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American Cycles 1820s
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

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1820 Congress passes the Missouri Compromise, whereby slavery is prohibited in the LA Territory north of latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes. Maine is admitted to the Union as free state; Missouri as slave state in 1821.

1820 Monroe and Tompkins are reelected pres and VP, respectively, on the Democratic-Republican ticket.

1820 Gov offers land to settlers at $1.25 an acre, reduces minimum purchase to 80 acres, and abolishes credit provisions.

1821 Spanish government grants charter to Moses Austin for the settlement of 300 families in Texas. His son, Stephen Fuller Austin, establishes the first legal settlement of Anglo-Americans in Texas in 1822.

1821 Official US occupation of Florida takes place; Andrew Jackson is made military government.

1822 Florida is organized as a territory.

1822 Pres. Monroe proposes US recognition of newly independent Latin Am republics. Congress passes measure to establish diplomatic relation with them.

1824 None of the four presidential candidates receives an electoral majority: Andrew Jackson, 99 votes; John Quincy Adams, 84 votes; William H. Crawford, 41 votes; and Henry Clay, 37 votes. All are Democratic-Republicans, except Adams, who is a National Republican.

1824 US signs territorial treaty with Russia, which agrees to 54 degrees 40 minutes as the southern limit of her territory.

1824 Congress enacts General Survey Bill authorizing federal plans for roads which may be needed for national and commercial purposes.

1825 House of Reps chooses Adams (National Republican) as pres. John C. Calhoun (Democratic-Republican) was elected VP during 1824 election.

1825 Texas (Mexican territory) is opened to settlement by US citizens.

1825 Creek Indians reject treaty ceding to the US government all their lands in Georgia.

1825 Congress adopts policy of removal of eastern Indian tribes from territory west of the Miss R. Whites settle on Indian lands; Indian frontier is established.

1826 Senate reluctantly approves US delegates to Panama Congress, called by Latin Am republics to plan union against Spain and Europe. One delegates dies on route; another arrives after the Congress adjourns.

1827 Protectionists (mainly northern manufacturers) demand higher tariffs at Harrisburg convention. Southerners oppose tariffs. Sectional differences in US increase between the North and South.

1827 US and Britain agree to joint occupation of the Oregon Territory.

1827 Congress gives the President the right to call out the militia.

1828 Congress passes the protectionist "Tariff on Abominations." Northern mercantile interests conflict with the Southern agriculture economy dependent on foreign markets.

1828 Resolutions by South Carolina legislature declare Tariff of Abominations oppressive and unconstitutional. Legislatures of Georgia, Mississippi, and Virginia issue similar protests.

1829 Jackson introduces the spoils system into national politics-the practice of basing appointments on party service. Jackson's unofficial political advisers are called his "Kitchen Cabinet."


1822: Agitation by manufacturing interests for a protective tariff system, which had begun with Alexander Hamilton in the late eighteenth century, continued as industry grew.  The chief proponent was Mathew Carey of Philadelphia  One of the most important publishers and booksellers of his day, Carey was also a self-taught economist who wrote and spoke in favor of what was beginning to be called the American system: tariffs and interand improvements at the federal government's expense.  Carey’s “Essays on Political Economy”  was published in 1822.  His frequent addresses before the Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of National Industry reflected the rise of protectionist sentiment.

3/30-31/24 In a debated in the Housed of Representatives, Henry Clay defends the protectionist features of the proposed Tariff of 1824.  He defines as the American system this combination of protective tariffs and internal improvements, including the construction of transportation routes intended to expand domestic trade and industry, thus decreasing American dependence on foreign imports.  On April 1-2 Daniel Webster will deliver a speech supporting the principle of free trade.

1/10/27 A bill is introduced in Congress by the advocates of protectionism calling for higher duties on imported woolen goods.  The Tariff of 1824 has failed to eliminate British competition in textiles.  The bill will pass the House of Representatives on February 10, but it will be rejected on February 28 in the Senate when Vice-President John Calhoun casts a tie-breaking vote against the measure.

7/30/27 In Harrisburg, PA, a convention of some 199 delegates from 13 states meets to call for higher tariffs.  Despite the February defeat of the tariff bill in the Senate, there is a strong popular movement promoting such protectionist policies in order to shelter the American wool industry, as well as the producers of such goods as hemp, flax and hammered bar iron and steel.

5/19/28 The “Tariff of Abominations,” as it will come to be known, originally proposed on January 31, is signed into law by President Adams, thus thwarting the Machiavellian plans of the congressional Jacksonians to discredit Adams by the bill’s defeat.  After heated debate, the coalition of Southern and Middle Atlantic state led by Martin Van Buren and Vice-President John Calhoun voted down all attempts by New Englanders to amend the more flagrant provisions of the bill.  Nevertheless, when the legislation came to a vote, the New Englanders surprisingly supported the bill, as it promoted the protection of American industry. The tariff passed the House 105 to 94, on April 23 and the Senate, 26 to 21, on May 13.

12/19/28 The Tariff on may 19 is opposed as unconstitutional, oppressive and unjust by eight resolutions issued by the South Carolina legislature.  The resolutions are accompanied by the essay, “South Carolina Exposition and Protest,” anonymously written by Vice-President John C. Calhoun, who advocates state sovereignty and the doctrine of nullification by a single state.  The Georgia legislature will protest the tariff on December 30, as will Virginia and Mississippi in February 1829.

1. Political  1820s Physical Cycle top    
Physical Low (1817 - 1831)

4/24/20 Congress passes the Public Land Act, which reduces the minimum price from $2.00 to $1.25 per acre, and reduces the size of the minimum purchase from 160 acres to 80 acres.  Although the act abolishes the use of credit for western land purchases, it is intended to enable settlers to purchase land.  Yet, as with the earlier land acts, real estate speculators are the chief beneficiaries of this legislation.

