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28y Physical 36y Emotional 44y Intellectual
American Cycles 1830s
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).


Note to readers: Work from the Kala-Rhythm archives is being offered here in the Timelines for the first time. We are allowing a view into the Timelines now by posting both the finished and the unfinished pages of the Timelines as editing from our references continues.  Unfinished pages (like this one) contain raw data from history sources to which we give credit in our "biblio/webography". Check back for updates to this and other pages.

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1830 Senators Robert Y. Hayne (S.C.) and Daniel Webster (Mass.) engage in debate on the nature of the Union. Hayne upholds states' rights; Webster defends the Constitution and the Union.

1830 Mexico forbids further US colonization in Texas.

1830 Congress passes Removal Bill, authorizing resettlement of eastern Indians in the Oklahoma Territory. Sauk and Fox Indians in Ill. forced to move west of the Mississippi.

10/26/31 A protective tariff convention begins in NY

1832 Jackson (Democrat) is reelected pres; Marin Van Buren is elected VP on the Democratic ticket.

1/9/32 Promoting something he calls his “American System,” Henry Clay introduces a resolution in the Senate that would alter foreign tradition.  He hopes to abolish duties on foreign goods that do not compete w American goods.

7/14/32 Congress adopts the Tariff Act of 1832.  Although more moderate than that of 1828, it still leaves the South dissatisfied.  Textiles and iron still require high duties;  these are seen to benefit the Northeast.

12/27/32 In another effort to reduce tariff duties, Gulian Verplanck of NY introduces a bill in Congress.

1833 Pres. Jackson orders public funds to be with drawn from the Bank of the US and deposited in stat (pet) banks. He charges the Bank is a monopoly.

2/12/33 Henry Clay, always anxious to work out a compromise that will save the union, draws up a new tariff bill that is presented to the House of Reps.  the bill includes a gradual cutback in tariffs, which please the South.  The battle grows as Calhoun argues against the “force bill” on Feb 15-16 and bring the nullification issue back onto question.

2/20/33

1834 Senate adopts Henry Clay's resolution censuring Pres. Jackson for removing public funds from the Bank of the United States.

1834 Anti-abolition riots break out in NYC and Philadelphia.

1834 US and Spain settle territorial claims.

1835 Unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Jackson is first attack on the life of a US pres.

1835 Seminole Indian War begins when Seminoles refuse to  move to territory beyond the Miss. Seminoles attack and massacre US troops.

12/28/35 In a major action of the Second Seminole War, General Wiley Thompson and his troops are massacred at Fort King, Florida.  Also on this day, Major Dade and 100 of his men are killed at Fort Brooke, Florida.

12/29/35 The Cherokees sign a treaty at new Echota to surrender all of their lands east of the Miss R in exchange for $5 million, some funds for trans, and land in the Indian Territory.  They will move there by 1838.

1835 Gold is found on Cherokee land in Georgia. Cherokee Indians are forced to cede lands to US.

1836 Ark becomes 25th state.

1836 Wisconsin Territory is formed from western part of the Michigan Territory.

1836 Martin Van Buren (Democrat) is elected Pres. Since none of the four VP candidates receives an electoral majority, the Senate, for the first and only time, chooses Richard M. Johnson (Democrat) for the office.

4/20/36 Congress establishes the Wisconsin Territory in the western portion of the Michigan Territory.  The area’s first newspaper, the “Dubuque Visitor,” begins pub on May 11.

6/15/36 The 25th state, Arkansas, is admitted to the Union as a slave state.

7/1/36 The Senate adopts a resolution to recognize the Texas territory.  The House follows w a similar resolution on July 4.

12/7/36 Martin Van Buren wins 170 electoral votes to William Henry Harrison’s 74 and is elected pre.  Van Buren ran on the Demo ticket and had agreed to follow Pres Jackson’s policies.

1837 Michigan becomes 26th state

1837 US troops under Zachary Taylor defeat the Seminoles at the Battle of Okeechobee.

1837 Canadian militia cross the Niagara R and seize on the US side the "Caroline," a steamer in the service of Canadian rebels. Pres. Van Buren declares that neutrality laws should be observed.

 1/26/37 Michigan, the 26th state, joins the Union as a free state.

3/3/37 On his last day in office, Pres Jackson recognizes the independent Lone Star Republic of Texas. 

3/4/37 Martin Van Buren is inaugurated as the eighth pres and the second Demo to hold the office.

12/25/37 Fighting in the Second Seminole War.  Gen Zachary Taylor defeats a group of Seminoles at Okeechobee Swamp, Florida.

1838 Iowa Territory is formed from part of Wis. Territory.

1838 Congress adopts "gag resolutions" against anti-slavery petitions and motions.

1838 US troops forcibly move the Cherokee Indian from GA to Indian Territory (eastern OK).

1838 Some northern states pass Personal Liberty Laws which obstruct the Fugitive Slave Act. Southern slaves develop a system of escape routes to the North, known as the Underground Railroad.

6/12/38 Separating land off from the western portion of the Wisconsin territory, Congress establishes the Iowa territory.

1839 An unusual incident involving a mutiny on a slave ship added to the tension between North and South.  A Spanish ship, the “Amistad,” sailed from Havana, Cuba, in June 1839 w 54 black slaves aboard.  An uprising by the slaves on July 1, in which two men were killed, have them control of the ship and they attempted to sail to Africa.  However, the vessel was captured by a US Navy ship off Long Island.  Slave interest, led by sec. of State John Forsyth, attempted to turn the slave over to Spain.  Abolitionists brought suit to prevent this, and the case reached the Supreme Court. which in Mar 9, 1841, found that the slaves had been illegally kidnapped and set them free.  Former Pres. John Quincy Adams defended the blacks.

10/12/38 Having been turned down by Congress, the Texas Republic formally withdraws its offer of annexation to the US.

1839 Maine tries to prevent Canadian lumbering in Aroostock territory claimed by both Maine and New Brunswick, So-called Aroostock War is averted by an agreement to refer the dispute to a boundary commission.

1. Political  1830s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Upward Crossover (March 21, 1831- March 21, 1832)

3/21/31 Nat Turner, a pious but radical slave preacher, leads an uprising of slaves in Southampton County, Virginia.  About 70 whites are killed before soldiers put down the rebellion.  Turner is executed along w 12 of his followers, and about 100 blacks are killed in a search for Turner.

1831 A bloody slave insurrection, long feared by many southerners, began on Aug 21, 1831 in Southampton County, Va.  It was lad by Nat Turner, a black who believed he had been chosen to lead his people out of slavery.  W about 70 followers, Turner first killed his master, Joseph Travis, and his family.  Within 24 hours, 60 or 70 whites had been murdered.  Militia and federal troops who were called out killed about 100 blacks.  turner was captured on Oct 30 and, after confessing to the uprising, was hanged on Nov 11.  The shaken South retaliated by passing more stringent laws relating to slave.  Southerners blamed abolitionists for inciting the slaves.

Physical High (1831 - 1845)

1831 Supreme Court upholds Georgia's order for the removal of the Cherokee Indians beyond the Miss.

1832 Black Hawk War occurs when Chief Black Hawk with Sauk Indians returns to Ill. to plant crops. State militia and US troops massacre Black Hawk's tribe at the Bad Axe R in Wis.

1832 South Carolina convention passes Ordinance or Nullification, declaring the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void.

1833 Congress passes Force Bill, giving pres. Jackson authority to use the armed forces to execute the tariff laws. After enactment of a compromise tariff, South Carolina rescinds its Ordinance of Nullification.

1833 Andrew Jackson signed the Force Act; it authorized the pres to enforce collection of tariffs by use of the Army and Navy if necessary.

1833 The frontier and the westward movement produced a number of semi legendary folk heroes.  None of these figures has ever surpassed Davy Crockett in popularity or scope and number of alleged exploits.  Crockett beg as a frontiersman and Indian fighter, but by 1833 he was serving his third term as a congressman from Tennessee.  As a legislator, he made the most of his backwoods humor, styles of dress, racy language, and naive but often shrew comments on public affairs.  More sophisticated politicians used Crockett, who opposed Pres Andrew Jackson’s policies, to lure Democratic backwoodsmen to the Whig Party.  One of their ploys was to prepare books and attribute them to Crockett, who may have had a hand in some of them.  “Sktches and Eccentricities of Col. David Crockett” appeared in 1833.  He died in 1836 as one of the defenders of the Alamo in San Antonio, Tex.  That year there appeared posthumously “Col. Crockett’s Exploits and Adventures in Texas.

1834 Under a treaty signed in 1832, US government orders the Seminole Indians to leave Florida.

1835 Mexico rejects Texan's petition for statehood. Texas Revolution breaks out when Mexicans try to disarm Americans in Gonzales. Samuel Houston is made commander of Texan army.

4/25/35 France finally appropriates monies to pay for America’ spoliation claims, but does so on the condition that Pres Jackson apologize for or explain his Dec 1834 call for reprisals.  Pres. Jackson refuses and, in his annual message on Dec 7, states, “The honor of my country shall never be stained by an apology from me for the statement of truth and the performance of duty.”

