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American Cycles 1810s
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).


Note to readers: Work from the Kala-Rhythm archives is being offered here in the Timelines for the first time. We are allowing a view into the Timelines now by posting both the finished and the unfinished pages of the Timelines as editing from our references continues.  Unfinished pages (like this one) contain raw data from history sources to which we give credit in our "biblio/webography". Check back for updates to this and other pages.

 

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1812 James Madison reelected to a second term as pre, defeating NY's antiwar candidate De Witt Clinton. Eldridge Gerry is chosen vice pres, defeating his Federalist opponent Jared Ingersol. But the Federalists double their strength in Congress, following a sweeping victory in the Northeast.

1812 Madison is reelected pres, and Elbridge Gerry is elected VP on the Democratic-Republican ticket.

12/2/12 In the pres election, James Madison is reelected to a second term as pres, defeating NY’s antiwar candidate De Witt Clinton by 1128 to 89 electoral votes.

1816 James Monroe is elected pres. over his Federalist opponent Rufus King. Daniel D. Thompkins is chosen Vice-president. In his inauguration Address, Monroe expresses his support for a standing army, an adequate navy, and the protection of American industry. The Democratic-Republican party has in effect adopted the nationalistic principles of the warning Federalist party.

 1810 Macon's Bill No.2 repeals restrictions on trade with France and Britain. It states that if either nation removes its restriction on US trade, the pres will break off trade with the other. Madison, believing France has removed her restrictive decrees, reopens trade with France and renews Non-intercourse Act with Britain. France continues to seize US ships.

1810 Southerners revolt against Spanish rule in West Florida. US annexes the area.

4/20/12 VP George Clinton dies.

The War of 1812 began on June 18, when Pres. James Madison officially proclaimed the US to be at war w Great Britain.  Congress had voted for was on June 4 and June 8. 

Aug 24 1814 Washington, D.C., was captured by Brit troops under Deg. Robert Ross.  The Capitol, White House, and other government buildings were set afire in retaliation for the earlier burning of Canadian government buildings in York, Toronto, by US.

The treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812,m was signed on Dec 24 by representatives of the US and Great Brit. 

3/3/15 Pres M requests a standing army of 20,000 men, but the House decides to set the number of men at 10,000, with two major generals and four brigadier generals.

1816 James Monroe and Daniel D. Tompkins are elected pres and VP, respectively, on the Democratic-Republican ticket.

1816 Supreme Court affirms right of federal courts to review decision of state courts.

1817 Rush-Bagot Agreement between the US and Brit limits naval forces on the Great Lakes.

1817 Seminole Indians attack white settlers in Florida and Georgia.

1818 Illinois becomes 21st state.

1819 Spain cedes Florida to the US in the Adams-Otis Treaty. Western border of LA Purchase is agreed on; US assumes $5 mil. claims of its citizens against Spain.

1819 Alabama becomes 22nd state.

7/9/16 In a treaty w the Cherokee Indians, W. L. Lovely effects the cession of Indian lands in northern Maine to the US.

12/11/16 Indiana is admitted to the Union as a free state, w slavery forbidden

3/3/17 The Alabama Territory, is org from the eastern part of the Miss Territory.

9/27/17 In a treaty w the US, the Ohio Indians five up four million acres of their remaining lands in northwestern Ohio.

12/10/17 Miss enters the union as the 2oth state; Miss allows slavery. The eastern portion of the original Miss Territory has been separately org as the Alabama Territory.

1818 US forces under Jackson invade Florida to punish the hostile Seminoles. Jackson captures Pensacola and kills two Brit men accused of aiding the Indians. Spain is told either to control the Indians or cede Florida to the US. [what mo.? Cross-over?]

