences Increased. A "New York Times" study in 1952 showed that 90% of all university funding was being distributed to the physical and biological sciences. The other 10% went to the humanities. It was a Physo-Intellectual High in academics and Science.

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Religion Rises With the Emotional Cycle. An Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. In the latter part of the decade brought community unification and greater membership in local religious groups.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1950s Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

Membership in Organized Religions Rose with the Emotional Cycle. The United Council of Churches announced in 1959 that 64% of Americans were church members in 1958. Church membership levels had risen significantly from 1950 to 1958. Membership rose to 1.5 million Latter-day Saints, (up 38%), two million in the Churches of Christ (up 100%), 9.2 Southern Baptists (up 29%), and 39.5 million Roman Catholics (up 34%). Many had viewed the War as a battle between good and evil with victory coming to the righteous. Church and synagogue membership rose through the 1960's with a tide of revivalism and unification. It was an Emotional, and spiritual, High.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955 - 1964)


Evangelist Reverend Dr. Billy Graham Rose With the Emotional Cycle. Graham had been on a series of evangelistic campaigns since 1946, (the year that the Emotional Cycle began to rise), and with superb timing he launched a 16-week campaign in New York in 1956 that culminated in October 1957. This was early in the Emotional 1st Qtr. As the newly high Emotional Cycle continued to rise, Graham went on to be one of the most renown evangelists in America. People listened to Graham because of his message, and he exemplified how catching the wave of a corresponding Cycle can bring things forward.

Unification of Churches occurred on a large scale during 1st Qtr. Unification. Protestant denominations coalesced into larger bodies. This reversed a long trend of denominationalization in American Christianity. One significant merger came as early as 1950, before the 1st Qtr. with the formation of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States from twenty-five Protestant denominations and five Eastern Orthodox bodies. Nevertheless, the trend for mergers came after 1955, (during Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. Unification). The Congregational Christian Churches and the Evangelical Reformed Church merged to form the Untied Church of Christ in 1957. A merger came with the Presbyterian Church in the USA and the United Presbyterian Church to form the United Presbyterian Church in the USA in 1958. The American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America merged in 1959. In 1960, the chief executives of the United Presbyterian Churches proposed a merger of the Methodist, Protestant Episcopal, United Presbyterian Churches and the United Church of Christ that would combine 12,250,000 members from the four churches. Unification was pervasive through America by the end of the decade.

Women Rose in the Church as a high and rising Emotional Cycle increased feminine energy as well as religion. The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church allowed the ordination of a woman minister for the first time in 1956.

Churches Desegregated in the Emotional (and Intellectual) 1st Qtr. of Unification. The General Conference of the Methodist church in Minneapolis, Minnesota ordered desegregation in all Methodist churches in May 1956. Many Churches also supported the Supreme Court decision on school desegregation. When the Catholic Bishop of New Orleans enacted desegregation, he received the backing of the Vatican. People became united by faith.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1950s Polyrhythms top    

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A rising interest in art came to main stream America in the 1950's. Even painting by numbers kits sold in record numbers. Design also played a more important role in products across the nation. Style was in, and there was more of it. Leading into the new styles were 4th Qtrs. from the 1940's and early 1950's when ideas were in their experimental stage.

7. Arts & Design  1950s Physical Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1946 - 1955)

Abstract Expressionism is the quintessential example 4th Qtr. Experimentation. Traditional subject matter was abandoned as focus shifted to things such as; space & dimension, surface textures, and the use of colors. Enormous canvases were sometimes used for effect, (Physical High). Even three dimensional applications of thick paint strokes could become a nonrepresentational subject. Jackson Pollack epitomized the era with the invention of "drip" painting. A canvas would be laid on the floor, and paint would be dribbled upon it, sometimes in a violent manner, (Physical High). Swirling lines of varied colors intersected at random. The first of these was "Lavender Mist" (1950). Pollock claimed that the action in these experimental paintings became part of the art, (Physical peak & Dbl. 4th Qtr.). He also created "Autumn" (1950) and "Number 12" (1952) with abstract expressionism. Fourth Quarter genres also appeared in the works of others such as, Stuart Davis's "Owh! in San Pao," (Abstract Cubism, 1951), and de Kooning's "Woman VI" (1953). Leaders in this field include Robert Motherwell. They also include Dutch-born Willem de Kooning and Russian-born Mark Rothko, who both developed their styles in the us. DeKooning painted his "Woman VI" in 1953. This movement became so strong that the painting center shifted from Paris to New York City for the first time. From 1936 to 1955 all three Cycles passed through a 4th Qtr. Double 4th Qtrs. resulted over part of this time, (Physo-Intellectual 4th Qtr. 1950 - 1943, and Emo-Intellectual 4th Qtr. 1946 - 1951).