1821 NY abolishes property qualification for voting, following similar action by Connecticut in 1818 and Mass. in 1821.  

7/20/22 The Tennessee state legislature nominates Andrew Jackson as its presidential candidate for the 1824 election.  This action by a state legislature marks the end of the system of selecting presidential candidates by congressional party caucuses.  The demise of partisan politics, with the end of the Federalist party, has made a new system of nomination necessary.  This popular method of nomination heralds the approach of Jacksonian democracy.

3/2/21 Missouri Compromise vote, Congress agrees to admit Missouri into the union on the condition that the state constitution will not try to limit the rights of citizens, specifically free blacks, as guaranteed by the United States Constitution.  This compromise has been negotiated by Speaker of the House Henry Clay.  The Missouri legislature will agree to this provision on June 26.

3/2/21Congress passes the Relief Act, which permits price adjustments on unpaid-for western land purchases.

12/2/23 In his annual message to Congress, President Monroe presents the Monroe Doctrine, proclaiming that the Americas will no longer be the subject of European colonization; that the American political system differs essentially from European governmental systems; that the Untied States would consider dangerous the attempt of any Western Hemisphere; and that the United states will not interfere with any existing European colonies in the New World, or interfere in European internal affairs, or participate in European wars of foreign interest.

3/2/24 In the case of “Gibbons v. Ogden,” Supreme Court chief Justice John Marshall rules that a monopoly granted by the New York state legislature for steamboat navigation between New York and new Jersey in unconstitutional because only the Federal Government has jurisdiction over interstate commerce.

Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1817 - 1831)

December 1824: The Indiana legislature passes a fugitive slave act which allows justices of the peace to rule on claims in fugitive slave cases, with both the claimant and fugitive possessing the right to a jury trial.  This bill will be invalidated in 1850. [???]

12/5/25 In Washington, the 19th Congress convenes.  The Federalist party no longer exists at the national level, and the Democratic-Republican party has split into a pro-Adams administration and an anti-Adams administration faction.  In the House of representatives, 105 support the administration and 97 oppose it; in the senate, 26 support the administration and 20 oppose it.

9/12/26 In Batavia, New York, former Freemason William Morgan disappears under unusual circumstances after having disclosed some of the order’s secrets.  Suspicions that the Freemasons have abducted and killed him lead to the formation of the Anti-Masonic party, the earliest American third party.

1. Political  1820s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional Downward Crossover (March 21, 1829- March 21, 1830)

12/29/29 Westward Movement  Connecticut Sen. Samuel A. Foot introduces a resolution calling for temporary restrictions on western public land sales.  This resolution will later lead to the 1830 Webster-Hayne debate over states’ rights and federal sovereignty.

1. Political  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    


Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1819 - 1830)

The Democratic Party was formed.

January, 1823: Wealthy Philadelphian, diplomat, and writer Nicholas Biddle is appointed to manage the second Bank of the United States. Under Biddle’s expert stewardship and sound money policies, the bank will prosper until the 1836 expiration of its charter.

1826: Legal scholarship flourished in the US as the American legal system began to separate from British tradition and establish its own foundations and precedents.  America’s first great legal scholar was James Kent, who in 1794 became the first professor of law at Columbia and later became chief justice of New York State courts.  Kent modified English chancery practice to conform to American institutions and virtually created equity jurisdiction in the US.  Out of his opinions and lectures came his “Commentaries on American Law” (4 volumes, 1826 - 1830).  The section on constitutional law was Federalist in approach.  The “Commentaries” were an immediate success.  Kent updated them five times since.  Kent's influence on the legal profession and the teaching lf law in the US was second only to that of John Marshall.  Kent’s classic work has been compared with that of William Blackstone, the English jurist who wrote a similar four-volume work (1765 - 1769).

1/6/26 President Adams requests that Congress allow United States representatives to attend, as consultants, Simon Bolivar’s Panama Congress, called in order to promote a general Latin American confederation.  After heated debate, Congress will vote to send United States envoys only as observer.  Neither of the two chosen representatives will actually attend the June 1826 Panama Congress, as one will die on the way and the other will arrive too late.

1828 Democratic Party is formed, advocating Jeffersonian principles. Andrew Jackson is elected first Democratic US Pres, John Calhoun is reelected VP on the Democratic ticket.

Intellectual Upward Crossover (March 21, 1819- March 21, 1820)

December 1820: In response to the financial panic of 1819 and the subsequent economic depression, the Kentucky “Relief Party” is formed to press for assistance for delinquent debtors.  Henry Clay will oppose the Relief Part, and Andrew Jackson will support it.  The Clay faction will develop into the Whig party, while Jackson’s followers will become known as the Democrats.

1. Political  1820s Polyrhythms top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review with
     Emotional High
(1817 - 1829)

2/6/20 The ship “Mayflower of Liberia” sets sail for Sierra Leone from New York.  Traveling aboard are 86 free blacks who have decided to emigrate to the West African British colony which has openly received freed blacks and fugitive salves for the past 30 years.

2/17/20 The Senate passes the Missouri Compromise measure.  Illinois Senator Jesse B. Thomas has proposed a compromise amendment to the proposal to combine the admission of Maine as a free state, with the admission of Missouri as a slave state, thus maintaining the balance between free and slave state in the union.  The Thomas Amendment calls for a prohibition on slavery in the western territory of the Louisiana Purchase north of the line 60 deg. 30 min.