Oxford History of American People p.339:  Polar also to the economic and section cleavage was the ideological.  Jefferson believed that a government could be based on, and its official policy dictated by, “reason,” as the French Republic was attempting to do, with dire results.  John Adams and Edmund Burke, who warned France that this happened, believed, as John Dickenson had said, “Let Experience be our guide.  Reason may mislead us.”  And long has it continued to mislead people - notably the Communists.  Over a century after Jefferson’s day, Elihu Root said,  “The great difficulty in the application of pure reason to practical affairs is that never...does the reasoner get all the premises which should affect the conclusions; so it frequently happens that the practical man...who feels the effect of conditions which the reasoner overlooks, goes right, while the superior intelligence of the reasoning mind goes wrong.”

10/19/18 In a treaty w the US, the Chickasaw Indians sign over all their lands between the Miss R and the northern part of the Tennessee R.

10/20/18 US and Britain establish US-Canadian boundary at the 49th parallel from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mts. Oregon boundary is left undecided.

12/2/18 The area of the Illinois Territory south of 42 degrees 31 minutes N enters the union as the 21st state. The northern part of the Illinois Territory is added to the Michigan Territory.

12/3/17 Illinois was admitted into the Union, the 21st state.

2/22/19 The Florida Purchase Treaty was signed by Spain and the US.  In a triumph of diplomacy by sec. of State John Quincy Adams, Spain ceded the remainder of its old province of Fl at no cost beyond that of US assumption of up to $5 million of the claims of US citizens against Spain.

3/2/19 Arkansas County of the Missouri Territory is reorganized as the Arkansas Territory.

12/14/19 Alabama admitted to the Union as the 22nd state.

12/14/19 Alabama enters the Union as the 22nd state, w its capital at Huntsville and as a slave-holding state.

1. Political  1810s Physical Cycle top    

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

June 1819 Sec of War John C. Calhoun commission Major Stephan H. Long to lean a two year exploratory expedition from Pittsburgh, PA, on June 6, 1820, to the area South of the Missouri R.  With his group of scientists and soldiers, Long will spend the winter at Council Bluffs and explore the eastern Rocky Mountains after passing through the plains which he names the Great American Desert.    [note this must be included because other explorers of the PHY High were mentioned]

Physical High (1803 - 1817)

5/10/15 In NY, Capt Stephen Decatur takes command of a ten-ship fleet setting sail for Algiers.  His mission is to end the raids of the Barbary pirates on Am commercial shipping in the Mediterranean.

6/17/15 In the Med Sea, Am Capt Stephen Decatur captures the Algerian 44-gun frigate “Mashouda,” killing the renowned Algerian Admiral Hammida.  Two days later Decatur will capture the 22-gun brig “Estido.” then tow both ships into Algiers harbor, and threaten to bombard the city.

6/30/15 The forceful actions of Capt Decatur lead the dey of Algiers to sign a treaty in which he agrees to cease hostilities against Am shipping, to free all Am prisoners without ransom, and to end all demands for tribute payments from the Am government.

8/5/15 In North Africa, Capt Stephen Decatur exacts a treaty from Tripoli, receiving a guarantee of the cessation of raids on Am commercial shipping in the Med, the release of Am prisoners without ransom and the dropping of all demands for Am tribute.  Tripoli must also compensate the US fro Am vessels seized by Great Britain as prizes, with the cooperation of Tripoli, during the War of 1812.

12/5/15 In his message to the 14th Cong, Pres Mad requests authorization of a national public works program.  He also advises that serious consideration be given once again to the creation of a second Bank of the US, to succeed the first bank that was allowed to lapse in 1811.  Madison proposes this move because the state banks are not capable of restoring a uniform national currency.  In his message, Madison also asks for improvements in the military forces and for the established of a national university.

July-September 1815 The Treaties of Portage des Sioux are signed, effectively ending all Indian resistance in the Old Northwest, and freeing the territory below Lake Michigan for settlement.

2/8/17 Cong passes John C. Calhoun’s proposal to set aside the $1.5 million bonus to the Fed Gov fr the Bank of the US, as a fund for federally financed public works projects, such as roads and canals.  New Eng. Federalists oppose the bill, fearing its impetus to westward expansion.