Abstract Sculpture developed during the Emotional 4th Qtr., (and Physical High). Artists like Alexander Calder made famous departure from realism through two types of abstract metal sculpture. There was the Mobile that hangs from the ceiling, and the Stable, that stands on the floor. David Smith added to the movement with "Tanktotem II" (1953), which is an unusual figure of steel and bronze standing more than 6 1/2 feet tall, (in the Metropolitan Museum of Art).

The departure toward experimenting with alternative is an important stage of development. In this "Winter" Qtr. Ideas germinate before the emergence of "Spring" 1st Qtr. Period. These formless expressions will take shape after the crossover.

7. Arts & Design  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1950s Polyrhythms top    

Physical High with
     Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1951 - 1957)

A Massive Building Spree Came with New Architecture as the Physical High was provided given new precedents from and Intellectual 1st Qtr. Many impressive glass and steel towers that outline American cities were built during this boom. Architects like the Saarinens; Miles van der Rohe; Skidmore, Owings & Merrill; and Philip Johnson contributed famous new designs. The Lever House in New York, (designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill), featured new Modern aspects in 1952 that set the norm for over a decade. The first shopping mall opened near Minneapolis in 1956. It was a huge structure designed by Victor Green with many stores under one roof and plenty of parking around it. This became the prototype for much to come.

Emotional 4th Qtr. Alternatives with
     Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1951 - 1955)

Old Was Out and New Was In as the Emotional 4th Qtr. was departing from the past, and the Intellectual 1st Qtr. brought new precedents. An iconoclastic art community cast off European styles and old traditions. Affluent Americans redesigned their homes with Modern furniture and Modern Art. It was a Modern world.

Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955 - 1962)

When the Emotional Cycle crossed up into the 1st Qtr. In 1955, it ended a string of 4th Qtr. Through which all three Cycles passed from 1936 to 1955. Now an Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. came amid a string of 1st Qtrs. Through which all three Cycles would pass from 1943 to 1964. By the late 1950's, painters began to turn away from Abstract Expressionism, so popular in the preceding 4th Qtrs., to even view it with disdain. Representational art began to take from as precedents began to take form in the Double 1st Qtr.

Pop Art, (short for popular), manifested with vivid paintings and sculptures that represented familiar objects of popular culture. Robert Rauchenberg's "Bed," drew attention to Pop Art in 1955 with a real pillow and a quilt on a stretcher along with other objects and materials. Andy Warhol's silk screen prints depicted soup cans, soap boxes and soft drink bottles. George Segal made life-sized figures of plastic and cast them in everyday public settings, like lunch counters and buses constructed from junk yard parts. A Physical High brought focus onto objects, while an Emotional 1st Qtr. brought a new form in which to display them.

Urban Suburbia designs had the uniformity that is often standard with 1st Qtr. Unification. Many realized the American dream in tree-lined streets with carbon-copy houses or boxlike apartments near look-alike shopping areas. Even lifestyles and behavior were conformist. During the string of 1st Qtrs. in the three Cycles from 1943 to 1964, the Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. ran from 1955 to 1962 to bring a strong influence of unification and conformity. This would last until a following Double 2nd Qtr., beginning in 1964, that would bring variation to the norms of the 1950's by which all the dies were cast.

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Reading Increased as the Intellectual Cycle rose. Pulitzer prize winning authors like William Faulkner and Tennessee Williams helped increase the popularity of nonfiction books. Poets, like Bollinger Prize winning E. E. Cummings found evermore readers. Americans also had more interest in world affairs and were reading books from abroad. Some 14,876 new books were published in 1959 alone, and Americans spent $1.2 million on them.

8. Literature & Publication  1950s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1943 - 1957)

Horror in Literature Came with the Physical High, (horror is a Physical, suspense is Emotional, mystery is Intellectual). Shock appeal was increasing and twenty million horror books a month were sold in 1954.