2/28/20 The House of Representatives rejects the February 17 compromise measure passed by the Senate, and will go on to pass its own slavery prohibition bill, incorporating the restrictive amendment proposed by New York Representative John W. Taylor on January 26, 1819.

3/3/20 The Missouri Compromise becomes official with the proposed admission of Maine as a free state and of Missouri as a slave state, and with the exclusion of slavery from the Louisiana Purchase north of 30 deg. 30 min.  This move has been made possible by the Senate’s reinsertion of the Thomas Amendment for the Taylor Amendment, and the subsequent passage of the compromise bill by the House on March 2.

3/15/20 Maine is admitted to the union as the 23rd state, with its capital at Portland, and with a ban on slavery.  Maine has been a part of Massachusetts, but its separation was called for by the rapid increase in its population since the War of 1812.

7/19/20 In the constitution drafted by the inhabitants of the Missouri Territory, free blacks and mulattoes are barred from the future state.  This discriminatory clause will meet with opposition when the constitution is presented to congress on November 14 for approval.

1821: The most serious attempt to find a home outside the US for freed black slaves was the establishment in 1821 of the colony of Liberia in western Africa.  With government and private funds, the American Colonization Society purchased the area from local tribal chiefs.  Settlement began in 1822, when the first of about 15,000 persons arrived in Liberia.  The colony had many difficulties, and its survival in the early years was due mainly to the efforts of Jehudi Ashmun, who was sent there by the society and who built up the colony in spite of epidemics and native attacks.  The colony was declared independent in 1847.  Immigration of American blacks ended for the most part after the Civil War.

3/2/21 In a second Missouri Compromise vote, Congress agrees to admit Missouri into the union, on the condition that the state constitution will not try to limit the rights of citizens, specifically free blacks, as guaranteed by the United state Constitution.  This compromise has been negotiated by Speaker of the House Henry Clay.  The Missouri legislature will agree to this provision on June 26.

8/10/21 Missouri officially enters the union as the 24th state, with its capital at Jefferson City.  Its addition as a slave state brings the total of free and slave state to 12 each.  The first United States Senator from Missouri is Thomas Hart Benton, who will occupy this position for the next 30 years.

11/10/21 The New York state constitutional convention extends suffrage by abolishing nearly all the property qualifications for the right to vote.  Free blacks, however, are not benefited by this legislation.  The liberalized suffrage movement is led by martin Van Buren at the head of the Albany Regency, a radical faction of the Democratic-Republican party.

December 1821: In the case of “Hall v. Mullin,” the Maryland state supreme court rules that a bequest of property to a slave by his master entitles the slave to freedom by implication, since a slave cannot legally own property.

Physical Low with
     Intellectual High
(1819 - 1931)

3/19/24 In the case of “Osborn v. Bank of the Untied States,” Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall holds that the state of Ohio cannot tax the Bank of the United States.  Ohio state auditor Ralph Osborn and other state officials who had seized bank assets had been assessed damages and they had appealed this earlier decision.  Marshall finds that if an agent of a state executes an unconstitutional statute, he will be personally liable for damages resulting from his enforcement of the act.  In this opinion, Marshal denies the state the protection of the 11th Amendment in such cases.

5/22/24 Congress adopts the Tariff Act of 1824, vigorously promoted by Henry Clay to protect American industry.  This legislation raises rates on wool, cotton and iron; and sets duties on such previously untaxed items as linen, silk, glass and lead.

Emotional High with
     Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1819 - 1829)

2/21/28 In Oklahoma, Indian linguist Sequoyah and Elias Boudinot found the “Cherokee Phoenix,” the first American newspaper to be published in an Indian language.  Sequoyah had invented an 86-symbol written version of the Cherokee language in 1821, thus allowing thousands of Cherokees to learn to read and write in their own tongue.

Emotional 2nd Qtr. Expansion with
     Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1820 - 1829)

1828: Growing discord between North and South over the tariff came to the fore this year when , on May 19, Pres. John Quincy Adams signed into law what became known as the Tariff of Abomination.  Political maneuvering between supporters of Pres. Adams and those of Andrew Jackson caused much bitterness.  The Jacksonians had hoped to discredit Adams by making the bill so objectionable that it would be defeated.  Southerners, led by Vice Pres. John C. Calhoun, felt the law discriminated against the agricultural South, which relied on imports from abroad, and favored the North and West.  With strong New England support, the bill passed both houses of Congress.

1828: The Democratic Party was formed.  Essentially it was an extension of the Democratic-Republican (Jeffersonian) Party (formed May 13, 1792), and was backed by southern agrarians and northern urban workers.  It advocated Jeffersonian principles of personal liberty and attacked special privilege.  Andrew Jackson became the new party’s first nominee for president.

1829 Workingman's Party is formed in NE. Party advocates social reform, free public education, new banking laws, and non-imprisonment for debt. Movement spreads to other states in the North.



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1820 William Underwood, Eng.-American industrialist, opens a canning factory in Boston.

1820 Henry Burden, NY ironmaster, invents an improved plow and cultivator.

1824 Weaver's strike at Pawtucket, R.I., is the first recorded strike by women.

1825 First significant strike for a 10-hour day is called in Boston by 600 carpenters.

1827 First city central trade union, the Mechanics Trade Union Association, is established in Philadelphia.

1828 First recorded strike of textile factory workers occurs in Paterson, NJ. the militia is called in to control the violence. the workers strike for a 10 hour day, but the strike fails.

2. Business & Economy  1820s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Low (1817 - 1831)

1823 Pres Monroe announces the Monroe Doctrine in his annual message to Congress. European nations are warned not to interfere in Western Hemisphere. US intends not to take part in European wars.