3/15/17 W the enthusiastic support of Gov De Witt Clinton, the NY state leg authorizes the construction of the Erie Canal, a $7 million project to be financed by the state.  The planned toll waterway will give NYC access to the West, by way of the Hudson R and the proposed canal between Albany and Buffalo, challenging Canadian supremacy in trade on the Great Lakes.  The ground will be broken for this project on July 4, and “Clinton’s ditch” will open in 1825.

 TERRITORIAL GAINS

1810 Pres M announces the US annexation and military occupation of the western region of Spanish West Florida. The annexed area, between the Mississippi R and the Perdido R, is declared part of the Territory of Orleans, which will become the state of Louisiana in 1812.

1811 Beginning of the Cumberland Road at Cumberland, Md. By 1840 the road reaches Vandalia, Ill, at a cost of $7 mil. It becomes an important route during the period of western exploration.

11/20/11 The construction of the Cumberland Rd begins. Also known as the Old National Road, this pave highway will connect Cumberland, MD w Wheeling (West VA) on the Ohio R. The road will be completed to Wheeling in 1818, and subsequent extensions will carry it first to Columbus, Ohio, and finally to Vadalia, Ill. in 1840. The Cumberland Rd will be the main route along which settlers will travel to colonize the Far West.

4/30/12 Territory of Orleans enters Union as the state of Louisiana, bringing the tot number of states to 18 and adding 75,000 to the pop of the US.

5/14/12 Congr formally incorporates Spanish West FL, until recently the Republic of West FL, into the the Miss. Terr. The area comprises the land south of the 31st parallel between the Miss. and Perdido Rivers.

1812 Louisiana becomes 18th state. Louisiana Territory becomes the Missouri Territory.

May 14, 1812 Annexation by a congressional act added the West Florida territory to the territory of Mississippi and to the nation.

Apr 30 1812 LA was admitted to the Union, the 18th state.  Formerly known as Orleans Territory, it was mad up mainly of land fr the LA Purchase of 1803, but also included the part of West FL annexed in 1810 west of Pearl R. 

Dec 11 1815 Indiana was admitted into the Union as the 19th state

1816 Indiana becomes 19th state. 

An Indian uprising in the South brought on the Creek Indian War (1813-1814).  Creeks who lived mainly in Alabama and Georgia were alarmed by encroachments on their lands and were convinced by Tecumseh, the Shawnee chief, to unite w many other tribes against the settlers. 

Mar 29 1814 The Creek  War (1813 - 1814) ended as Gen Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks under Chief Waterford at the decisive battle of Horseshoe Bend, Ala.,  where nearly 900 of 1000 Indians were killed.  The Creeks had fought w Brit troops against the Americans in the War of 1812.

 8/9/14 Part of the Creek Indians sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, ceding two-thirds of their lands in southern Georgia and in the eastern Miss Territory, some 20 million acres in all, to the US. In this pact they also agree to vacate the southern and western regions of Alabama.

 Apr 27 1813 Brit forces surrendered York, Canada, now Toronto, to Americans commanded by Brig, Gen Zebulon Pike, who was killed in the battle.

Sep 10 1813 The Battle of Lake Erie was a significant Am naval victory.  an improvised Am fleet commanded by Oliver Hazard Perry decisively defeated the British after a bloody engagement.  During the battle Perry’s flagship, “Lawrence” was crippled and he had to continue the fight fr another ship.  He returned to the “Lawrence” to accept the British surrender, then sent to Gen Wm Henry Harrison, commander in the west, the victory dispatch containing the words “We have met the enemy, and they are ours.” The Americans gained control of Lake Erie, and the Brit were obliged to withdraw from Detroit, further strengthening the US position in the Great Lakes.

 June 17, 1815 Commodore Stephen Decatur captured the Algerian frigate “Mashouda.”  Hammida, the renowned Algerian admiral, was killed during this engagement.

1815 US flotilla under Decatur captures two Algerian warships. Decatur forces the dey of Algiers to sign a treaty ending US tribute. He exacts similar treaties from Tunis and Tripoli, and the Algerian War is ended.