8. Literature & Publication  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955  - 1964)

Censorship Declined, sexuality increased, and the Emotional Cycle was high and rising. The major novel of 1957 was "By Love Possessed," a bestseller by James Gould Bozzens. "Lolita" by Vladimer Nabokov quickly gained huge attention with its controversial subject of an older man's love for a 12-year-old-girl. It was a bestseller in 1958 and 1959, and soon the term, "nymphet" arose. "Playboy" magazine, (which premiered in 1953 with a nude picture of Marilyn Monroe), became a symbol of the rising sexual tide. During this Emotional, (and Intellectual) rise, the Physical Cycle crossed down in 1987/58, bringing conflict. Police seized Allen Ginzberg's book "Howl" in 1958, during the Crossover. It was a struggle between the established structure and free ideological expression. This brought much attention to the Beat Movement. Ginzberg won as a judge later released the book during a Physical Low, (and Emo-Intellectual High). This set a precedent during the Emotional 1st Qtr. and censorship declined.

8. Literature & Publication  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1951 - 1962X)

Trend Setting Publication emerged, new periodicals came into existence, and book sales increased. Norman Vincent Peale's best selling book, "The Power of Positive Thinking," in 1952, presented the Physo-Intellectual view that positive thought could enhance material well being. Aldous Huxley published "The Doors of Perception," in 1953, which explored the mind as an adventure and hailed thought as the greatest sense of reality. The first of 13 James Bond novels, "Casino Royale," by Ian Fleming, also came out in 1953, and agent 007 was born. These, and others, were trend setters that emerged during an Intellectual 1st Qtr. of precedents.

Beat Literature came with the Beat movement. A gathering place for the existential beat generation and intelligencia in 1954 was the San Francisco City Lights Bookshop. Intellectual poets like Allen Ginsberg and Lawrence Felinghetti were attracted to the new center became that became a focal point a new trend. A corner stone for the beat movement was Jack Kerouac's book, "On the Road," in 1958. This novel told a tale of hitchhiking across country and finding adventures that included drug experiences. It was and Intellectual 1st Qtr. Precedent in literature that described the mood and the trend that would spin off into the hippie movement in the following 2nd Qtrs. of Expansion in the 1960's.

8. Literature & Publication  1950s Polyrhythms top    

Physical High with
     Emotional Low
(1943 - 1955)

Materialism as Opposed to Humanism was described in David Reisman's acclaimed nonfiction work, "The Lonely Crowd," in 1950. It was a concerned description of the decline of individuality in a society that held appearance and peer approval over inner virtues. It was a fitting description because the Physical Cycle peaked in 1950, increasing materialism, while both the emotional and Intellectual cycles were still low. Form may become more important than substance, we may measure reality with Euclidean geometry, and a mesomorphic reality may set in during these times. The 1950 peak of the Cycle culminated a period of 1st Qtr. Unification, accounting for the importance of peer approval. Conformity comes with unification, and appearances are Physical. "The Affluent Society" then looked back at this time with 3rd Qtr. Reform in 1958 to show how society exalted accumulation (Physical) that lacked public purpose (Emotional).

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Entertainment abounded during a burgeoning time of Cyclic Highs for Americans who had more income, and more leisure time to spend it. Television was the new medium and it had profound effects on American culture. The number of sets went from one million in 1940, to ten million in 1950, twenty-nine million and 60% of American homes in 1954, and rising. Children spent almost as much time watching TV as doing homework by 1950 and more than 2,000 new TV broadcast stations were open. The weekly "TV Guide" appeared in 1953 and later went on to become the number one selling periodical in America. Movies could compete for viewership because Americans were going out more often. Drive-in theaters had multiplied to 7,000 in number in 1956 and films were drawing greater attention. A two-way rise in the Cycles led to a Three-way High in a decade when entertainment was big.

Music in the early decade, when the Cyclic average was at mid level, soothing sounds were popular from major stars like, Bing Crosby Perry Como, Tony Bennett, and Nat King Cole. In the middle of the decade, when the Cycles entered a Three-Way High, the most influential music of the 20th century would emerge with worldwide effect. It was Rock and Roll.

9. Entertainment  1950s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1943 - 1957)

The Cuban Beat Became Popular during a Physical High. From this Physically-based island, (that was free until a communist takeover in 1959), came a Latin beat in 1954 with a strong influence, the "Mambo." It spread throughout ballrooms and dance studios. Songs like, "Papa Loves Mambo," "They Were Doing the Mambo," and "The St. Louis Blues Mambo" were hits. The "Cha-Cha" also came out of Cuba in 1954 and was enormously popular with its strong Physical Beat.