2. Business & Economy  1820s Emotional Cycle top    

2. Business & Economy  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    


Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1819 - 1830)

The first trade unions had effect with the formation of the Mechanics Union of Trade Association in Philadelphia, in 1827. At the same time, banks were being created at an unprecedented rate to contend with the additional exchange of a riding economy.    

Unforeseen needs for provision often bring enactment to handle the expanding economy of the first quarter. The first trade unions made their effect with the formation of the Mechanical Union Trade Association in Philadelphia in 1827, (which also during the rise of the physical cycle). At the same time, banks were being created at an unprecedented rate to contend with the additional exchange of the rising economy.

2. Business & Economy  1820s Polyrhythms top    

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3. Science & Technology  1820s Physical Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1820s Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1819 - 1830)

1820 John Gorham, Mass. physician, publishes the 2-vol "Elements of Chemical Science" which serves as the standard textbook for years.

1821 Zachariah Allen, R.I. inventor, designs a hot-air heating system for homes.

1821 Hare invents the copper-zinc battery.

1822 William Beaumont, Conn. physician, begins his famous digestion experiments in the exposed stomach of Alexis St. Martin, an injured soldier.

1822 Quinine production begins in Philadelphia.

1822 First patent for making false teeth is awarded to W. C. Graham.

1823 America's first ophthalmology book, "A treatise on the Diseases of the Eye," is pub by George Frick, Md. eye surgeon.

1824 Thomas Say, "Father of Descriptive Entomology," pubs the 3-vol "American Entomology;" or "Descriptions of the Insects of North America." (-1828).

1825 Yale College purchases a collection of 10,000 minerals from George Gibbs, R.I. mineralogist.

1826 America's first reflecting telescope is built by Amasa Holcomb in Mass.

1827 Audubon pubs "Birds of America (-1828),"  a collection of 435 lifelike paintings, many showing birds in action. Unable to interest Am printers, Audubon's drawings are release in Europe where be is acclaimed a genius.

1827 Isaac coffin, Brit admiral born in Boston, open America's first nautical school in Nantucket, Mass.

1827-31 Joseph Henry insulated wire; invented multiple coil magnet; built 1st magnetic and acoustic telegraph [his telegraph may have been in 1831]

1828 Joseph Henry, NY physicist, invents the electromagnet.

1829 Bigelow coins the word "technology" and pubs "The Elements of Technology."

1829 Allen publishes "The Science of Mechanics."

1829 William E. Horner, Va. physician, pubs "A Treatise on Pathological Anatomy," America's first pathology text.

3. Science & Technology  1820s Polyrhythms top    
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The typographer, forerunner to the typewriter, was patented in 1829, William A. Burt, Mass. inventor, I 1st). During the next first quarter of the cycle the typewriter was patented in 1868.


1820 Daniel Treadwell, Mass. inventor, builds a horse-powered printing press.

1822 Cotton mills begin production in Mass with water-powered machinery. By 1826, one plant in Lowell turns out 2 mil yards of cloth a year. A female labor force is used.

1825 Thomas Kensett, NY canner, patents tin-plated cans.

1825 Stevens builds "Action," an experimental steam locomotive.

1826 Samuel Morey, Conn. inventor, patents an internal combustion engine.

1826 First railroads built are short-line systems, powered by axle systems, horses, or sails. The Mauch Chunk Railroad in PA carries coal, and a railroad in Mass. carries granite. The first passenger line is the Baltimore and Ohio.

1827 Isaac Adams, N. H. printer, invents and manufactures "Adams Power Printing Presses" which are widely used for more than 50 years.

North is now generally credited with the invention of the milling machine-the first entirely new type of machine invented in America and the machine that, by re- placing filing, made interchangeable parts practical. In 1795, North began to produce scythes in a mill adjacent to his farm in Berlin, Conn. Four years later, he obtained a contract to make pistols and began to add a factory to the mill building. By 1813, he signed a contract to produce 20,000 pistols that specified that parts had to be completely interchangeable between any of the 20,000---the first such contract of which any such evidence exists. The first known milling machine was in use by 1818. At about that time, North was sent to John H. Hall, superintendent at Harpers Ferry (Va.) Armory, to introduce his methods of achieving interchangeability. In 1828, North received a contract to produce 5,000 Hall rifles with parts interchangeable with those produced at Harpers Ferry. North had a 53-year contractual relationship with the War Dept. The report of Charles H. Fitch prepared for the 1880 Census credits North with a key role in developing manufacture with interchangeable parts.

Eli Whitney Invented the Milling Machine for the production of muskets with standard interchangeable parts. For this he would later be dubbed, the "Father of Mass Production."

In 1799, as Whitney worked in New Haven, Simeon North was making 500 pistols for the government by using machines and a division of labor just 20 miles away in Middletown. The parts were so well made that little or no filing was needed at time of final assembly. His son, Selah, invented a filing jig—matching concave molds that held the piece that forced the men to follow the contours of the jig in filling the piece to be shaped. Edwin Battison, in his article, “A New Look at the ‘Whitney’ Milling Machine”, argues that the milling machine, which is a power tool used for cutting and grinding metal parts, originated with Simeon North. Interchangeability requires precision machine tools to make exact parts; it appears that the Whitneyville milling machine was made after Whitney’s death when his nephews modernized the factory in 1827. The inventory of Whitney’s estate at time of death does not list a milling machine or any other tools that were not already in use at the two government armories in that period. Still, as the United States was entering the 19th century and its technology was being rooted, Eli Whitney stands as a central figure involved in its growth. The role that Whitney played in early American technology has been debated, however. Whitney’s work in making muskets from a number of interchangeable parts once identified him as the sole originator of the idea. But tests on a collection of Whitney muskets indicate that all their parts were not interchangeable. Historian Robert Woodbury, in his article “The Legend of Eli Whitney and Interchangeable Parts” suggests that the first actual achievement of interchangeability took place at the federal government’s arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in 1827.