6/30/35 Pres Santa Anna of Mexico is rapidly turning toward a centralist position and expects to rule over all Mexican, including Texans.  This worsens relations between American settlers and the Mexican government.  William B. Travis leads a group of colonists to seize a Mexican fort at Anahuac.  Later in the fall other clashes occur and Texans will gold conventions to oppose centralized authority and plan to resist Santa Anna.

July 1835 Wanting to expand the country, Pres Jackson authorize the purchase of Texas, but Mexico refuses to sell the territory.

12/15/35 Santa Anna, Pres of Mexico, proclaims a unified constitution for all territories of Mexican.  The North American settlers in Mexico announce that they intend to secede from Mexico rather than give up their “right” to slavery, which Mexico had abolished.

1836 Texas declares its independence. Mexican army under Santa Anna massacres Texan forces at the Alamo and at Goliad. Houston's army defeats the Mexicans and captures Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto. Texas becomes an independent republic with Houston as pres.

1836 Construction beg on the Illinois and Michigan Canal.  It will connect the city of Chicago w the Illinois R and the Miss system of trans.  Meanwhile, the first load of grain shipped from Chicago to Buffalo is ready to move along the Erie Canal.

1/15/36 Pres Jackson again calls for reprisals against France for not making good the spoliation claims assigned in the treaty of July 4, 1831, he also offers a carefully phrased conciliation in response to France’s 1835 demand for an apology.

4/21/36 At the Battle of San Jacinato, the Texas army under Gen Sam Houston defeated the Mexican army under Santa Anna.  this battle ended the war, and Texas earned its independence fr Mex.

1/27/36 Great Britain intervenes to aid in the smooth payment of spoliation claims between France and Am.  Finally, on My 10, Pres Jackson will announce that France has paid four installments.

2/23/36 Pres Santa Ann raises an army of 6000 men to defend his idea of a unitary state.  He leads 3000 men in a siege on the Alamo.  There 187 Texans hold off the assault until March 6 when the Mexicans overwhelm the fort, killing all in Wm Travis’s garrison, including Davy Crockett.  The heroic defense of the Alamo, however, inspires the North Am settlers to dev their own goals for governing the territory.

3/1/36 A group of Texas settlers meet in Washington, Texas, to discuss Santa Anna’s call for a central government  On March 2 they adopt a declaration of independence from Mexico, and draw up a constitution.  On March 4 they name Sam Houston commander of their army.

3/17/36 A constitution which formally legalizes slavery is officially adopted by Texas.

11/7/37 Elijah P. Lovejoy was killed by proslavery rioters at Alton, Ill.  His antislavery printing press had previously been smashed several times but laws replaced by the Ohio Anti-slavery Society.  Lovejoy became known as the martyr abolitionist. [E3 also]

1/5/38 Pres Van Buren reacts to the destruction of the Am steamship, the “Caroline,” by Canadian militiamen on Dec 29, 1837.  The incident has exacerbated Anglophobe feelings in the US, and the Pres urges neutrality.  He warns Am citizens not to assist the Canadian revolutionaries who had leased the “Caroline.”  Van Buren posts members of the militia along the Canadian frontier w Gen Winfield Scott in command.  The Canadian rebels will cease their attempts at insurrection on Jan 13 and will surrender their weapons to the US militia.

5/29/38 Anti-British feelings have remained strong and sometimes violent since the destruction of the steamship “Caroline.”  A group of Am citizens sympathetic to Canadian rebels board the Canadian steamship, the “Sir Robert Peel,” which is on the American side of the St. Lawrence R, and burn it.  Other Americans beg to org secret “Hunters Lodges” along the Canadian frontier with the expressed goal of overthrowing the British government in Canada.

7/7/38 Congress designates all parts of the rapidly expanding railroad system as postal routes.

11/21/38 A few of the Am parties intent on overthrowing the Brit government n Canada are making their way into the Canadian frontier.  Pres Van Buren issues a second proclamation to follow up his Jan 5 plea for neutrality, and he orders swift reprisals against those Americans who break w the idea of neutrality.  Border incidents w Canada will have almost completely cease within the next few months.

2/12/39 Canadians refuse to leave the disputed Aroostook area and arrest land agent Rufus McIntire.  This begins what becomes known as the Aroostook War. Although both Maine and New Brunswick mobilize their militia, the conflict is never officially declared and no one suffers any bloodshed.  Congress even authorizes raising 50,000 men to fight and a $10,000,000 budget for military expenses, but Gen Winfield Scott, sent to the area by Pres Van Buren, is able to arrange a truce w New Brunswick.  Great Britain agrees to let a boundary commission settle the dispute.  In 1842 the Webster-Ashburton Treaty will determine the present boundary.

1839 France recognizes Texas independence.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1831 - 1838)

1832 The Democratic Party, formerly known as “Republican Delegates form the Several States” and called both Republican and Democratic-Republican, formally adopted its present anthem at its convention in Baltimore, Md.  The convention nominated Pre Andrew Jackson for a second term and nominated Martin van Buren of NY for vice pres.

4/14/34The name “Whig” is formally adopted for a new US political party after Henry Clay mentions it approvingly in a Senate speech.  This month the name appears in “Nile’s Register” although it has been in use for at least two years.  Among those anti-Jackson forces who come together to form the party are former members of the national Republican party, those who support states’ rights and John Calhoun’s nullification stand.  Democrats who disagree w planters and Northern industrialists.  After 1836, members of the Anti-Masonic party will join as well.  Clay and Daniel Webster are prominent leaders.

September 1836 In a popular vote, settlers in the Republic of Texas determine that they want annexation by the US. [P 1st?]

3/2/36 Texas declared itself an independent republic.  Two weeks later it wrote a constitution and organized a government.  The new republic sent commissioners George Childress and Robert Hamilton to Washington, DC, where their authority was not accepted because the US was unwilling to recognize the Republic of Texas.

10/22/36 Sam Houston is sworn in as the first Pres of the Republic of Texas.

1. Political  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional Downward Crossover (March 21, 1829- March 21, 1830)

1/23-27/30  Robert Y. Hayne of S. Carolina supports Brenton’s stand in the Senate and begins a debate over the issues w Daniel Webster of Mass. It soon becomes apparent that the real subject under discussion is not the sale of the vast lands of the American West, but that of states’ rights versus federal power.  This sets Southern Senators against Northern Senators. Hayne and Webster eventually argue the origin and nature of the Constitution.  Hayne supports state sovereignty and nullification.  Webster responds w what some have called the greatest American oration ever recorded.  He centers his remarks on the nature of the Union emphasizing that states derive their power fr the Constitution and he further declares that disputes between state and fed governments are settled by agencies designated for this purpose in the Constitution.  In his ringing climax to his defense of the Union, Webster concludes, “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.”  

4/13/30 at a dinner on the anniversary of Thomas Jefferson’s birthday, Press Andre Jackson deliberately challenge the Southerners present by toasting, “our Federal Union - it must be preserved!”  Vice-Pres John Calhoun returns the toast w his challenge: “The Union - next to our liberty, the most dear.”  

5/2/30The Foot Resolution, which inspired the Webster-Hayne debate, is tabled.

Emotional Low (1829 - 1845)

3/18/31 The Sup Ct rules against the Cherokees in “Cherokee Nation v. Georgia.”  The Indian tribe is trying to prevent Georgia from applying its laws in Indian territory where gold has recently been discovered.  The court rules that the Cherokees are a “domestic dependent” and not a foreign nation and therefore cannot sue in Federal courts.

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1829 - 1838)

1830 Several states revise their constitutions to provide broader suffrage and greater representation.

1831 Anti-Masonic Party, first political third party in US meets in Baltimore Party is opposed to Pres. Jackson and is absorbed by the Whigs after 1836.

1/1/31 In Boston, Wm Lloyd Garrison, among the more radical of the abolitionists, begins publishing “The Liberator,” a newspaper dedicated to the abolition of slavery.  He vows to continue publishing the paper until slaves are freed.

4/7/31 Sec of war John Eaton resigns from Pres Jackson’s cab and starts a series of resignations.  The cabinet is split between those who support Calhoun and those who support Van Buren as the next presidential nominee.  What started as a social feud against Eaton’s wife, Peggy O’Neale,  became a political issue.  as a former barmaid, O’Neale is not accepted socially by Mrs. Calhoun nor by other cabinet members’ wives.  Only Van Buren, a widower, supports her.  Jackson stubbornly tries to have her accepted and even tries without success to raise the issue at a cabinet meeting.  Van Buren sees the split as a weakness in the admin and offers to resign.  Hearing this, Eaton resigns first.  by Aug 8 all cabinet members except Postmaster Gen Wm T. Barry have been replaced.  Van Buren becomes minister to England, and Eaton becomes governor of Florida, thereby ending the Washington social feud.  Roger B. Taney of Maryland and Sec of War Lewis Cass of Ohio.

4/26/31 The NY leg finds that poverty is not a crime and abolishes prison terms for debtors.

9/26/31 The Anti-Masonic Party holds the first national nominating convention w a platform and delegates from the 13 states.  The party first appeared in NY during the previous year as a reaction to investigations of Freemasonry members in public office.  The party nominates Wm Wirt of Maryland for president and Amos Ellmaker of PA for vice-president.  The Anti-Masonic Party is the third party in the nation and will merge w the Whigs in 1836.

12/12/31 John Quincy Adams begins a long-term stand in favor of abolition.  In the House of Reps he presents 15 petitions delivered from PA which call for abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia.