 2/7/15  Congress authorizes a three-man board of navy commissioners, and the position of the Secretary of the Navy to oversee the Navy Dept.

1817 Mississippi Territory is divided; western part becomes Miss, the 20th state; eastern part becomes Alabama.

1817 Construction of the Erie Canal begins. It is designed by DeWitt Clinton, governor of NY to connect the Great Lakes with the Hudson R (and thus, the Atlantic Ocean).

3/15/17 W the enthusiastic support of Governor De Witt Clinton, the NY state leg authorizes the construction of the Erie Canal, a $7 million project to be financed by the state. The planned toll waterway will five NYC access to the West, by way of the Hudson R and the proposed canal between Albany and Buffalo, challenging Canadian supremacy in trade on the Great Lakes. The ground will be broken for this project on  7/4 and "Clinton's ditch" will open in 1825.

 Nov 1817 The First Seminole War beg w the raids of the Seminole Indians along the FL-GA border in retaliation for the destruction of Fort Apalachicola on 7/27/16 by a US expeditionary force. [see Almanac of Am History for details.]

1/6/18 In FL, during the course of the First Seminole War, Gen And Jackson sends a letter through Tennessee. congressman John Rhea to Pre Monroe suggesting that he can capture Span FL for the US in a 60-day military campaign. Pres. M's failure to respond to the letter will be taken by Jackson as a sign of tacit approval for his proposed plan.

4/7/18 In his First Seminole War campaign, General Jackson seizes St. Marks, FL, where he has Scottish trader Alexander Arbuthnot and Eng trader Robert arrested for inciting the Seminole Indians. Both men are court marshaled and executed on 4/29. Jackson's actions in their affair will excite pub outcry and provoke a congressional call for Jackson's censure, but will result in no action by the government.

5/24/18 In his First Seminole Indian War campaign, Gen J seizes the Span post of Pensacola, FL, effectively ending the war.

Physical Downward Crossover (March 21, 1817- March 21, 1818)

Nov 20 1817  The First Seminole Was (1817-1818) began when settlers attacked FL Indians and the Indians retaliated by raiding isolated GA homesteads.  Americans believed Spain had incited the Seminoles against the white settlers.

1817 The Seminole war (1817- 1818) began in earnest this year w a US invasion of East FL to punish hostiles Seminole Indian, whose territory had become a refuge for runaway slaves.  Am troops on July 27, 1816, had destroyed the Seminole stronghold of Fort Apalachicola, on the river of that name.  On Dec 27, 1817, Gen Andrew Jackson took command, w orders to pursue the Indians across the FL boundary.  Jackson marched his troops into FL and captured St. Marks on April 7, 1818, and Pensacola on May 24.  In the course of his.....nevertheless, popular opinion approved the campaign, which brought East FL under Am control and resulted in its cession to the US by Spain in 1819.

November 1817 The First Seminole war beg w the raid of the Seminole Indian along the FL-GA border in retaliation for the destruction of Fort Apalachicola on July 27, 1816 by a US expeditionary force.

1/6/18 During the course of Florida’s First Seminole Indian War, Gen Andrew Jackson sends a letter through Tennessee congressman John Rhea to Pres Monroe suggesting that he can capture Span FL for the US in a 60-day military campaign.  Pres Monroe’s failure to respond to the letter will be taken by Jackson as a sign of tacit approval for his proposed plan.

24/18 In his First Seminole Indian war campaign, Gen And Jackson seizes the Spanish post of Pensacola, FL, effectively ending the war.