Country Music always becomes more popular during a Physical High. Much of it came from the Southwest, a Physically High region, (see Chapter XII Georhythms). Stars such as Hank Williams, Tex Ritter, Johnny Cash, and Loretta Lynn topped the Charts. Both country music and western music made it big, (country music and Western music are two different styles, however, many record stores consolidated the two genres on their shelves under the label, "Country & Western," which became a misnomer).

Tough Guys in Cinema were popular during the Physical High. Names included John Wayne, Marlin Brando, James Cagney, and Humphrey Bogart. They earned fame with a sense of ruggedness in adventurous. Musicals were also at their finest during the High with films like, "Meet Me in St. Louis," (1944), and, "An American in Paris," (1951).

Cops and Robbers Were Big on TV as action-adventure dramas. They had Physical appeal during the Physical High. One publication noted that more Americans were seen killed as actors on TV than were actually killed in the Korean War

The Purge of Communism in Entertainment was serious business as territoriality increased with a Physical High. The Ed Sullivan Show dismissed Paul Draper in 1950 after public complaints about his leftist affiliations. They listed many known entertainers as under communist influence and the Screen Actors Guild adopted a law that banned Communists from joining. Fences were up.

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1950 - 1957)

Charlie Parker Varied "Bebop with his alto saxophone. He spun off the vigorous Bebop style, (precedented in the preceding 1st Qtr.), to enrich it with new melodic streams that emerged from the established harmonic concepts, (2nd Qtr. Expansion). This type of music was already moving to a Physical beat before the emergence of Rock n' Roll. Dance overall was big across the nation and even European dance companies toured the US before packed houses.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1957 - 1964)

Restrictions Were Lifted Against Song Writer Paul Robeson who had been denied a passport for eight years because of his leftist affiliations, (during the previous Physical High). The Physical cycle was low now and reform of this decision permitted him to tour. Fences were coming down.

Cinema Reviewed the Past. Westerns in particular continued to flourish on the big screen. "Ben Hur," with Charleston Heston was set in ancient Roman times. It won Best Picture in 1959 and was one of many films set in the past.

Televisions Showed Many Westerns at the end of the decade. While this genre had earlier beginnings like, Hopalong Cassidy in 1950, "Gunsmoke" in 1956, and John Wayne at the box office, its great popularity came in the latter 1950's and early 1960's. Television's big premiers in 1957 included, "Have Gun Will Travel," "The Tales of Wells-Fargo," "The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp," and "The Restless Gun." Steve McQueen premiered in "Wanted: Dead or Alive" in 1958. "Rawhide" with Clint Eastwood and "Bonanza" premiered in 1959. Westerns were not the only review of the past to become popular either. "The Untouchable" premiered with a look back to the cops and robbers days of the "Roaring Twenties." It went on to be a television classic.

Here are some shows that made the top ten Nielson ratings during the Physical 3rd Qtr. of the 1950's. 1957: "Gunsmoke," Have Gun, Will Travel," "Tales of Wells-Fargo," "The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp" and "The Restless Gun." 1958: "Gunsmoke," "Wagon Train," "Bat Masterson," "Maverick," "Tales of Wells-Fargo" and "The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp." 1959: were "Gunsmoke," "Wagon Train," "Have Gun Will Travel" and "Wanted: Dead Or Alive." Western paraphernalia such as toy guns for boys also remained a fad as long as the Physical Cycle was in Review.

9. Entertainment  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional Low (1937 -1955)

Restrictive Moral Codes reflect the less permissive times of an Emotional Low. The Cycle was low in the first half of the decade and open sexuality was not socially accepted. Conductor Manuel Rosenthal was fired from the Seattle Symphony in 1952 for living with a woman. When Lucille Ball became pregnant during the filming of a top ten show, "I Love Lucy," her very appearance on the show was in question. Only after a priest, a minister and rabbi gave their approval was it allowed, but she was still not permitted to say the word "pregnant." Years later comedian Bob Hope would say, "Now they not only say it, but they show you how it's done."

A Lackluster Year Came to Broadway in 1952. It was so off during the Emotional Low that George Jean Nathan decided to withhold his annual season review in because the year was so mundane. The Cycle crossed up in 1955, however, and Broadway became exciting by the end of the decade.

Emotional 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1946 -1955)

A Renascence to Poetic Drama came to the theater in 1950, and so they called it. Plays by T. S. Eliot, Christopher Fry, and Robinson Jeffers, were well received. They departed from the conventional the past in their style.