December 1831 Lucretia Mott helps to organize the Female Anti-Slaver Society in Philadelphia.  She becomes the organization’s first pres.

12/6/32 In Philadelphia, the Am Anti-Slavery Society is org due primarily to the efforts of Arthur and Lewis Tappan, wealthy NYC merchants, and Theodore weld, a prominent abolitionist minister.  Weld, through his writing and speeches, will continue to play a major role in convincing many Americans of th4e necessity and justice of abolishing slavery.  The abolition movement is growing in other ways.  In St. Louis, Elijah P. Lovejoy begins publishing an anti-slavery newspaper, the “Observer,: William Lloyd Garrison confers w English abolitionists in England, and John Greenleaf Whittier pubs and abolition tract, “Justice and Expediency.”

1833 Also prominent in the movement was Wm Lloyd Garrison, the fiery editor of “The Liberator,” who with his followers seized control of the society in 1840 because he did not think it was radical enough.  The society saw slavery as a moral evil and called for immediate abolition.  In 1835 it began a propaganda for immediate abolition.  In 1835 it began a propaganda campaign that flooded the salve states w abolitionist literature.

1833 American Anti-Slavery Society is founded by abolitionist groups from New York and New England.

1834 Whig Party is formed, succeeding the National Republicans as the anti-Jackson party. Party ends after 1852 election.

7/6/35 Chief Justice of the Sp Ct John Marshall dies.  On Dec 28 Pres Jackson names Roger B. Taney to succeed him.  Many Senators oppose the former slaveholder and refuse to confirm his appointment until Match 15, 1835.

1835 The Unitarian leader Wm Ellery Channing begins openly to advocate the abolition of slavery.  He pubs “Slavery,” an anti-slavery pamphlet which will be followed by two others.

1836 In a move that strikes a blow for Northern abolitionists, the Mass Sup Ct rules that any slave brought within the state’s borders by a master can be regarded as freed.

1837 The Underground Railroad was a loosely organized apparatus operated by northern abolitionists to bring slaves from the South and set them free.  More than 3000 persons were involved in the 4effort  The name apparently was first used in 1831.  The best known leaders were Levi Coffin, who is said to have assisted 3000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, an escaped slave.  Slaves were passed along from one safe station to another until they reached a free state.  Some went on to Canada.  By the time of the Civil War, the Underground Railroad may have assisted as many as 50,000 salves to escape bondage, although after the passage of the Fugitive Slave law of 1850 the number decreased to 500 to 1000 a year.

1838 The Underground Railroad is org by abolitionists to provide black slaves w an assisted route of escape to the North and to freedom.

11/13/39 The Liberty Party, an antislavery party, held its first national convention at Warsaw, NY.  It nominated James G. Birney of NY for president  Birney, a former Kentuckian and slaveholder, wielded strong political influence in western NY  and the Ohio R. Valley.  Francis J. Lemoyne was nominated for vice president.

1839 Liberty Party, the first anti-slavery party, holds national convention in Warsaw, NY.

1838 Comparatively brief as Am history was, Americans were exceedingly proud of it and were beginning to give a mythological flavor to the Revolutionary War period and its heroes.  Foremost among these, of course, was George Washington.  In 1832, on the 100th anniversary of Washington’s birth, Daniel Webster had declaimed: “His age and his country are equally full of wonders; and of both his is the chief.”  an attempt in Congress at this time to have the remains of the first pres removed from their Mount Vernon, VA, tomb and reburied in he capital city cause bitter debate.  Southerners refused to have such a precious possession moved even a few miles north.

1. Political  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1830 - 1841)

1029/35 A radical wing of the Jacksonian Democrats, sometimes known as the equal Rights Party, meets at Tammany hall in NYC.  Here at a primary meeting they earn the name “Loco-focos” when they refuse to endorse a ticket carried by regular Democrats.  After an adjournment, they remain in the hall to continue meeting.  when their opponents turn out the gas lights, the Equal Rights men simply pull out candles and light them w the new friction matched called “loco-focos.”  They go on to dev a platform and choose their own ticket.  They are urban dwellers, and many have been associated w the Workingmen's’ Party.  The “Loco-Foco” split with regular Democrats over banking and currency questions.  They feel Jackson’s policies are inflationary and work against the financial interests which seek corporation charters from the legislature.  The New York “Evening Post” provides a voice for their view against monopolies, special privileges, direct taxes, Jeffersonian strict construction and free trade.

1837 Act of Congress increases Supreme Court membership from seven to nine.

1. Political  1830s Polyrhythms top    

Physical High with
     Emotional Low
(1831 - 1845)

7/4/34 An anti-slavery society meeting at the Chatham Street Chapel in NY is disrupted by a pro-slavery mob.  The mob is angry because black and whites are sitting together in the audience.  Rioting continues for eight days until July 12 w many churches and houses destroyed in the melee.

October 1834 Individuals who favor slavery go on a rampage in Philadelphia, the birthplace of anti-slavery societies.  Rioters destroy approx 40 houses belonging to blacks.

7/6/35 A mob in Charleston, SC, burns the abolitionist literature that a local post office has impounded.  The abolitionist tracts had come from NY and lead Alfred Huger, the  Charleston postmaster, to request that anti-slavery societies be prohibited fr sending their literature through the mails.  Huger’s appeal is rejected.  Postmaster Gen Kendall publicly replies that he lacks official authority to bar such mail, but unofficially her recommends that local postmaster do just that.  He state, “We owe an obligation to the laws, but a higher on to the communities in which we live.”  Frightened by slave uprising such as that of Nat Turner, Southern states are beginning to pass prohibitory laws against abolitionist propaganda.  A Georgia law passed this year provides the death penalty to anyone publishing material that could lead to slave insurrections.  Abolitionist writers and against are expelled by nearly all Southern states, and in SC, Governor George McDuffie urges the leg that, “the laws of every community should punish this species of interference by death without benefit of clergy.”

8/10/35 A group of citizens in Canaan, New Hampshire, demonstrate that Northerners as well as Southerners can have strong prejudice against blacks:  they burn the Noyes Academy to the ground because it enrolls 14 black students.

9/13/35 James G. Birney’s letter to fellow abolitionist Gerrit Smith indicates their strengthening attitudes.  Birney writes, :”The antagonist principles of liberty and slavery have been roused into action and one or the other must be victorious.  There will be no cessation of strife until slavery shall be exterminated or liberty destroyed.”

10/21/35 An angry pro-slavery mob interrupts when the English abolitionist George Thompson is scheduled to address the Female Anti-Slavery Society in Boston.  The mob parades Wm Lloyd Garrison through the streets w a rope around his neck to express their disgust with his extreme views on slavery.  And in Utica, NY, people meeting to org an anti-slavery society are attacked by a mob (said to be led by a judge and a Congressman).

October 1838 Some Cherokee Indians are still living in Georgia.  Fed Troops remove them and force them to travel westward on a route that will become known as the “Trail of Tears.”

December 1838 Cherokee Indians remaining in Georgia and southeastern Tennessee, 14,000 in all, were forcibly removed from their lands by 7000 US soldiers and herded into Oklahoma.  The phrase “Trial of Tears” refers to this final tragic act in the enforcement of the fraudulent treaty of New Echota in 1935.  Four thousand Cherokees died en route; perhaps 1000 escaped.  In the end 7,000,000 acres of Cherokee land had been seized by whites.

Physical High with
     Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review
(1831 - 1838)

1/11/36 Abolitionists present petitions to Congress in an attempt to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia.  Calhoun refuses to accept the petitions and calls them “foul slander” of the South.

3/11/36 The Senator begin what will become a routine reaction to abolitionist petitions; they hear petitions then reject them.

5/26/36 Despite the strong objection of John Quincy Adams, Southern members of the House of Reps get a majority to vote for a “gag” resolution, one that declares that all petitions should be “laid on the table” - that is, there should be no discussion.  The House of Reps will continue to vote such a “gag rule” at the outset of every session until 1855, but instead of burying the issue of slavery it only sharpens the differences between the two sides.

1836 Interest in the abolition movement grows, and approx 500 abolitionist societies are now active in the North.  Their activities continue to cause violence and controversy.  In Granville, Ohio, a meeting of the Ohio Anti-slavery Society ends in riotous fighting incited by ruffians reportedly hired by some of the town’s “respectable” citizens.

11/7/37 Elijah Lovejoy, publisher of an abolitionist newspaper in Alton, Illinois, is killed by a mob.  He had continued to proclaim his anti-slavery views even after his printing press had twice been thrown into a river.

5/17/38 A pro-slavery mob grows angry because of the anti-slavery meetings held in Philadelphia’s Pennsylvania Hall.  They burn it to the ground.

Trirhythmic

1834 From about 1825 to the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, there was a strong atmosphere of reform in the US.  Most noticeable was the antislavery movement, but it was only one of many causes for which people organized, labored, and contributed money.  dedicated people worked for women’s rights, prison reform, educational reform, religious liberalism, social welfare, and other causes.  One group called itself the Society to Improve the Condition of the Sailors.  This urge to reform had several sources: the religious revival that began in the 1820s; the rational spirit of the enlightenment with its idea of the possibility of progress, and the spirit of romanticism, which was related to the older nation that the New World was a second Eden where people could start over.