Physical Low (1817-1831)

The first step in a process of mutual disarmament along the US-Canadian border was taken this year in the Rush-Bagot Convention, signed on Apr 28-29.  The agreement was contained in an exchange of notes in Wash DC, between Richard Rush, acting secretary of state, and Charles Bagot, the Brit minister to the US.  By its terms, each nation would have no more than four warships on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, and none would exceed 100 tons.  The Senate unanimously approved the agreement on Apr 16, 1818.  The agreement set a precedent for solving Anglo-Am disagreements by negotiation, although it was not until the Treaty of Wash of 1871 that complete mutual disarmament obtained along the US-Canadian border.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1817-1824)

6/20/18 The Conn. state leg rescinds the property requirement for voting, becoming the first eastern state to liberalize suffrage in this way.

3/3/19 Congress enacts leg setting a $50 reward per slave for informers reporting the illegal importation of slaves into the US The pres is also empowered to return to Africa any slaves captured under the provisions of this act. The smuggling of slaves has becomes a profitable and widespread activity.      

5/15/20 Congress passes leg. making the trade in foreign slaves an act of piracy. The punishment for this activity is increased from the forfeiture of the involved vessels to including the death penalty for any Am citizens found guilty of engaging in such smuggling activates.     

1. Political  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional High (1811 - 1829)

7/12/17 The Boston "Columbian Sentinel" dubs the Monroe presidency as the "era of good feeling," a reaction evoked by the enthusiastic reception of Monroe by both Federalists and Democratic-Republicans as he travels the Northeast and Midwest during the summer. This characterization of the era is somewhat misleading, despite the aura of overriding nationalism, as political factionalism is on the increase, instigated by the underling economic problems and sectional differences.

1. Political  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual Low (1797 - 1819)

3/31/14   In a message to Cong, Pres Mad recommends the repeal of the Embargo and Non-Importation Acts.  This leg has failed to achieve its purpose, and the repeal is supported by New Eng, despite the newly dev industries that have been protected by the acts.

4/14/14 W the overwhelming endorsement of the Senate and the House, the Embargo Act and the Non-Importation Act are officially repealed.  In order to protect the new Am manufacturing industries, the repeal bill guarantees war duties for two years after peace is declared.

1. Political  1810s Polyrhythms top    

XXX 1. POLITICAL POLYRHYTHMS INTRODUCTION

Physical High with
Emotional Upward Crossover
(March 21, 1811- March 21, 1812)

Territory issue a call for the destruction of the main Indian village on the Tippecanoe River.

9/26/11 In the Indiana Territory, Governor William Henry Harrison leads a 1000-man military force out of Vincennes, headed for the Indian capital at the junction of the Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers. The goal of the expedition is to reactivate the settlement and to thwart the confederacy plans of Shawnee chief Tecumseh, who has traveled to the Southwest to seek allies among the Creek Indian tribes. The expeditionary group will erect Fort Harrison 65 miles north of the Vincennes in late October.

 11/4/11 In Wash., the 12th Congress convenes. The midterm elections of 1810 have drastically altered the political alignment of both houses. The prevalent popular nationalism and pro-war sentiment have swept the "War Hawks" into office, replacing the old generation of appeasers and peace-seeker. Among the new Democratic-Republicans who advocate expansionism and nationalism are South Carolina's John C. Calhoun, William Lownders, and Langdon Cheves; New York's Peter B. Porter, Kentucky's Richard M. Johnson and Henry Clay; and Tennessee's Felix Grundy and John Sevier. Although the War Hawks are in a numerical minority, they achieve great influence in the House of Reps. Henry Clay is elected Speaker of the House; Calhoun, Grundy and Porter gain control of the foreign relations committee; and Cheves is chosen chairman of the naval committee. The northwestern War Hawks will call for the conquest of Canada, while the Southerners call for the annexation of all of Florida.

11/5/11  In his message to Congress, Pres M calls for increased preparation for the National defense in face of the continued British and French harassment of Am commercial shipping.

11/7/11 In the Indiana Territory, the Indians led by the Prophet carry out a successful surprise attack on the 1000-man force led by Gov William Henry Harrison. In the hard-fought Battle of Tippecanoe, Harrison's men are able to repulse the Indians despite heavy losses. After razing the Indian village, Harrison's troops withdraw southward to Fort Harrison. Despite the indecisive aftermath of the battle, the frontier settlers acclaim it as a great victory over menacing Indians, adding to the influence of the congressional War Hawks. The British in Canada withdraw their support of the Tecumseh and the The Prophet. Nevertheless, anti-Brit sentiment on the frontier has been fueled with bellicose calls to expel the Brit from Canada.