Ernie Kovacs Premiered the Most Unusual Television Show to date in 1952 with the "Ernie Kovacs Show." It was a menagerie of experimental skits that surprised its audience. Doors would be drawn on walls with a marker, then opened, men in monkey masks played drums, oranges would roll uphill to fall off tables and milk could be poured sideways (due to deceptive camera tilts). From the imagination of Kovacs came exemplary Fourth Quarter experimentation in entertainment. The show was a successful and unique innovation that inspired shows to come.

Jazz Was Ventured Into New Areas as artists experimented with different sounds. Founding figures like, Little Richard, Fats Domino, B. B. King, and many others were bringing forth music that attracted listeners. White cover groups released similar recordings in an attempt to direct to the public and cash in, but true sounds continued as if they had a life of their own. Much of the style emerged directly out of gospel choirs as well. As the Emotional Cycle rose, so did the music, and after the Cycle crossed up into the 1st Qtr. in 1955, a new style would emerge from these roots. It was Rock n' Roll.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1955 -1963)

Motown Records was Founded by Berry Gordy, Jr. in 1959 as a classic Emotional 1st Qtr. Precedent. This Emotionally-based form of music would last for years to come. It was Soul music.

A Golden Age of Sex Symbols Came to Cinema as the Emotional cycle rose in the High half. Times were more permissive and America's most classic stars emerged. Marilyn Monroe and Sophia Loren became sex symbols in 1957. Bridget Bardot and Liz Taylor became stars in 1958. It was a time of establishing American icons of the Emotional 1st Qtr.

Other Noteworthy Beginnings in Entertainment came during the 1st Qtr. The Disneyland amusement park opened in Anaheim, California in 1955. "Fantasyland," was one part of the park. Jim Henson created the first muppet, Kermit the Frog in 1955. The muppets went on to be a world success and "The Muppet Show" was at one time the most watched television program in the world.

9. Entertainment  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1951 - 1962)

Fine Music Had Many New Beginnings in the Intellectual 1st Qtr. Great opera stars such as Renata Tebaldi, Maria Calls, and Richard Tucker rose in the 1st Qtr. In 1952 alone, many significant starts came. The New York City Ballet made history with a four-month continuous season in 1952, the longest on record. It went on to make a record-breaking twelve new productions 1953 including, "Fanfare" and Afternoon of a Faun." The American Ballet Center was founded in 1952 by Robert Jeffrey, in New York City and Merce Cunningham formed his own company. Great choreographers like George Balanchine and Jerome Robbins emerged, and thirty million Americans attended classical music performances in 1952. In 1953, 7.25 million children and young adults were taking music lessons and the trend continued. An American won the Tchaikovsky International Piano and Violin Festival held in Moscow in 1958, it was a 23-year-old Van Cliburn. America was rising with the Cycle and we were excelling.

The First 3-D Cartoon and Movie made their appearances in 1952. "Bwana Devil," was released in 1953 as the first feature-length 3-D film. Cinemascope Appeared in 1953 when 20th Century-Fox released "The Robe," with an enhanced depth of film image.

Major Precedents in Television Filled the Intellectual 2nd Qtr. The first situation comedy appeared in 1952 as "The Honeymooners" starring Jackie Gleason. Bob Hope hosted the first Academy Awards show in 1953. "The Tonight Show" premiered in 1954 with Steve Allen as its host. President Eisenhower held the first televised press conference in 1955. The premier of "The Twighlight Zone" in 1955 reflected an Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. with suspense and intrigue and it reached beyond to capture the imagination. This program created the setting, but the theater was in the mind. "Alfred Hitchcock Presents" made to the top ten Nielsen ratings in 1956 while focusing on suspense during the Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr.

9. Entertainment  1950s Polyrhythms top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review with
     Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1957 - 1962)

Jazz is a style that has lived for decades and has gone through many changes with all three to provide a meter of change in America. As Physical 3rd Qtr. Review in began in 1957, noted jazz musician Gunter Schuller coined the term, "Third Stream." It was a combination of jazz and classical European styles. It was featured by The Modern Jazz Quartet, (formed by Pianist John Lewis during this Intellectual 1st Qtr. In 1951). The Quartet's mixture of jazz techniques and older classical forms, (Physical Review), was described as "cerebral," (Intellectual High). Its successful tours reflected the times.