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March-May 1837 Economic problems have been developing all during Jackson’s administration and grow worse during this period.  Following a time of wild land speculation and inflation, credit shrinks due to several causes:  the Specie Circular issued by Pres Jackson in 1836, payments withdrawn from various depository banks for distribution to states under the Surplus Revenue Act and English banks calling loans in.

5/10/37 NY banks stop making payments in specie and begin the Panic of 1837.  Other banks in Baltimore, Philadelphia and Boston soon follow, and 618 banks fail this year.  The effects of the panic, including substantial unemployment, especially in the Southern and Western states, will continue for the next seven years.

1837 A severs financial panic struck the US in 1837.  It was triggered on May 10, when NY  banks stopped making payments in specie, but the causes were more deep-seated.  Pres. Andrew Jackson’s administration had created too much credit.  The result was inflation and speculation in western lands.  The Specie Circular drained gold and sliver to the West.  During the year 618 banks failed.  A depression followed, bringing widespread unemployment.  The panic did not end until 1843.

5/21/38 Congress rescinds Pres Jackson’s Specie Circular of July 11, 1836.

8/13/38 W slightly more gold and silver available, NY banks are able to once again make payments in specie.  Other banks soon follow, but in 1839 banks in Pa must again suspend specie payments.  Not until 1842 will specie payments be fully resumed.

2. Business & Economy  1830s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical High (1831 - 1845)

Canal mileage in Am totaled 1277 as against 73 miles of railroads.  By 1849 there were 3326 miles of canals and 2818 miles of railroads.  By 1850 there were 3698 miles of canals and 9021 miles of railroads.  In 1830 NY was first in canals, with 546 miles, while PA had virtually all railroads, 70 out of 73 miles.  In 1840 Pa seized first place w 954 miles of canals, keeping its lead in rail mileage w 576 miles.  In 1850 Pa retained its lead in canal mileage w 954 miles, yielding rail leadership to NY with its 1361 miles. 

8/1/33 Journeymen shoemakers in Geneva, NY, strike for a wage increase.  They are successful, but their action will lead to an 1835 court case,  “The People v. Fisher,” on the legality of strikes.

2/12/37 In one of the first indications of the coming Panic of 1837, a mob of unemployed workers demonstrate against high rents and the high prices of food and fuel by ransacking flour warehouses in NY.

10/2/37 Numerous bank failures result in suspension of the fourth installment of surplus revenue distribution among states.

1012/37 In an attempt to improve the financial situation, Congress authorizes the use of treasury notes.  They are not to exceed $10 million.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1831 - 1838)

LAND, LUMBER AND BUSINESS   Forest and farm land were fast becoming big business. Forest land was called pine land if two or three of the valuable white Norway pines were to be found on and acres.  In Northern Wisconsin and on out to the Pacific Coast, acres with 16 to 20 fully matured trees could commonly be found.  Pine is straight-grained, light and strong. Being resinous, it resists bug infestation and rot and floats easily in the rivers and streams.  Demand for Wisconsin pine grew as whites settled the Plains.  Indians were forced to cede their primeval forests as early as 1836.  Starting in 1831 with Daniel Whitney’s sawmill in Wisconsin, mills appeared almost overnight.  By 1890 there were 1033 sawmills with an annual cut of approximately 4,000,000,000 board feet.  A mill could consume 200,000 board feet a day.  at 20,000 board feet an acre, one mill could chew up 10 acres or 400 large logs a day.  In 1857 some 2500 lumbermen found work in Wisconsin; by 1873, 7500 could find work, 1200 at the Knapp and Stouts mill alone.  This company, following the national trend, was quick to see the benefits of vertical organization, and was consolidating smaller businesses and outlets into its own structure.  Lumbermen were necessarily strong and courageous; they either died in the dangerous work or got rich.

Fortunes were made in the early days of the lumbers business when land was given out almost fee and there were few restrictions on forest management and no conservation regulation of any kind.  The railroads soon threw in their lot with lumber interests and changed the industry, expanding its seasons beyond the winter months and making accessible prime timber growing far from river banks.  Between 1890 and 1900, Wisconsin lumber was a $70,000,000 business and one-fourth of all the State’s wages went to lumbermen.  It was thoughtless exploitation of a vulnerable resource.  Some of the devastation can still be seen in what is called the Wisconsin Cutover where today nothing  grow at all.

1833 The General Trades Union of NY, org in 1833, calls together a National Trades Union, to include all crafts.

1834 Regular steamboat service between Chicago and Buffalo begins on a weekly basis.  Elsewhere, canals are increasingly used for transportation.  The Delaware and Raritan Canal from New Brunswick to Trenton, New Jersey, is completed.  The Portage Railroad, using both canals and railroads, opens between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

1834 Cyrus McCormick patents his horse-drawn grain reaper.  It provides the basic model for every successful reaper to follow.

6/10/37 The state of Connecticut passes the first law in the country to provide for general incorporation.

1837 In Vermont John Deere starts what will become a huge farm machinery company w the manufacture of steel-faced plows.

2. Business & Economy  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

2. Business & Economy  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

2. Business & Economy  1830s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1831 - 1841)

January 1835  With a final payment, the national debt is paid off, and Congress must now decide how to allocate surplus revenue.

3/3/35 The growing country has a growing need for money.  An act of congress provides for Unites states mints in New Orleans; Charlotte, North Carolina and Dahlonega, Georgia. 

6/23/36 The Deposit Act, also known as the Surplus revenue Act, is adopted and provides for one or more banks in each state to hold public deposits.  It also provides a procedure for excess revenue in the national government any amount over $5 mil will be distributed among the states.

1839 One man begins an express package service between Boston and New York:  William F. Harnden loads packages into a carpet bag and rides the railroads for fast delivery.

1839 Congress appropriates $1000 to distribute free seeds.  Meanwhile, D.S. Rockwell invents a corn planter, drawn by horses, that can plant two rows at one time.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation with
     Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion
(1831 - 1838)

7/11/36 Because more and more different types of paper money have become acceptable tender, inflation and land speculation have skyrocketed.  In 1832 land slaves amounted to $2,623,000; by 1836, they have increased to $24,877,000.  Pres Jackson issues a Specie Circular mandating that only gold and silver be used by buy government lands.  Actual settlers or residents of the state in which the land is purchased will be permitted to use paper money until December 15.

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review with
     Intellectual High
(1829 - 1841))

1836 Mass. child labor law requires children to attend school for at least 3 months a year until they are 15. Manufacturers are not allowed to hire children in their mills for more than 9 months a year.

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3. Science & Technology  1830s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1831 - 1845)

 3/18/38 Charles Wickes was placed by conges in command of a naval exploring and surveying expedition of the South Seas.  On Aug 18 his fleet of six ships left Hampton Roads, Va., to explore hundreds of islands of the Pacific; a large sector of Antarctic, later named Wickes Land; and the American Northwest coastline.  The expedition returned in July 1842.  Wickes’ five-volume report was published in 1844.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1831 - 1838)

1835 A machine to manufacture horseshoes was patented by Henry Burden of Troy, NY, a Scottish immigrant.  The machine could produce 60 horseshoes a minute.  In the Civil war most of the shoes for Union cavalry came from Bruden’s plant in Troy.

Physica2nd Qtr. Expansion (1838 - 1845)

1/12/39 In Mauch Chunk, Pa, anthracite coal is first used to smelt iron.

3. Science & Technology  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual High (1819 - 1841)

1831 Samuel Guthrie, Mass. inventor, develops a process for producing chloroform.

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1830 - 1841)

1830 Henry discovers electromagnetic induction and electromotive force when he uses magnetism to produce electricity.

1831 Henry builds the first electric motor, electrical relay, electromagnetic telegraph, and electric bell.

1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, Mass, inventor, designs an improved electromagnetic telegraph. (He applies for a patent in 1837).

3. Science & Technology  1830s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1831 - 1841)

1836 Asa Gray, NY botanist, pubs "Elements of Botany."

1837 James Dana, NY geologist, pubs "System of Mineralogy."

8/18/38 W six ships under his command, Charles Wilkes begins what will be a four-year voyage to gather scientific information about the Pacific and Antarctic oceans.

1839 Audubon pubs "Birds of North America"

1839 Baltimore College of Dental Surgery opens.

1830 Silliman pubs "Elements of Chemistry."

1833 Beaumont pubs "Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion" stating that digestion is caused by chemicals released by the stomach wall.

1834 Amalgam (a mercury alloy) is introduced as a filling material for decayed teeth.

1839 Vulcanized rubber was first made by Charles Goodyear, after many failed experiments.  This was the first successful attempt to make rubber non-sticky and solid at high temperatures.  Rubber had interested inventors for years but none had succeeded in creating a product that did not melt easily when subject to heat.

Physical 1st Qt. Foundation with
     Intellectual High
(1831 - 1838)

1834 A true prototype of the modern electric motor was constructed by Thomas Davenport, a Vermont blacksmith.  Davenport recognized the versatility of Joseph Henry’s electromagnet and saw that it could be adapted for use in an electric power machine.  He connected four electromagnets to a battery and set them up on a wheel that rotated rapidly when current was turned on.  This is the basic design of the standard electric motor for today.  Davenport received a patent in 1837, but could not create a market for his device before his death in 1851.