3/14/12 Congress authorizes a bond issue of $11 million in order to provide financing of the defensive military preps requested by Pres. Madison in his message to Congress.

 THE WAR OF 1812

1812 Congress declares war (War of 1812) on Great Britain, defeat US forces at Detroit. Northwest Indians under Tecumseh join the British.

1812 US frigate "Constitution" defeats British frigate "Guerriere" off Nova Scotia and destroys Brit frigate "Java" off Brazil, thus earning herself the nickname "Old Ironsides." US frigate "United States" under Capt. Decatur capture Brit frigate "Macedonian."

4/1/12 Pres Madison recommends to Congress a 60-day embargo. The War Hawks faction of the Democratic-Republican party regards this embargo as the "prelude to armed conflict."

4/4/12 The embargo becomes law is to be effective for 90 instead of the 60 days advocated.

4/10/12 Congress empowers Pres M to call up 100,000 militia from the states and territories for six months' service.

April 1812 in the northwest region, the peace between the Indians and settlers, following the Battle of Tippecanoe ends, as the Indians beg another series of raids on the frontier settlements, while Tecumeseh himself remains on the defensive. The regional pro-war faction realizes that a war w Great Britain will inevitably lead to open war w the Indians.

6/4/12 The House of Reps supports Pres M's declaration of war on Great Brit.

 6/4/12 The original Louisiana Territory is renamed the Missouri Territory, since the former Territory of Orleans now is nabbed the state of Louisiana. The Missouri Territory including all of the original Louisiana Purchase area except for the state of Louisiana.

 6/18/12 Senate votes in favor of war with England.

7/2/12 IN Connecticut, Gov John Cotton Smith refuses to provide militia forces to the Fe Gov. Mass will take the same step on Aug 5. The Am side in the War of 1812 is at a severe disadvantage because of its inexperienced and poorly equipped army, and because of the vigorous opposition of the New England states to the war.

 7/17/12 In the western campaign against Canada led by Am Gen William Hull, the US protection of Michilimackinac surrenders to the British without a shot fire, encouraging the Indians led by Tecumseh to ally themselves to the British. This Indian move alarms General Hull who had led a 2200-man force across the Detroit River to occupy Sandwich.

 1813 US forces capture York (now Toronto). British seize Fort Niagara and burn Buffalo, NY. Brit blockade coastal ports.

1813 US fleet under Capt. Oliver Hazard Perry defeats the Brit in the Battle of Lake Erie.

1813 Brit evacuate Detroit. Gen. Harrison defeats the Brit in the Battle of the Thames, Ont. in which Shawnee Indian Chief Tecumseh is killed. Powerful Indian confederacy in Northwest collapses, depriving the Brit of their Indian allies.

12/24/14 In Europe, Am and Brit peace commissioners sign the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812.

1814 US fleet defeats Brit fleet on Lake Champlain, halting the Brit drive from Canada into the Hudson Valley.

1814 Brit win at Bladensburg, capture Washington, DC, and burn the the Capitol and the White House. Brit fleet bombards Fort McHenry in Baltimore harbor but fails to capture it.

1815 Gen. Jackson defeats the Brit at the Battle of New Orleans, fought two weeks after the Treaty of Ghent is signed.

1815 Anglo-American commercial treaty ends discriminatory British duties against US ships, and vice versa.

Physical High with
     Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1811 - 1817)

The first use of “Uncle Sam” to personify the fed government occurred during the War of 1812.  It seems to have used derisively at first by those opposed to the war and stemmed probably from the “US” stamped on uniforms and government wagons.  Some attribute the origin of the term to Samuel Wilson of Troy, NY.  His nickname was Uncle Sam and he was an inspector of Army supplies.  The “US” stamped on supplies was referred to by workmen as Uncle Sam.  The first recorded use of the term in print was in the Troy “Post” of Sept. 3, 1813, and the first appearance in a book was in “Adventures of Uncle Sam” (1816) by an author who used the name Frederick Augustus Fidfaddy, Esquire.