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion with
   Emotional-Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1955 - 1957)

The Birth of Rock n' Roll came in 1956. This was after the formative stages that led up to it. The rhythm and blues of the Physical High was becoming varied in the Physical 2nd Qtr. of the 1950's. It was becoming known as Rock n' Roll after Alan Freed named it so on radio station WINS in 1951, (Intellectual 1st Qtr. 1951 - 1962). "Crazy Man Crazy" by Bill Haley and the Comets became popular in 1953, and their releases of "Shake Rattle and Roll" and "Rock Around the Clock" in 1954 produced the biggest selling release to date. Nevertheless, the Emotional Cycle was still in 4th Qtr. Experimentation and the new style was just shy of emerging. When Elvis Presley made his first professional recording in 1954, it was a combination of Country on one side, and Rhythm and Blues on the other. Then came the big breakthrough. Chuck Berry recorded "Roll Over Beethoven" and "Rock n' Roll Music" in 1956. Elvis also recorded his hit single, "Heartbreak Hotel" in 1956 as well as three other hits, "Blue Sued Shoes," "Hound Dog," and "Love Me Tender." The top album in 1956 was, "Elvis Presley." "American Bandstand" debuted in 1957 and set the precedent for dance programs. Rock n Roll emerged during a Three-way High, then rode a double 1st Qtr. into the 1960's.

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10. Sports  1950s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1943 - 1957)

Sports was in its biggest time since the 1920's, (the previous Physical High). Famous figures emerged and played before greater audiences. The 1950's was a Physical Time.

Baseball Was Up and major leagues signed a $6 million television contract for the World Series in 1950, (Physical Peak). Babe Ruth began the Little Leagues in Trenton, New Jersey in 1952. Major league baseball drew some fifteen million fans in 1952 and more than 16.5 million in 1956. Many all-time greats emerged to fame during this Physical High like, Willie Mays, Mickey Mantle, and Joe Dimaggio. Sports had gained leeway, and the Supreme Court ruled in 1953 that big-league baseball does not come "within the scope of the Federal antitrust laws." This confirmed a 1922 ruling that baseball was a sport, and not a business or trade monopoly. Both decisions came during a Physical High, and both favored the sport over reform.

Record Earnings Also Came to Horse Racing. The largest purse to date was won by "Great Circle" in 1951 who took $144,322 at the Santa Anita Maturity, in California. Citation became the first horse to make a total earnings of more than $1 million in 1951. Eddie Arcaro became the first American-born jockey to win 3,000 races in 1952. It was a Physical High.

Other Physical Genres became big. The Jack Lalanne Exercise Show in premiered in 1950 and was very popular with people who exercised at home in front of the television. "Sports Illustrated" Magazine Appeared in 1954 and circulation reached 600,000 by the end of the year. Boxers like Sugar Ray Robinson & Rocky Marciano became big in boxing. Sports was in with the Physical High.

Physical Low (1957 - 1971)

The American Football League Failed (AFL) to Survive for long after it was founded in 1959 in a Physical Low. It began playing in 1963, one year before a Physical Trough. It failed to be a trend setter or even survive on its own. Football Commissioner Pete Rozelle announced in 1966 that the AFL would be absorbed by the National Football League (NFL) in merger in 1970. The NFL itself was established in 1920, during a Physical 1st Qtr., and it thrived.

10. Sports  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

10. Sports  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  1950s Polyrhythms top    

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Style was an important part of this decade of leisure time and social life. Fashion was at first conservative, but became more elaborate by the end of the decade as Cycles rose.

11. Fashion  1950s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1943 - 1957)

Masculine Styles are popular when the Physical energy is High. Black leather jackets, jeans and T-shirts added to the masculine image. Young men wore crew cuts by the middle of the decade. An unusual variation of the crew cut came to a few in 1952 who sported a band of longer hair from the forehead to the back of the neck in a Mohawk hairstyle, (as the "punks" did in the late 1970's and 1980's - the next Physical High). By the latter 1950's, when the Emotional Cycle was higher, however, hair was longer and the "ducktail" was in.

Women Wore Short Hair in an Italian style or "pixie" hair cut along with dungarees early in the decade. This reflected a masculine influence in women's wear. Dance shoes were often worn and as dancing was popular. Jewelry was glittery, like sequined poodle appliques and rhinestone-speckled plastic shoes. The glitz was Physical, in a Physical High.