4. Mechanical  1820s Physical Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1820s Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1820s Polyrhythms top    


Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1819 - 1830)

Mechanical pressing of glass, the first technical innovation in glassmaking since ancient times, was introduced into American factories.  The change enable production of intricately designed glassware.  Famous glassworks established this year by Deming Jarves at Sandwich, Mass., were noted for their large-scale production of pressed glass.

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1823 First gymnasium to offer systematic instruction is started by the Round Hill School in Northampton, Mass. Gymnastics is scheduled from 5 to 7 pm.

1826 Charles Follen, and instructor at Harvard, introduces physical education into college education.

5. Education  1820s Physical Cycle top    

5. Education  1820s Emotional Cycle top    


Emotional 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1820 - 1829)

1825 A significant force in early frontier education is the American Tract Society. It circulates religious literature by means of circuit riders.

and the American Home Missionary Society (1826).

The American Tract Society Formed in Boston in 1814, in Philadelphia in 1815 and in New York in 1817.  It circulated Religious Literature via circuit riders by 1817 setting a religious literary precedent in the early frontier

5. Education  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    

1825 A significant force in early frontier education is the American Tract Society. It circulates religious literature by means of circuit riders.

and the American Home Missionary Society (1826).

The American Tract Society Formed in Boston in 1814, in Philadelphia in 1815 and in New York in 1817.  It circulated Religious Literature via circuit riders by 1817 setting a religious literary precedent in the early frontier

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1819 - 1830)

What When p. 230  Important improvement in education in the early nineteenth century, especially education of women, were the result of the efforts of Emma Willard.  In 1807, when only 20, she took charge of the female Academy at Middlebury, Bt.  She opened school of her own in 1814.  There she taught subjects not otherwise available to women.  An appeal to the New York State leg. in 181 to support her plan for improving the education of women induced Gov. De Witt Clinton to invite Mrs. Willard to move to NY.  she accepted, and opened a school at Waterford in 1819.  In 1821 she moved to Troy and established the Troy Fevale Academy.  Mrs. Willard wrote textbooks and a volume of poems (1831), which included the popular “Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep.”

1821-27 First high school in US established in Boston, 1821, w/broad, liberal curriculum. Mass. act of 1827 required every town of 500 farms to established a high school.

1821 First public high school, English Classical School, is established in Boston.

1822 Hobart College is established in Geneva, NY. It offers an "English Course" designed for "the practical business of life." First course diploma, in English, is awarded in 1827.

1824 America's first school of science and engineering opens. It is later called Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

10/2/24 In Troy, New York, the Rensselaer School of Theoretical and Practical Science is established.  The school is remarkable for its innovative curriculum of science and engineering courses, rather than the customary fare of classical studies.

1826-83, Josiah Holbrook (1788-1854) instituted adult education and self-improvement courses at Millbury, Conn., where he established the Mullbury Lyceum No. 1, branch of the Am Lyceum, thus inaugurating the lyceum movement. The National American Lyceum was formed at NY in 1831. By 1834 there were 3,000 town lyceums in 15 states. In 1874 Bishop John H. Vincent (1832-1920) and Lewis Miller org the 1st Chautauqua Assembly. Home reading program established by 1878. William Rainey Harper (later pres of the University of Chicago) appointed education director, 1883; attracted outstanding lecturers. Young Men's Christian Association set up evening classes in the 1880's. In 1888 the NYC Board of Ed established public lectures for working people. Other public lectures provided by Lowell Institute ( inaugurated by Benjamin Silliman,1839; Peabody Institute, Baltimore (1857); Cooper Union, NY (1857-59), endowed by Peter Cooper.

1826 S. F. B. Morse founds the National Academy of Design.

1826 Mullbury Lyceum Number 1 is established at Millbury Mass. by Josiah Holbrook. this is the beginning of the adult self-improvement and education movement.

1827 Mass. requires a high school in every town having more than 500 families.

1829 First school for the blind opens in Boston.

1829 "Encyclopedia Americana" is published in Philadelphia by Francis Lieber. It is the first Am encyclopedia.

5. Education  1820s Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual High (1819 - 1829)

6/1/21The first women’s collegiate-level school in America is established with Emma Willard’s founding of a female academy in Waterford, New York.  The Waterford Academy for Young Ladies in later move to Troy, New York, where it will later become known as the Emma Willard School.

Emotional High with
     Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1819 - 1829)

1821 First women's' college level school, the Troy Female Seminary, is founded by Emma Willard in Troy, NY.

1821 The Troy (NY) Female Seminary, the 1st women's high school in the US est. by Emma Willard.

1824 American Sunday School Union is established in Philadelphia to promote and coordinate Sunday school activity in Am.

A new institution with religious and secular functions was the Sunday school.  Originating in England, Sunday schools were first established to educate children who worked in mines and factories.  Under church sponsorship, the schools soon came to offer religious instruction.  The Methodist leader, Francis Asbury, established the first Sunday school in the US in 1786 in Hanover County Va.  On My 25, 1824, representatives of a number of denominations from several states founded the American Sunday School Union to coordinate activates of these schools.  Publication of “Sunday School Magazine” began in 1824, and over the years an enormous amount of literature was issued to serve the widespread institution.