CREEK WAR

11/3/13 In the Creek War in the Miss Valley, Gen John Coffee leads a Tennessee militia force in the destruction of the Indian village of Tallahatchie.

11/9/13 IN the Creek War, Maj. Gen Andrew Jackson destroy the Indian village of Talladega in present-day Alabama, killing more than 500 Indian warriors.

1/22/14 In the Creek Indian War, Tennessee militia forces are repulsed at Emuckfaw. The militia will also suffer defeats at Enotachopco Creek on Jan. 24 and at Calibee Creek on Jan 27.

3/27/14 In the Creek Indian War, Tennessee militia forces led by Andrew Jackson and his subordinate General John Voffee achieve a decisive victory over the Creeks and their Cherokee allies at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, on the Tallapoosa R in Alabama. This defeat effectively destroys all Indian resistance, thus ending the Creek War.

Mar 29 1814 The Creek war (1813-1814) ended as Gen And Jackson defeated the Creeks under Chief Weatherford at the decisive battle of Horseshoe Bend, Ala., where nearly 900 of 1000 Indians were killed.  The Creeks had fought w Brit troops against the Americans in the war of 1812.

6/22/14 In the Treaty of Greenville, the Delaware, Miami, Seneca, Shawnee and Wyandot Indians made peace w the US. The treaty also requires the Indians to declare war on the British.

1814 Creek Indian War ends when Gen Andrew Jackson defeats the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, Ala.

1819 Supreme Court under Chief Justice Marshall upholds the right of Congress to create the Bank of the US and expresses strongly the doctrine of implied powers in the Constitution (McCulloch v. Maryland).

External Aberration (XXX)

Mar 3 1814 War against Algeria was declared by Cong the day of Algiers had molested US ships and insisted on payment of tribute.

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1812 William Monroe of Concord, Mass, begins manufacturing lead pencils.

1812 Pennsylvania Company for Insurance on Lives is incorporated in Philaledelphia It is the first insurance co. primarily involved with life insurance.

1812 Samuel Wilson, a meat-packer from Troy, NY, becomes the original "Uncle Sam." Soldiers call the meat "Uncle Sam's" because of the "U.S." on the provision boxes.

7/1/12 In order to raise additional funds for the war. Congress sets increases tariffs on import items.

1816 First tariff bill to protect domestic industry rather than to raise revenue is enacted by Congress.

1816 First savings banks are established in Boston and Philadelphia.

4/27/16 Congress passes the Tariff Act of 1816, w the support of John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay. The Tariff Act perpetuates the protective duties set during the War of 1812 in order to shelter developing Am industries that are now facing competition from abroad during the postwar era. W import duties of 15 to 30 percent on cotton, textiles, leather, paper, pig iron, wool and other goods, the chief beneficiaries of the legislation are the new Am textile and iron industries.

3/14/16 The bill to create a second Bank of the United States passes the House of Reps.

1/17/17 In Philadelphia, the second Bank of the US opens its doors for business. Before the expiration of the bank's 20-year charter in 1836, some 25 branch offices will augment its operations throughout the US.

1818 Englishman Peter Durand introduces the tin can in America. He hit upon the idea of selling hot perishable foods in suitable containers, and he put tin at the top of the list of recommended materials.

1818 Transatlantic packet lines (under sail) begin operation between NYC and Liverpool, Eng. The average time for the trip is 30 days.

2. Business & Economy  1810s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical High (1803 - 1817)

2/6/15 In NJ, inventor and steamboat designer John Stevens is granted the first Am railroad charter.  Stevens plans to construct a railway from Trenton to New Brunswick - project that is never actually to be dev.  Stevens will not build a track for an early locomotive until 1826.