1836 Thomas H. Sumner, Mass. navigator, devises an accurate and fairly simple way for sailor to determine their position at sea.

1837 Charles Page, Mass. physicist, designs as early induction coil.

1837 Samuel F. B. Morse filed for a patent on his telegraph.  It was not granted until 1844.

1838 Morse introduces the Morse code.

1838 Charles A. Spencer, NY scientist, makes America's first microscope.

1839 Charles Goodyear, Conn. inventor, produces vulcanized rubber when he accidentally spills India rubber and sulfur on a hot stove. (Patented in 1844).

1839 Harvard Astronomical Observatory is established with William Bond as director. A 15-in. refracting telescope is added in 1847.

1839 Isaac Babbitt, Mass., inventor, produces Babbitt metal, an alloy used for lining bearings.

1830 Charles Grice, America's first veterinarian, opens an animal hospital in NYC.

1838 Chauncey Jerome, Conn. clockmaker, invents a one-day, brass movement clock that is so inexpensive and accurate that it soon floods the Brit and Am markets and gives rise to the expression, "Yankee ingenuity."

Physical 1st Qt. Foundation with
     Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion
(1831  1838)

1835 A model telegraph was constructed by Samuel F. B. Morse and demonstrated for a few friends.  Morse’s model was severely limited and inefficient because he was unfamiliar w advances made in electromagnetism by his contemporaries.  It had about the same applicability as a telephone with a range of 40 feet.  in the next two years he applied the results of more recent research, improved his equipment, and extended the range of his system to ten miles.  He received a patent in 1840.

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8/28/30  The first locomotive built in Am.  Peter Cooper’s “Tom Thumb,” runs from Baltimore to Ellicott’s Mills on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, laid down just a few months before.  In addition, New Jersey’s first railroad, the Camden-Amboy, was chartered earlier this year.

1832 Massachusetts legalizes the dissection of cadavers in medical schools.

4. Mechanical  1830s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1831 - 1848)

1831-34 Reaper invented by Cyrus J. McCormick, 1831; patented, 1834; similar machine invented independently (1832-22) by Obed Hussey (1792-1860).

Cyrus McCormick patented an early model of his famous reaper.  Although 20 patents for reapers in the US preceded his, McCormick’s persistent experimentation and technical improvements soon made his product preeminent in its field.  He did not put his reaper on the market until certain defects had been eliminated. He sold his first two reapers in 1841; produced 4000 in 1856; and 23,000 in 1857.  McCormick’s reapers revolutionized American Agriculture.

1831 Cyrus H. McCormick, who demonstrated his reaper in 1831 and patented it in 1834.  A similar machine was invented independently by Obed Hussey, who first announced his invention in 1834. McCormick in 1847 built a factory in Chicago to produce his own reaper and by 1850 had established a nationwide business.  In 1851 he introduced the reaper in England and later on the Continent.  During the Civil War McCormick’s reaper helped make it possible to feed Union armies.

DATE?1830 Peter Cooper, NY manufacturer, builds "Tom Thumb," America's first commercially successful steam locomotive. It loses a race against a horse when an engine belt slips.

1831 Robert L. Stevens, R.I. engineer, buys the 30 horsepower, Brit locomotive, the "John Bull", and sets up America's first steam railway. He also invents a flanged railroad track called the "T-rail" or Stevens rail."

1/51/31 The “Best Friend” is the first American-make locomotive to actually carry passengers.  I runs frum Charlestown to Hamburg on the South Carolina Railroad.  Later this year, Isaac Dripps invents a device that will become standard on locomotives-the cowcatcher.

1831 The first steamboat to make a trip on the upper Missouri River is the “Yellowstone,” owned by the American Fur Company.

1832 Walter Hunt invents, but does not patent, a lock-stitch sewing machine.

1832 First of the famous Am sailing clipper ships, the "Ann McKim," is launched at Baltimore Md. Its structure is completely new, and its design is later preferred to all others.

1832 The need for faster shops to connect the East and West coasts of the US by way of Cape Horn, and to carry on the lucrative trade w China, resulted in the development of the clipper ship, the fastest merchant sailing vessel ever built.  The clippers were characterized by great length in proportion to beam and an enormous area of sail.  The first true clipper, the “Ann McKim,” was built in Baltimore in 1832.  Donald McKay of Boston became the foremost builder, completing such famous clippers as “Flying Cloud” and “Lightning”.  In 1854 “Flying Cloud” set a record for the Boston to San Francisco route of 89 days, 8 hours.  The clipper as a type ruled the seas until the dev of steam-powered vessels.

1832 A reaper invented by Cyrus H. McCormick is successfully demonstrated.

1832 New York & Harlem Railroad (NYC) begins operating with the first streetcar in the world. Built by John Stephenson, it is the "John Mason," a horse-drawn car which runs on lower Fourth Ave.

1832 A horse-drawn streetcar first carries passenger in NY.  A canal running fr Cleveland, Ohio to Portsmouth on the Ohio R is completed.  Work begins on the Wabash Canal which will connect the Ohio R in Indiana w Lake Erie in Toledo; the canal, a total of 459 miles, will be completed in 1853.

1833 The first successful grain reaper drawn by a horse is patented by Obed Hussey.

1833 All of the trade unions of NY join together to form the General Trades Union.  Its first pre, Ely Moore, is then elected to Congress.

1833 an invention that contributed as much to the history and folklore of the Am West as it did to the firearms industry was the Colt revolver, invented by Samuel Coty in 1833 and patented on Feb. 25, 1836.  Colt began producing the weapon at the Patent Arms Company in Paterson, NJ.  As the first firearm that could be used effectively by a man on horseback, this six-shooter soon became associated w the frontier and the Great Plains.  In time the name Colt became almost synonymous w the term revolver.  Colt’s business failed, but is was revived by an order from the governor for 100 revolvers in 1847 for use in the Mexican War.  Colt6 established a new company and plant in Hartford, Conn.

1834 Allen patents an automatic cutoff valve for steam engines.

1834 Cyrus H. McCormick, Va. inventor, patents a successful reaper which he invented in 1831.

1835 Samuel Colt designs a pistol with a revolving cartridge cylinder. Cheaply mass-produced with interchangeable parts, the rapid fire and hand sized revolver is especially useful for men on horseback.

1834 Jacob Perkins, Mass. inventor, patents a compressor. Later models are widely used in air conditioners and refrigerators.

1835 Burden invents a horseshoe machine that is later used to make most of the horseshoes needed by the Union Army during the Civil War.

1836 John Ericsson, Swedish-American inventor, patents a screw propeller with blades. [when invented?]

1837 Thomas Davenport, VT, inventor, patents a crude electric motor.

1837 A portable combined thresher and fanning mill earned a patent for the inventors, Hiram Avery and John Avery Pitts of Winthrop, Me.  Eventually Hiram moved to Chicago where he manufactured Chicago-Pitts brand threshers, which were widely used throughout the grain belt for more than half a century.

1838 Blacksmith John Deere invents the first plow with a steel moldboard, necessary for plowing heavy, sticky prarie soil. This improvement eventually revolutionizes prairie farming.

4. Mechanical  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1830s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1831 - 1841)

1839 Erastus B. Bigelow develops a working power loom that weaves two-ply ingrain carpets.  His invention provides the basis for what will become a major corporation.

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1834-67 Free School vs. Pauper School. Pa. Free school act, 1834, created school districts w option (supplanting act of 1802 for educating paupers at public expense); attempted repeal, 1835, blocked thru efforts of Thaddeus Stevens; fully adopted, 1873.

1836 A First and Second Reader compiled by William Holmes McGuffey is published for use in public schools. Except in New England, "McGuffey's Readers" become standard elementary school textbooks for nearly 100 years.

1836 Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (later Mount Holyoke College), South Hadley, Mass. 1st permanent women’s college, founded by Mary Lyon. By 1902 women made up 25% of the undergraduates, 26% of graduate students, 3% of professional enrollment, w 128 women's colleges founded by 1901.

1836 The Transcendental Club, w Ralph Waldo Emerson, A. Bronson Alcott, George Ripley, Henry Hedges, Orestes Brownson, Theodore Parker, Margaret Fuller, Wm Ellery Channing, Nathaniel Hawthore, Elizabeth Peabody, Henry avid Thoreau, James Freeman Clark, and others as participants, began as a casual discussion group.  The group convened frequently, but the note of informality was never lost.  The club had no officers, office, or schedule, and membership waxed and waned.  One outcome of the Transcendental Club was the beginning, in 1840, of the Transcendental organ, “The Dial.”

1837-39. Major school reforms effected by Horace Mann, sec. of the newly established Mass. St. Board of Ed. (1st state normal school in US established at Lexington, Mass. 1839) and by Henry Barnard appointed sec. of the Conn. Board of School Commissioners, 1838.

1836 Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke (College) at South Hadley, Mass.

1839 John Lowell, Jr. founds the Lowell Institute in Boston to provide free public lectures by eminent scholars.

1839 First "normal" school is started in Lexington, Mass, offering a two-year course to high school graduates preparing to be teachers.