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American religious groups, which in colonial days had been the object of missionary efforts from Eng. and other countries, in the early nineteenth cent beg to proselytize abroad.  The Am Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was formed in 1810.  The Baptists established a group to support missions in 1814, the Methodists in 1819, the Episcopalians in 1820, and the Presbyterians in 1837, although work by the Presbyterians had begun much earlier. 

 Black religious groups began to break away fr largely white Protestant denominations to form their own churches.  In 1796 black members of the Methodist Episcopal Church in NYC formed the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, which in 1821 was org as a national group.  The African Methodist Episcopal Church was founded in 1816 by Richard Allen, a clergyman who had been born a slave.  He was pastor of a group that broke away from the Methodist Church in Philadelphia  on Apr 11 he became the first bishop of the new denomination.

 1824-50 Revivalism in PA, NY, and Mass. led by Charles g. Finney (1792-1875), licensed to preach as a Presbyterian. The Broadway Tabernacle was est. for him in NYC (1834). His followers withdrew from Presbyterianism (1836) and adopted Congregationalism. In the Middle West revivalisms was led by such itinerant preacher s Peiter Cartwright (1785-1872) and James B. Finley (1781-1856).

6. Religion & Spirituality  1820s Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1820s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1820 - 1829)

1827-28 Schism between Orthodox and Hicksite Quakers.

1828 Presbyterian schism between Old School (orthodox Calvinists) and New School (Western liberals).

6. Religion & Spirituality  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1820s Polyrhythms top    

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7. Arts & Design  1820s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Low (1817 - 1831)

1821: The need for more and better roads to transport people and goods also meant that more and better bridges were needed.  Ithiel Town, an architect, contributed to the cause by patenting in 1920 a form of truss bridge with a diamond pattern of closely spaced diagonals.  This was simple to construct and required no special materials.  In 1821 he wrote an article that considered the problem of rigid iron bridges.  It was to take 15 years before such structures were built in the US.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1817 - 1834)

After 1820 the early Federal style waned, and Jeffersonian classicism was modified by the introduction of Greek and even Egyptian detail, constituting the so-called Greek Revival. Accompanied by furnishings and draperies in the heavier Sheraton-Empire tasted, the classic pattern established in the 1820's became the basic style in building and decorative design. Stimulated by the Greek struggle for national independence, it lasted until about 1850 and constituted for the time a national style without parallel in Europe. In its later decorative aspect, however, the Greek Revival became a fashion rather than a style. As such it marks not only the end of the 18th-century Neoclassicism but the beginning of the Romantic movement.

7. Arts & Design  1820s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1731 - 1838)

7. Arts & Design  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1820s Polyrhythms top    
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8. Literature & Publication  1820s Physical Cycle top    

8. Literature & Publication  1820s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1811 - 1829)

1820: A great literary theme of the 1820s was the romantic treatment of the Indian.  Works in this vein included “Frontier Maid, or the Fall of Wyoming” (1819); “Yamoyden” (1820) by Eastburn and Sands; “Logan, and Indian Tale” (1821) by Samuel Webber; “The Land of Powhatten” (1821) by a Virginian; and “ontwa, son of the Forest” (1822) by Henry Whiting.

1820: American were beginning to take an interest in the history and culture of the Indians.  The foremost pioneer in this field was Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, a self-taught ethnologist and geologist.  This year Schoolcraft accompanied an expedition to the upper Mississippi River and Lake Superior region, and two years later he was appointed Indian agent for the tribes in that area.  This enabled Schoolcraft to carry on his research into Indian history and culture and resulted in voluminous writings.  These included a six-volume history published between 1851 and 1857.  Schoolcraft married the daughter of and Ojibwa woman and a fur trader.  Henry Wadsworth Longfellow used Schoocraft’s writings as source material for his narrative poem “The Song of Hiawatha” (1855).

1823: Charles J. Ingersoll offered a major defense of American culture against the criticism of British Intellectuals in an address before the American Philosophical Society.  In his “Discourse Concerning the Influence of America on the Mind,” he accepted the challenge of British critics by comparing American culture with European, suggesting that the average intellect in America far surpassed the corresponding intellect in Europe.  He suggested that America’s great contribution to world civilization had bee self-government.

1824: Of the many accounts of Indian captivity, none was more popular than “A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. May Jemison,” by James E Seaver, published in 1824.  Mary Jemison was captured by a French and Indian war party in western PA in 1758, when she was 15.  She was married twice, one to a Delaware and one to a Seneca, and had eight children.  Becoming known as the “White Woman of the Genesee,” Mrs. Jemison refused to leave the Senecas.  In 1817 New York state confirmed her possession of a tract of land on the Genesee R. That had first been given to her in 1797.


8. Literature & Publication  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    


Intellectual High (1819 - 1841)

RAW:  The number of libraries in the US was about 50 [in 1800] w holdings of some 80,000 volumes.  Most of these libraries required membership or payment of a fee for access to their books.  By 1825, however, the nation’s four largest cities could claim a total of 50 libraries, including some 1,500,000 volumes.  Between 1800 and 1830 about 50,000 pamphlets, books, and magazines titles were issued in the US.  Most of the books sold no more than 1000 copies, a respectable number considering the pop of the country.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1819 - 1830)

1821 James Fenimore Cooper writes "The Spy," a Revolutionary War novel which establishes Cooper's literary prowess.

1822 [confirm date!] A collection of psalm tunes by Lowell Mason is pub by the Handel Haydn Society.

1823 Cooper pubs "The Pioneer," a brilliant portrait of frontier life and the first of his "Leatherstocking Tales," and "The Pilot" the first of several sea novels.