11. Fashion  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

Women's Styles Became More Vibrant and Feminine as the Emotional cycle rose. Style became more youthful and sexy look and French designs were incorporated in 1955, (the year of the upward Crossover). Gowns were more fitted and had long backs, breasts were raised, and hips were rounded to accent the feminine figure. Bright colors emerged, like red, pink, emerald green and sapphire blue. Boldly contrasting strips came in. By 1957 V neck lines were more revealing, coats were expanded, and collars became larger, (widths of collars, lapels, belts and neckties rise and fall with the Emotional Cycle). More bright colors came in like orange, yellow, red, and brilliant blue. In 1958 ornamentation increased with large buttons, patch pockets, bows, sashes and buckles. Bright reds were still in, along with violet, lavender, yellow and emerald. Furs continued their great rise in popularity. In 1959 dresses became even more fitted, necklines continued to plunge and more jewelry was worn, like multiple strand necklaces. One in three women was going to the beauty shop for hair color and perms in 1957, as the concept of physical beauty became more important.

Traditional Men's Styles Changed in 1957 for the first time since the Great Depression. Suits came in plaid, and four, not six, buttons. Paisley appeared on handkerchiefs, scarves and ties. Now that the Physical Cycle was low, and Emotional Cycle was high, men's fashion was less staunch and more flamboyant.

Automobile Designs Changed as fashion was added to function. The Ford Thunderbird made an immediate hit during the Physo-Emotional High in 1955 as a two-seat sports car. The 1956 "Chevy" debuted during the upward Emotional Crossover, (1955/56), and became a classic precedent among car collectors, (Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr.). Models from Detroit in 1959 were the longest and lowest to date and sported the largest fins, more chrome, more glass and electric features. This was in classic "Populux" style.

11. Fashion  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1951 - 1973)

The Christian Dior Look reflected the Intellectual Cycle with geometric shapes and neutral design. These squared, lines of almost Egyptian or "Vulcan" style were chosen over curvaceous designs in the Emotional Low - Intellectual High of the early part of the decade. Dior's A, H, and Y shapes concealed, more than revealed natural body shapes, but added interesting shapes and long straight lines. This trend lasted until an upward crossover in the Emotional Cycle brought more femininity into design.

11. Fashion  1950s Polyrhythms top    

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BORING NUMBERS: The US population in 1950 was about 150.7 million. The birthrate climbed to record levels during the "baby boom," to reach about four million a year by 1954, where it stayed for ten years. The population grew by thirty million during the decade to reach 179.3 million by 1960 with more than 60% in the cities. The 1960 census showed that the general population had moved West. Large gains came to Nevada, which is in the Physically-based region of the Southwest, (see Chapter XII Georhythms). Many African Americans made south to north migrations. Marriages were 12.1 / 1,000 and divorces were 2.6 / 1,000. People were married younger and divorced less during 1st Qtr. Unification.

The "Populux Era" and "modern" styles came with middle class luxury. The Physical High put improved products and the Intellectual High improved the economy in which they were sold. Cars were faster, domestic chores were mechanized, and people were working. There was a golden age for movie stars and sex symbols in the Emotional High. Cold war bomb shelters fad faded away and we greeted the future with optimism. The sale of tranquilizes soared, however, for those who found the times too fast. A Two-way High, and a brief Three-way High, set the pace.

12. Lifestyles  1950s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1943 - 1957)

The Physical World was the real world. Expanding houses became equipped with better vacuum cleaners and new gadgets in the kitchen. Education emphasized the physical sciences in its curriculum. "Panty raids" were the latest type of stunt at college campuses in 1950. Even sex was referred to in baseball jargon in 1953, such as, "getting to first base," or a "home run," to describe how far it went.

The Southwest Increased in Population as the Physically-based region grew with the Cycle. A 1960 census showed a population shift westward to the pont that changes came in the House of Representative for twenty-five states. The Physically-based Southwest becomes more of a power center during a Physical High, (see Chapter VII GEORHYTHMS).

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (March 21, 1957- March 21, 1958)

The "Mayflower II" glorified the days of yore when it duplicated the original voyage of the Pilgrims crossed Atlantic Ocean in 1620. It arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts on June 13, 1957, after leaving England 54 days earlier.

12. Lifestyles  1950s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1955 - 1973)

"The Pill" was the oral contraceptive that set a medical precedent in 1955. It came at the dawn of a sexual revolution. At this time, dress hemlines were rising, teen pregnancy increased, and sexually transmitted disease rose from 122,000 to 126,000 in 1956. Media censorship of on sex declined and the general populous was becoming more liberal. The sexual revolution lasted throughout the Emotional High.