5. Education  1830s Physical Cycle top    

5. Education  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

5. Education  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1829 - 1841)

1833 Overlin College (Oberlin OH) opened its doors to women, thus becoming the 1st coeducational college in the US

1835 By this time, lyceums have become a popular method of local adult education and entertainment; held in town halls usually, they attract speakers on politic, natural history, lit or such subjects; by now some 3000 lyceums exist throughout the USA, w the larges concentration in New England and Ohio.

1836 Mark Hopkins takes over the presidency of Williams College in Williamstown, Mass.  Wm  Holmes McGuffy pubs his “Fist Reader” and “Second Reader,” the first of his “Eclectic Readers,” which will become classic schoolbooks in Am.

1837 Horace Mann, who has been working as a Mass legislator to increase public support for schools, becomes the first secretary of the new Mass Board of Ed.  He will improve school building and curriculum, and introduce uniform training for teachers.  W Mann’s support, Lowell Mason introduces singing into the Boston schools both to provide students w music instruction and to increase their breathing capacity.  Mann collects statistics on Mass schools and issues his first “Annual Report” on ed.  Mann’s ideal of a pub education sys open to all children will become the model for the Am sys of ed.  Elsewhere, Ohio adopts a sys of free common schools based on a report filed by Calvin Stowe w the state leg.  Stowe had studied the Prussian sys of ed.  In the Western part of Mass Mary Lyon opens the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, the first institution founded to provide women w higher ed.  In 1893 it will be chartered as Mount Holyoke College.

1837 Ralph Waldo Emerson delivered his celebrated “American Scholar” address before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard, Oliver Wendell Holmes called it “our intellectual Declaration of Independence.  Although many previous writers and speakers had dealt w the same theme, Emerson raised the subject to the level of philosophy.

1839 Since the 1820s, different individuals have attempted to establish normal schools for teacher training based on the model of such schools in Prussia.  This year, through political work in the state leg and fund raising fr private individuals, Horace Mann, as Sec of the Mass Board of Ed, starts the first pub normal school in the country.  Cyrus Peirce, a well-known teacher who was responsible for integrating the Nantucket schools, becomes the first principal of the normal school in Lexington, Mass.  It enrolls only young women.  Peirce must play the role of teacher, substitute parent, janitor and organizer of a model school for practice teaching.  He sleeps only a few hours per night.  In Boston, the will of John Lowell has provided for an institute to offer general education to the pub.  Benjamin Sillman presents the first lecture at this, the Lowell Institute.

1839 Increased attention was now being paid to education; in requiring school attendance, in providing free public schools, and in teacher education.  The leader in the field was Horace Mann of Mass.  It was through   4/23/38 The first transatlantic steamship service began w the arrival in NY harbor of the steamer “Great Western” after less than 16 days at sea.  The previous day the “Sirius” had arrived from England.  Both ships were British steam-sail packets.  his efforts that in 1839 the first state-supported school to educate teachers was established in the US, in Mass.  As secretary of the state board of education there, Mass instituted longer school terms, insisted on better schoolhouses, and secured higher pay for teachers.  His successful upgrading of education influenced states throughout the nation.

5. Education  1830s Polyrhythms top    

 

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review with
     Intellectual High
(1829 - 1838)

1833 Oberlin college is established in Ohio as a center of Abolitionist activity. It is the first college to admit both men and women. In 1835 it becomes the first to admit Negroes.

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American religious groups, which in colonial days had been the object of missionary efforts from England and other countries, in the early nineteenth cent beg to proselytize abroad.  The Am Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was formed in 1810.  The Baptists established a group to support missions in 1814, the Methodists in 1819, the Episcopalians in 1820, and the Presbyterians in 1837, although work by the Presbyterians had begun much earlier. 

1830 Joseph Smith founds the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) in Fayette, NY, Mormons are forced by opposition to their beliefs to go to Ohio, then Missouri, and then Illinois. They finally settle in Utah under the leadership of Brigham Young.

1830 Latter-Day Saints, or Mormons, owe their origin to the pub of the "Book of Mormon," based on a revelation claimed by Jos. Smith (1805-44), followed by the founding of the Church at Fayette, NY, the same yr. As a result of opposition, the Mormons left NY (1831) for Kirkland, OH, and Independence, Mo. Expelled from Mo., they settled at Nauvoo, Ill. Violence followed them, culminating in the lynching of Smith in the jail at Carthage. Driven from Nauvoo (1846), the Saints settled in the valley of the Great Salt Lake in Utah (!848) under the leadership of Brigham Young

1838 The Mormon Church was going though a difficult period.  On Jan 12, 1838, Joseph Smith, the founder and his followers left Kirtland, Ohio, partly as a result of the panic of 1837.  They moved to Independence, MO, where they met w hostility, partly because of their beliefs and partly because of their communal economic organization and efficiency.  Moving back east in 1839, the Mormons founded Nauvoo, Ill.  By 1844 Nauvoo had a pop of 15,000 and was the most prosperous city in Ill.  Again, however, the Mormons were distrusted fro their religious beliefs and disliked for their economic competition.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1830s Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional Low (1829 - 1847)

1833 Mass becomes the last of the states to sever the connection between church and state w the disestablishment of the Congregational Church.

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1829 - 1838)

1830 Alexander Campbell and his followers, often called Campbellites, formed the disciples of Christ.  The denomination rejected all creeds and confessions and urge restoration of New Testament beliefs, practices, and polity.  Undivided on the issue of slavery, the Disciples grew rapidly in number and influence throughout the last half of the nineteenth century.

1831 The Adventist movement in American Protestantism was born when Wm Miller, a Baptist began public preaching.  His theme was the imminence of Christ’s return to earth, based on his interpretation of passages from Daniel Revelation.  Miller predicted that the “cleansing by fire” would begin at some point between March 21 1843 and 1844.

1829-54 Anti-Catholic Agitation, following the founding of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith (Lyons, France, 1822) and the Leopold Association (Vienna, 1829) to promote Roman Catholic missions in A., resulted in such pubs as "The Protestant" and "Priestcraft Unmasked," of anti-Catholic sermons by Rev. Lyman Beecher and writings by Samuel F. B. Morse and of acts of violence, such as the burning of the Ursuline Convent at Charlestown, Mass. (11 Aug. 1834). For nativism and the Know-Nothing movement of the 40's and 50's see pp.187,218.

1832-69 Slavery and the Churches. The issue of abolitionism came to a head when Theodore Dwight Weld, a student at Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, withdrew from that inst. when the trustees suppressed an antislavery society. In the North abolitionism quickly became part or revivalism. The issue divided the Protestant churches. The Southern Baptists withdrew (1843) to org. the Southern Baptist Convention. The Methodist Ch, South, set up a separate or. (1844). An abolitionist group of New School Presbyterians org. the Synod of Free Presbyterian Churches, OH (1847), followed by a major schism in the New School (1857), when the United Synod of the South was est. Old School Presbyterians split (1861), and the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States was founded. The Ohio Synod and the New School Presbyterians united in 1862. In 1864 the Southern groups united as the Presbyterian Ch in the US. The Northern groups united as the Presbyterian Ch in the USA (1869). Division on this issue was avoided in the Protestant Episcopal Church.

1833 Mass disestablished the Church by constitutional amendment, ratified by popular vote of 32,234 to 32,273.l

1836 So-called cold water societies were introduced by the Rev. Thomas P. Hunt, who enlisted children, mainly through Sunday schools, in a temperance crusade.  Each child was issued a pledge card and sent out together signatures of those who agreed to abstain form drink.

Emotional 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1838 - 1847)

1838 The Unitarian leader Wm Ellery Channing pubs “Self Culture” and provides Americans with an alternative to strict Calvinist theology.  Channing promotes the “doctrine of self-improvement.”

6. Religion & Spirituality  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1830s Polyrhythms top    

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review with
     Intellectual High
(1829 - 1839)

1840-60 Gospel of Individualism, combining rationalism and evangelical Protestantism, was expounded by Francis Wayland (1796-1865), pres of Brown U, and author of "Elements of Moral Science," (1835).

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1831 The Trumbull Gallery at Yale, the first US art gallery associated with a university, is founded by Benjamin Silliman, John Trumbull's nephew.

7. Arts & Design  1830s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical High (1831 - 1845)

1836 Arch Robert Mills designs the US Treasury Bldg. and the Washington

1833 Architects Ithiel Town and Alexander Davis design the US Custom House in NYC.

1833 Nathaniel Currier moved his lithography business from Philadelphia Pa, to NYC, going into business w J. H. Bufford.  In 1850 Currier went into business w James Merritt Ives, and by 1857 all of the prints issued by the company bore the Currier & Ives imprint.  The lithographs, inexpensive and enormously popular, gave an eloquent pictorial account of sights and events of nineteenth-century Am.

1837 Thomas Cole produced a masterpiece of the Hudson River school of landscape artists, “In the Catskills.”  A resident of the region, Cole as usual romanticized the rural setting.  In a clearing surrounded by trees, two figures rest by a winding stream that loses itself in the foliage of the background.  In the rear the mountains rise gently. 

1839 Richard Upjohn designs the Gothic Revival Trinity Church in NYC.

1839 R. Mills designs the US Patent Office Bldg.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1831 - 1838)

1835 America's first cast iron bridge is build over Dunlap's Creek in Brownsville, Pa.

1836 Building of the Washington Monument is Washington, DC, was begun from plans by Robert Mills. The monument was outstanding for its freedom from ornamentation in a period when taste ran toward the decorative.