1826 Cooper pubs "Last of the Mohicans," the second "Leatherstocking Tale."

1827 Thomas Cole paints "Last of the Mohicans."

1827 Cooper publishes "The Prairie," the third "Leatherstocking Tale," and "The Red Rover," a sea novel.

1827: Encyclopedia Americana was begun by the German refugee political philosopher, Granic Lieger.  Organized along Germanic principles of research and scholarship, the 13-volume work began to appear in 1829.  It made significant contribution to American culture.

1828 Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes "Fanshawe," his first novel.

1828 Noah Webster pubs "American Dictionary of the English Language," in which many of the Am characteristics of the English language are introduced.

4/21/28 After more than 20 years’ labor, Noah Webster finally publishes his “American Dictionary of the English Language.”  This monumental volume contains some 70,000 definition - 12,000 more than any other English language dictionary - and it includes numerous words derived from the other American immigrant languages and from the various Indian languages.

1828: The monumental “American Dictionary of the English Language” by Noah Webster was published, a labor of more than 20 years.  Webster spent much time in England gathering material for his work and completed it while living in Cambridge, England.

8. Literature & Publication  1820s Polyrhythms top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review with
     Emotional High
(1817 - 1824)

1821: “The Spy” by James Fennimore Cooper, a  romance of the American Revolution, was published and quickly went through three printings in its first year.

1825: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, one of the first American poets destined to be read and honored in the US and Europe, began to see his poems appear in print.  His first poem to be published was “The Battle of Lovell’s Pong,” on Nov. 17, 1820, in the Portland, Maine, “Gazette.”  In 1825, the year he was graduated from Bowdoin college, a number of Longfellow’s early poems were published in the “Untied State Literary Gazette.”  They included “Autumnal Nightfall,” “Woods in Winter,” “The Angler’s Song,” and “Hymn of the Moravian Nuns.”  Longfellow soon left for Europe to prepare for a teaching position at Bowdoin, to which he returned in 1829.

Emo-Intellectual High (1819 - 1929)

1822: Men with a variety of  talents aided progress in literature, religion, and education in the first quarter of the nineteenth century.  One of these was Timothy Dwight of New England, a leader of the Connecticut Wits, clergyman, and educator.  His long poem “Greenfild Hill” (1794) was an attempt to convince Europeans that America provided suitable material for poetry.  His :”Travels in New England and New York” (four volumes, 1821 - 1822) is an indispensable source for the life of the period.  An orthodox Congregational minister, Dwight was sometime called the “Protestant pope of New England.”  He was president of Yale from 1795 to 1817 and did much to modernize its curriculum.

1822: “The Pilot” by James Fenimore cooper was published and became a best seller.  Cooper’s fourth novel, and the first with a maritime setting and theme, was a product of Cooper’s determination to outdo Sir Walter Scott in the production of a sea novel.  The unnamed hero, known only as the Pilot, represent John Paul Jones, the foremost US Naval figure of the time.  The novel’s action takes place during the American Revolution.  Cooper’s novel was long popular.

1826: James Fenimore Cooper’s “The Last of the Mohicans” began its phenomenal publishing record.  The most popular of Cooper’s novels, selling over 2,000,000 copies, it was also a best seller across the Atlantic.  The Leatherstocking Tales, of which “The Last of the Mohicans” is the second novel of five, are still popular in the US and Europe, especially France.

Emotional High with
     Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1819 - 1829)

1822 Paulding satirizes the British in "A Sketch of Old England, by a New England Man."

1824: The first written American Indian language, Cherokee, was finished by Sequoyah, the son of a white trader and a Cherokee Indian woman.  Sequoyah, who also used the name George Guess, devised a syllabary of 85 characters to represent the spoken sounds of the Cherokee language.  He demonstrated the alphabet’s utility in a dramatic way.  He had his young daughter transcribe speeches at a tribal council in his absence.  The he entered the council chamber and read the speeches aloud from his daughter’s transcription.  In the years following, Sequoyah taught thousands of Cherokee Indians to read and write.  He also translated pars of the Bible into the new language, and in 1828 began publication of a weekly newspaper.

1825 Thomas Cole establishes the Hudson River School of landscape painting.

1827 First Negro newspaper, "Freedom's Journal," is pub in NYC, edited by John Brown Russwurm and Samuel Cornish.

1827: The first book of poems published by Edgar Allan Poe, “Tamerlane and Other Poems,” was printed in Boston.  Little attention was paid the slim volume.  In 1829 a second volume, “Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane and Minor Poems,” also went unnoticed.

1828 First Indian newspaper, "Cherokee Phoenix," is published in Echota, Ga. Its editor is Elia Budinot, a full-blooded Cherokee.

1828: Women were beginning to enter journalism, and the most prominent woman journalist was Sarah Josepha Hale.  In 1828, in Boston she became editor of a new Journal, “Ladies Magazine.”  She moved to Philadelphia in 1837, becoming editor of “Godey’s Lady’s Book” and holding that post for 40 years.  In 1846 Mrs. Hale began using the pages of the magazine to agitate for a national Thanksgiving Day, and by 1858 all but six states celebrated Thanksgiving on the last Thursday in November.  Mrs. Hale had great influence on fashions and manners and regularly urged higher education for women.  Her volume “Poems for Our Children” (1830) contained “Mary Had a Little Lamb.”

1829 Edgar Allen Poe anonymously pubs his first work "Tamerlane and Other Poems."

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1828 Thomas ("Jim Crow") Rice introduces the song "Jim Crow" between acts of a play. It it the first international song hit of American popular music.