12. Lifestyles  1950s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1951 - 1973)

Even Games Reflected Intellectual Pursuits. Scrabble was introduced in 1952. It became a huge fad the following year and went on become one of the best-selling board games of all time. Chess rose in popularity and peaked around the time of the Fisher/Spassky tournament between American and the USSR, (American Bobby Fisher won the tournament).

12. Lifestyles  1950s Polyrhythms top    

A String of First Quarters Brought an Extended Period of Unification to norms established throughout the period. From 1943 to 1964 at least one Cycle was in the 1st Qtr. and two Cycles formed a Double 1st Qtr. from 1955 to 1962. This contributed to pervasive conformity to wholesome values. Fitting the norm was important. Church, community, and country were important and organizations grew as more members joined.

The Physical Cycle Was the First to Enter the First Quarter in the postwar period (1943 - 1950). It set the format for the many uniform structures we built for standard lifestyles. Levitown, NY, is a classic example. The 10,600 like houses in the rapidly expanded Levitown, NY, had rules in 1950 that the grass be cut at least once a week and that laundry be washed on specific days. P. Kimball said in 1952, "Late commuters, lost among identical rows of houses along identical street blocks, sometimes reported a sense of panic like bewildered children suddenly turned loose in a house of mirrors." In neighborhoods across the nation neat suburban homes stood in uniform rows with trim lawns. Membership grew in organizations that unified industrial workers, farmers, businessmen, and even boy scouts and girl scouts. It was a new mass culture.

The Intellectual Cycle was Next to Enter the First Quarter (1951 - 1962). Colleges were filled to capacity with students for basic curriculums and standard interests. Businessmen wore standard flannel suits and "fit the mold." Lodges and fraternal groups grew with members. Now, like concepts were filling like structures.

The Emotional Cycle was Last to Enter the First Quarter (1955 - 1964). Churches and Synagogues increased memberships to record levels. Churches and Synagogues increased membership to record levels. The League of Women Voters grew strongly. When "Look" magazine polled moral attitudes in 1959, it found that most Americans believed that: one should do whatever he wants as long as it would be accepted by the neighbors. Mainstream America was rising, mostly together. How this would change in the 1960's when Dbl. 2nd Qtr. Expansion would bring spinoffs from established norms.

A "Generation Gap" will come with a Cyclic High. A gap exists when the next in line begins at a point that is beyond where the previous left ones off. The generation of the latter 1950's were in a Cyclic High, (Three-way High 1955 - 1957), that exceeded the times of their parents, (who saw a Three-way Low in the Great Depression). This generation of troubled and misunderstood teenagers rebelled against the parents who did not fully understand them or identify with newer trends and values. A baby boom at the time made the gap more pronounced. The new generation en mass had "Rock n' Roll" and new identifications. There was no 3rd Qtr. Review now. "The Blackboard Jungle" was a film from this time that focused on these generational differences. This disturbed the majority who were confirming with 1st Qtr. Unification brought by two of the Cycles. The Physical Cycle, however, was in 2nd Qtr. Expansion.

The Last Generation Gap occurred with the last Cyclic High, the "Roaring Twenties." Teenagers from the Three-way High of the twenties were misunderstood by parents who grew up in a Three-way Low. Kids in the Twenties were considered wild and rebellious by their more conservative parents. The young cruised around in Model T Fords brandishing racoon coats, and speaking their own vernacular like, "23 skidoo" and "Oh You Kid." There is regularity in change.

The "Beat Movement," or the "Beat Generation" that Jack Kerouac described in his landmark novel, "On the Road," originated in California then moved throughout the nation and onto Europe. The terms, "beat," and "beatnik" caught on. It was the new generation's search for the new. This new movement would prove to be the 1st Qtr. Foundation for the following "Hippie" movement of the 1960's, (in classic 2nd Qtr. Expansion).

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The Physical Peak in 1950 started the decade out strong and working. Our leaders were military and industrial figures. Our heroes were sports legends. The Intellectual Cycle became High in 1951 and the sciences rose with education. The Emotional Cycle Cross-up in 1955 and a new social consciousness emerged. The Civil Right Movement began, Rock and Roll was born, and moral and religious forces became focal points. It was a high time all across America, because the Cycles were High within it.