7. Arts & Design  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1831 - 1838)

1836 Maria Monk’s scandalous narrative, “Awful Disclosures of Mira Monk, as Exhibited in a Narrative of Her Suffering During a Residence of Five Years as a Novice, and Two Years as a Black Nun, in the Hotel Dieu Nunnery at Montreal,”  was pub.  The book today known to be a hoax, quickly sold hundreds of thousands of copies.  The period was one of considerable anti-Catholic feeling.

1839 In architecture the Gothic Revival, beginning in the late 1830s, competed w the earlier Classic Revival. Copying the tall towers and pointed arches of the Middle Ages, the Gothic style was used primarily for churches, schools, and libraries, but was adapted to country houses also.  The first important architect of the Gothic Revival was Richard Upjohn, who in 1839 was given the task of rebuilding Trinity Church in NYC.  His design was soon copied by other churches.  James Renwick was also a leading architect of the style.  He planned beautiful Grace Church in NYC (1843-1846), and was then chosen in 1853 to be the architect for St. Patrick’s Cathedral, also in NYC.  This was the most ambitious structure of the Gothic Revival.  In the field of country houses and landscape gardening, Andre Jackson Downing was the leading figure.  His book, “Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening Adapted to North America,” appeared in 1841.  It at once became the standard work in its field, going though ten editions.

7. Arts & Design  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1830s Polyrhythms top    

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation with
     Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review
(1831 - 1841)

1832 Horatio Greenough receives a commission to sculpt a statue of George Washington for the rotunda in the Capital Bldg.  It will be placed there in 1842.

Trirhythmic 3rd Qtr. Reviews  

After 1820 the early Federal style waned, and Jeffersonian classicism was modified by the introduction of Greek and even Egyptian detail, constituting the so-called Greek Revival. Accompanied by furnishings and draperies in the heavier Sheraton-Empire tasted, the classic pattern established in the 1820's became the basic style in building and decorative design. Stimulated by the Greek struggle for national independence, it lasted until about 1850 and constituted for the time a national style without parallel in Europe. In its later decorative aspect, however, the Greek Revival became a fashion rather than a style. As such it marks not only the end of the 18th-century Neoclassicism but the beginning of the Romantic movement.

1833 Thomas Ustick Walter, architect, designs Founder's Hall at Girard College, PA. It is considered the finest example of Greek revival architecture in the US.

Monument.

1837 Alexander Davis pubs "Rural Residences," which popularizes Gothic revival arch for country homes.

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1830 "Lady's Book" (later "Gadey's Lady's Book"), an influential woman's magazine, is pub in Philadelphia.

1831 "Poems by Edgar Allen Poe" is pub

1831 Paulding pubs "The Dutchman's Fireside" about life in upstate NY during the French and Indian War.

1831 William Lloyd Garrison founds the Abolitionist periodical "The Liberator," which urges the immediate release of all slaves.

1832 Paulding pubs "Westward Ho!"

1833 A tax-supported library was established in Petersborough, NH, under the leadership of the Rev Abiel Abbot.  The library charged a small membership fee.  It is considered to oldest public lib in the US except for the Lib of Congress, established in 1899 by an act of Congress.

1836 Ralph Waldo Emerson pubs, "Nature," in which he explains the basic tenets of the Transcendentalist movement.

1836 This year proved a turning point in American intellectual life.  Ralph Waldo Emerson’s first book, “Nature,” in which he stated his fundamental philosophy, was pub anonymously.  Emerson had visited Europe in 1832 and 1833, where he met Thomas Carlyle, Wm Wordsworth, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.  Through them he was introduced to transcendental though, derived fr Immanuel Kanet and German idealism.  In “Nature” he set forth the principles of Am Transcendentalism, which was to become th mot influential school of philosophy of the ninetieth century.  Transcendentalism also owed mush to the Romantic movement.  Emerson expressed a deeply felt love for the natural world in “Nature” and went on to combine this with a belief in the spiritual nature of reality and the importance of self-reliance.

1836 Thomas Cole paints "The Course of Empire," a series of five huge paintings.

1837 Hawthorne's "Twice Told Tales," his first signed work, brings the author public recognition.

1839 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow pubs the Romantic novel "Hyperion" and the book of poems "Voices of the Night."

8. Literature & Publication  1830s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1831 - 1845)

1834 The legend of Davy Crockett was augmented by publication of his supposed autobiography, “A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett.”  He was featured as a great bear hunter and congressman.  Interspersed were tall tales.  Anti-Jacksonians, of whom Crockett was one, expected to profit politically from promotion of Crockett’s image.  Political opponents meanwhile, characterized him as “fresh from the backwoods, half-horse, half-alligator, a little touched with the snapping-turtle.

11/2/36 The telling phrase “the almightily dollar” was coined by Washington Irving in his story “The Creole Village,”  which appeared in “the Knickerbocker Magazine” on this date.  The full phrase was “The Almighty Dollar, that great object of universal devotion throughout the land.”

8. Literature & Publication  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional Low (1829 - 1838)

1838 Although the North seemed to supply most of the nations authors, the south was not without its contributors to the literary world.  A worthy example was John Pendleton Kennedy, a lawyer and politician as well as author.  His “Swallow Barn” (1832) was a series of sketches about Virginia, written in the manner of Washington Irving.  Kennedy wrote two novels, “Horse-Shoe Robinson” (1832) and “Rob of the Bowl” (1838).  although h its subject matter was melodramatic, the latter novel was a realistic tale of Maryland in 1681.  It concerned an attempt  by Protestants to overthrow Lord Baltimore, a Catholic.

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1829 - 1838)

1830 Oliver Wendell Holmes writes the poem "Old Ironsides" about the battleship "USS Constitution." The poem, which brought the author great popularity, prevented the planned scrapping of the historic vessel.

1832 "History of Women," the first work treat women in a completely distinctive way, is published.

1833 Publication of the "Sketches and Eccentricity of Col. David Crockett of West Tennessee," helps launch the legend of Davy Crockett throughout America.

1834 William Dunlap pubs "History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States."

1835 "New York Herald" is established by James Gordon Bennett. It is the first newspaper to specialize in reporting on crime and society news.

1835 Compared with that of Europe, the history of the US did not go back very far, but already it was being recorded professionally.  Scholars began to edit papers and documents of the first heroes of the nation.  Among these historians was Jared Sparks who, at Harvard in 1839, became the first professor of Am history in the US.  Sparks did much to find and pub previously unprinted manuscripts, by he bowdlerized them to enhance the reputations of his subjects.  His largest work was “The Writings of George Washington” (12 vols, 1834 - 1837).  The initial volume was a biography of the first president.

1837 While authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne and Ralph Waldo Emerson were writing novels and essays that are still read and honored, other authors were publishing books of less than permanent quality.  A good example of popular text in historical fiction was a trilogy by Wm War, a Unitarian clergyman.  The first part of the trilogy, “Zenobia,” appeared in 1837; the second, “Aurelian,” in 1838; and the final volume, “Julian,” in 1841.  These epistolary novels dealt with the political and social struggles of Christians against the Roman Empire.

1837 “Twice Told Tales” by Nathaniel Hawthorne, the author’s second book and first collection of tales, was published.  Digging deep into chronicles and histories of colonial New England and adding symbolic overtones, Hawthorne achieved some of the finest moral allegory eve written.

1838 John Greenleaf Whittier joined the list of authors of books supporting abolition with the publication of his “Ballads and Anti-Slavery Poems.”  Noteworthy among the pieces were “To William Lloyd Garrison,”  “The Hunters of Men.”  “The slave Ships,” “Stanzas for the Time,” “Toussaint L’Ouverture,” “Hymn, the extremely popular “Stanzas,” and “The Moral Warfare.”

Emotional 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1838 - 1847)

1840 The group known as the "Transcendentalists," including Ralph Waldo Emerson and George Ripley, that has been meeting to discuss philosophy and literatures, begins to pub their own journal, "The Dial," in Boston. Margaret Fuller, a member of the group, is the first editor. Richard Henry Dana, Jr. first pubs "Two Years Before the Mast."

8. Literature & Publication  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual High (1819 - 1841)

1/1/33 The first issue of “Knickerbocker Magazine appears in NYC; it will be the country’s most popular and influential literary magazine until it ceases pub in 1859.

1833 The town of Peterborough, New Hampshire, is the first to establish a tax-supported library, provided according to state law.  The first Am co-educational college, Oberlin, opens in Oberlins, Ohio.  It is also the first to admit blacks.  Meanwhile, in Canterbury, CT, Prudence Crandall tries to admit black girls to her private school;  the Connecticut leg hastily passes a state law against educating blacks who are not Connecticut residents; Crandall is jailed; the school closes in 1834.

1837 Emerson pubs "The American Scholar," in which he asserts America's literary independence from England.

1838 Edward Hoyle pubs his “Improved Edition of the Rules for the Playing of Fashionable Games.”  It will become the handbook for card games for several generations.

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1830 - 1841)

2/3/31 A new Copyright Act is passed and provides far more generously for authors than a previous law of 1790.