9. Entertainment  1820s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1831 - 1838)

9. Entertainment  1820s Emotional Cycle top    


Emotional High (1811 - 1829)

1823: The portrayal of blacks on the stage posed problems in a nation in which most blacks were slaves.  The first acting group of blacks, the African Company, began giving performances in New York City in 1821.  Both Shakespearean drama and lighter plays were produced.  In 1823 Edwin Forrest, who was to become a national idol and one of the great tragedians of the century, appeared in blackface as Ruban in a farce by Sol Smith, “Tailor in Distress.”  No white actress would black her face, so a black woman was engaged to play opposite Forrest.

9. Entertainment  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1820s Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual High (1829 - 1839)

1821: Music was made more available to amateurs and students by the publication of songbooks and by the introduction into schools of music education.  A pioneer in this field was Lowell Mason, a banker and church organist in Savannah, Ga.  In 1821 he helped compile the “Boston Handel and Haydn Society’s Collection of Church Music.”  Its success was one reason why Mason gave up banking and turned to music, becoming the musical director of three Boston churches.  He was a founder of the Boston Academy of Music in 1832.  Mason also found time to compose 1210 hymns, including “Nearer, My God, to Thee.”   

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1820 First football games are played in Am colleges, especially as a form of hazing at Yale and Harvard.

1821 Public horse racing becomes popular, and tracks are opened in Queens County, NY.

1823 First great horse race is between the North's "American Eclipse" and "Sir Henry," the challenger from the South, for a purse of $20,000. About 1000 spectators jam Union Course on Long Island, NY to see "American Eclipse" take 2 out of 3 races.

1825 New York Trotting Club builds a race course on Long Island.

1827 "American Shooter's Manual," a handbook for sportsmen, is pub in Philadelphia.

1828 First archery club is formed in Philadelphia Members pay an initiation fee of $5 and 50 cents dues a month.

1829 "American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine" is pub in Baltimore by John Skinner. It is devoted to thoroughbred horses, racing, hunting, shooting, and the habits of game.

10. Sports  1820s Physical Cycle top    


Physical Low (1817 - 1831)

1820s: During this decade the first soccer-like fames appeared in American colleges.  A large round ball was kicked toward a goal.  The game served as a form of hazing, especially at Yale and Harvard.  Sophomores and freshmen were supposed to kick the ball, but sophomores generally kicked the freshmen instead.  The games were banned during the 1830s because of the lard number of injuries sustained by students.

1822: The primitive US form of football was prohibited at Yale College by Pres. Timothy Dwight., who ordered any violations to be reported and violators to be penalized by a fine not to exceed half a dollar.

10. Sports  1820s Emotional Cycle top    

10. Sports  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  1820s Polyrhythms top    

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1825 Phyfe begins producing furniture in the Empire style.

11. Fashion  1820s Physical Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1820s Emotional Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1820s Polyrhythms top    

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pop US about 9.6 million

1820 Fourth national census show that pop is 9.6 mil. NY is the largest city, with a pop of approximately124,000, followed by Philadelphia (113,000), Baltimore (63,000), Boston (43,000), and New Orleans (27,000). Pop west of the Appalachian Mountains is 2.2 million. 

1821 America's first tunnel-450 ft. long, 18 ft. high, 20 ft. wide-opens near Auburn, Pa.

1824 Auburn (NY) Penitentiary houses prisoners in cell blocks, and they perform labor in groups. An alternative to this system is that of Pennsylvania in which prisoners are in solitary confinement and they work alone.

1825 The Erie Canal is completed.

1825 New York Governor DeWitt Clinton opens the Erie Canal. It becomes an important commercial route connecting the East with the Ohio valleys.

1829 First modern hotel, the Tremont, opens in Boston. It has 170 rooms.

12. Lifestyles  1820s Physical Cycle top    


Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1824 - 1831)

1/3/25 In Indiana, Scottish mill owner Robert Owen bury the 20.000-acre former George Rapp estate in order to establish a model community at New Harmony.  This pioneering utopian experiment will fail some two years later, after having used most of Owen’s fortune.

1825: The first secular Utopian society in the US was established on January 3 by Robert Owen, a social reformer who had made a fortune as a cotton manufacturer in Great Britain.  He took over Harmony, Indiana, from the followers of George Rapp and set up New Harmony, a community that was to have compete equality of property and opportunity.  About 1,000 settlers were attracted to the 20,000 acres of New Harmony, including educators, scientists, and writers.  However, dissension arose and there was lack of direction among those who were supposed to cooperate.  Owen left in 1827.  In 1828 the community ceased to exist as a Utopian enterprise.

12. Lifestyles  1820s Emotional Cycle top    

12. Lifestyles  1820s Intellectual Cycle top    


Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1819 - 1830)

1825: Combining entertainment with education, the lyceum movement became a familiar part of American life.  A lyceum was an organization that provided a platform for speakers on a great variety of subjects.  The first lyceum was organized in 1826 in Millbury, Mass., by Josiah Holbrook, a teacher whose Agricultural Seminary had failed in 1825.  Within two years he helped establish more than 100 lyceums.  The National American Lyceum was formed in 1831, and by 1834 some 2,000 lyceums were in operation, offering information on the arts, science, history, and public information on the arts, science, history, and public affairs.  Many so-called reformers took advantage of this platform to promote their notion, but leading figures of the day, such as Daniel Webster and Ralph Waldo Emerson, also were happy to appear on lyceum platforms.

12. Lifestyles  1820s Polyrhythms top    


Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives with
     Emotional High
(1824 - 1829X)

1825 Scottish-born social reformer, Frances Wright, establishes the Nashoba community near Memphis, Tennessee, for training Negroes to make possible their colonization outside the US.

1825-1828 Francis Wright, English social reformer est. Nashoba Committee, near Memphis, to train negroes for colonization's outside US. [P/4?]

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