1836 Politics, religion, and education all shaped American thought and action.  In the field of education, nothing was more influential than the “Eclectic Readers,” compiled by Wm Holmes McGuffy, a clergyman and teacher.  His first and second readers appeared in 1836, the third and fourth in 1837, the fifth in 1844, and the sixth in 1857.  They became almost universally used in the pub schools of Am and were often revised.  After nearly two generations of issues, they had sold 122,000,000 copies.  The readers taught literary and moral lessons, and included selected writings of the best English-language authors.

8. Literature & Publication  1830s Polyrhythms top    

 

Physo-Intellectual High (1831 - 1841)

1836 Ralph Waldo Emerson pubs and essay, “Nature,” which sets forth some of the ideas shared by his friends including Bronson Alcott and George Ripley who are meeting in a group that will come to be known as the “Transcendentalists.”

Physical High with
     Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review
(1831 - 1838)

7/12/36 An angry pro-slavery mob n Cincinnati destroys the type James Birney uses to print his anti-slavery newspaper, the “Philanthropist.”

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review with
     Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1829 - 1830)

12/7/30  As the split between Pres Jackson and Calhoun continues to grow, the Pres and his advisors decide to pub and administration newspaper.  They choose Francis T. Blair of Kentucky to edit the “Washington Globe,” and the first issue appears on this day.  Another paper, Duff Green’s “United States Telegraph,” which has a loan from the Bank of the United States, soon becomes an anti-administration publication.

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1830 Daniel Emmett composes "Old Dan Tucker," one of the most popular minstrel tunes.

1832 The Boston Academy of Music is founded. It offers free music lessons to children and classes for adults and music teachers.

1835 A chair of Sacred Music is established at Oberlin College.

1838 Frances Anne Kemble writes "Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation in 1838-1839," which contains an account of contemporary black music.

1838 Music is taught in Boston schools.

1838 P. T. Barnum convinces the public that Joyce Heth, a woman weighing 46 lbs., was the nurse who brought Geo Wash into the world and is, therefore, 161 years old. She is Barnum's first successful hoax.

9. Entertainment  1830s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1831 - 1838)

1831 "The Floating Theater," the first showboat, is built.

1836 In the 1830s circuses dev into tent shows when acrobatic troupes merged w menageries and equestrian show.  By the time, 30 shows were traveling around the country and one, the Zoological Institute, boasted 47 carriages and wagons, over 100 horses, 14 musicians, and 60 performers.  An integral part of the entertainment was a parade heralding the arrival of the circus in a town.  Floating theaters in the form of showboats on the Miss and Ohio rivers in particular added to the entertainment.  The first showboat was built in Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1831.

1837 Americans liked showmanship, natural wonders, freaks, and all kinds of believe-it-or-not items.  One man in the mid-nineteenth century gave them all this and more.  He was Phineas T. Barnum, who began his career this year by exhibiting an old black woman, Joyce Heth.  He claimed she was 161 years old and had been George Washington's nurse.  She was actually about 80.  A crowd of some 10,000 flocked to see her at Niblos’ Garder in NYC.  In 1842 Barnum opened his American Museum in NYC. There at various times he was t exhibit the original Siamese twins, Chang and Eng, and the Fiji Mermaid, half monkey and half fish.  The most popular attraction, though, was Tom Thumb, a dwarf who stood only l40 inches tall.  Exhibited in the US and abroad, Thumb was seen by 20,000,000 people.

9. Entertainment  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1830s Polyrhythms top    

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation with
     Emotional 3rd Qtr. Foundation
(1831 - 1841)

7/4/31 Dr. Samuel Francis Smith’s song “America,” written to the tune of “God Save the King,” is sung for the first time in Worcester, Massachusetts.

1831 The most notable song after “The Star Spangled Banner,” was “America,” which was first sung in public on July 4, 1831 at a service I the Park Street Church, Boston.  The words had been written by the Rev. Samuel Frances Smith, a Baptist clergyman, earlier in the year.  The works of this Am hymn were sung to the tune of “God Save the King,” and its is said that Smith did not know it was the British anthem.

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10. Sports  1830s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical WHATEVER (1831 - 1845)

1834 First printed rules for a games resembling baseball are pub in "The Book of Sports"

1835 Nearly 30,000 people see the 10-mile foot race at Union Course on Long Island, NY. For a purse of $1000, 9 contestants run the course in less than an hour. Henry Stannard wins the race in 59 min. 44 seconds.

1835 A well publicized ten-mile foot race at Union Course, Long Island, was watched by nearly 30,000 spectators.  The offer of $1000 to any man who could run ten miles in less than an hour drew nine contestants.  Henry Stannard of Killingsworth, Connecticutt, won.  He covered the first miles in 5:36, the last miles in 5:54, and the entire course in 59:44.  at the conclusion of the race, amid great jubilation, Stannard leaped on a horse and triumphantly retraced his winning course.

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1838 - 1845)

Baseball has been around for a long time with English origins. Earliest references include "A Little Pretty Pocket-Book" published in England which illustrates "Base-Ball", (also printed in New York City, 1762 and again in Worcester, Mass., 1787); the "Letters" of Mary Lepel in England with a Nov. 14th, 1748 reference to "base-ball"; in "Northanger Abby" written by Jane Austen around 1798 is a reference to "base ball". The rules were similar to modern baseball.

It has also had other names, traditionally, "rounders". The 1828 London publication of "The Boy's Own Book", with a chapter entitled "Rounders" with a note that the game is called "feeder" in London. It has also been known as "one old cat" and "town ball". It was originally a children's game.

In any case, the Spalding Commission's Official Baseball Guide, which reported that Baseball was invented in Coopersville, N.Y. in 1839, has been disproved. What was invented were some changes in the game. The game used to be played with a soft ball. The player who ran the bases would be tagged out by throwing the ball at him and hitting him. But the soft ball limited the hitting distance and the size of the field. In America, the rules were changed on how to tag the runner out. The holder of the ball would tag the runner or the base he was running to. This allowed for the use a hard ball that could be hit further distances. This variation, if it occurred in 1839, exemplifies second quarter physical extrapolation on an existing precedent and brought the official birth of modern Baseball in America. 

1831 A popular weekly racing sheet, the "Spirit of the Times," is founded by William Trotter. Its aim is to raise the reputation of racing and other sports.

1833 Early  form of baseball is played in Philadelphia by the Olympic Ball Club. Many of the rules are like those of English cricket.

1839 First baseball diamond is laid our at Cooperstown, NY by Abner Doubleday.

10. Sports  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

10. Sports  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  1830s Polyrhythms top    

 

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1837 Novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne reports that young officers at the Charlestown Navy Yard in Mass. had started wearing moustaches, a fashion from England.

11. Fashion  1830s Physical Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1830s Polyrhythms top    

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pop US almost 12.9 million

The US census recorded a pop of 12,866,020. The center of pop placed 19 miles west-southwest of Moorefield W. Va.

1830 Fifth national census shows a pop of 12.8 mil, including about 150,000 immigrants who arrived between 1820 and 1830. Census also shows that 8.8% of the pop lives in cities of 2500 or more inhabitants.

1830 The town of Chicago is planned at the site of Fort Dearborn, which has been a federal post for 27 years. Western movement continues as Jedediah Strong Smith and William Sublette of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company lead the first group of covered wagons from the Missouri River to the Rockies.

1838 The Underground Railroad is org by abolitionists to provide black slaves w an assisted route of escape to the North and to freedom.

 1831 First use of term "Old Glory" to mean the US flag. The term caught on during the Civil War when Union troops commonly used it.

1832 Horse drawn streetcars are used in NYC.

1832 Cholera epidemic sweeps major Am cities.

1832 Asian cholera breaks out in NYC where there are 2251 deaths. Within a 12-day period, 6000 people in New Orleans.

1835 Fire destroys 530 buildings in NYC, resulting in a loss of more than $20 mil.

12. Lifestyles  1830s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical High (1831 - 1848)

1830 Fads and reforms in diet attracted reformers and dieters alike.  The most successful experimenter was Sylvester Graham, a clergyman and temperance lecturer of the period who believed proper diet would prevent alcoholism.  he developed Graham bread, or Graham crackers, (both of which he invented in 1829) the name still linked to his product.  Made of coarsely ground whole wheat flour, Graham’s bread preserved vitamins, although nothing was known about vitamins at the time.  His name also became attached to health clubs and boarding houses.  Graham advocated bathing at least three time a week, daily exercise, open bedroom windows in winter, and cheerful dispositions at meals.  The well-known newspaper editor Horace Greeley at one time lived on a diet of bread, potatoes, boiled rice, milk and Graham bread.  In 1850 the American Vegetarian Society was founded.

1838 Charles Wilkins (for the US Navy) sails on a 6-vessle expedition to the Pacific Ocean and the South Seas. During the 4-year voyage, he discovers that the land in the Antarctic Ocean is actually a continent.

12. Lifestyles  1830s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional Low (1829 - 1838)

4/19/38 A new Mass law attempts to bring the use of alcohol under some control:  Liquor cannot be sold on a retail basis except in quantities of 15 gallons.

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1829 - 1846)

Sylvester Graham, an activist in the temperance movement, begins to advocate a particular diet based on vegetables and whole wheat.  He claims the diet will help clam the sex drive.

12. Lifestyles  1830s Intellectual Cycle top    

12. Lifestyles  1830s Polyrhythms top    

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