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1810 - 1817)

1810 Transportation  New Yorker Cornelius Vanderbilt begins his career as as shipping magnate w the initiation of regular ferry service between Staten Island and Manhattan.  Vanderbilt will go on to control ferry lines between NY and NJ, across Long Island Sound, and on the Hudson R.  By mid-century he will establish a bi-monthly shipping rout between NY and San Francisco by way of connecting land route across Nicaragua, and a regular passenger and freight service between Am and Europe.  At the same time, he will build his railroad holdings into an empire.

6/23/10 Fur-trading magnate John Jacob Aston founds the Pacific Fur Co. in order to extend his influence over the fur resources of the Pacific Northwest.  In April 1811, the Pacific Fur Co will found the trading post and village of Astoria at the mouth of the Oregon R, in order to trans-ship furs to Canton, China.  During the War of 1812, Astor will lose his key Astoria post.

Apr 12, 1811 Colonists sent by John Jacob Astor on the “Tonquin” to operate a Pacific coast fur-trading center of the newly formed Pacific Fur Co arrived at the mouth of the Columbia R., via Cape Horn.  Under the leadership of a Capt. thorn, they disembarked at Cape Disappointment, Wash., but soon moved a few miles upstream and founded Astoria in what is now Oregon.  This was the firs permanent Am colony in the Pacific Northwest.

9/11/11 In Pittsburgh, Pa, the first Am inland steamboat, the "New Orleans" sets sail down the Ohio R, After an eventual four-month journey down the Miss. R, the vessel reaches New Orleans. This run initiates regular riverboat services on the Miss. R between New Orleans and Natchez. The fare for the downstream trip is $18, and for the upstream trip is $25.

1812 Large-scale drug production begins in Philadelphia as America's first drug mill opens.

1814 In Waltham, Mass, Boston textile manufacturer Francis Cabot Lowell establish the first factory enclosing power cotton spinning and weaving machinery in the same building. Lowell invented a power loom of his own after covertly observing similar machinery in operation in Great Britain. His Waltham Boston Manufacturing Co will be followed by his establishment of subsequent cotton textiles factories in the city of Lowell, named for him. His paternalitistc attitude toward his factory workers will draw national attention.

1815 New England textile mills are processing 90,000 bales of cotton a year-up from 500 bales in 1800.

1815 Chief imports are woolen and cotton items, sugar, and coffee. The main export item is cotton. Most colorful method of trans during this time is the Conestoga wagon with its lovely colors, a 4-to 6 horse team decorated with bells. It carries a load of several tons; is about 60 ft. long.

5/10/16 In Wisconsin, the post of Fort Howard is founded at Green Bay, as a center of the Illinois Territory fur trade.

3/3/17 The steamboat "Washington," designed by Henry Shreve, initiates a commercial route on the Ohio and Miss Rivers, between Louisville and New Orleans.

2. Business & Economy  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

2. Business & Economy  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1808 - 1819)

2/20/11 Congress votes against renewing the charter of the first Bank of the US, due to expire on March 4, Sec of the Treasury Albert Gallatin has strongly endorsed renewal of the charter, but he faces strong goes in the “Old Republicans” faction who regard the bank as an unconstitutional Federalist imposition; in those who find the fact that two=thirds of the bank stock is owned by Brit citizens a dangerous situation; and in those who advocate the dev of state-chartered banks.  The intense congressional debate over the this issue ends in a tie vote in the Senate, and the vote of Vice=Pres Clinton against the charter settles the matter.  The failure to renew the bank charter will prove an unwise move, as the War of 1812 will require the kind of financing facilitated by the Bank of the US.  [ also Int. low]

3/4/11 The Bank of the United State is dissolved.

Intellectual Upward Crossover (March 21, 1819 - March 21, 1820)

Jan 1819 The fist serious Am financial occurs as a result of the curtailment of credit and the 1817 congressional order mandating the resumption of payments in hard currency. In the years since the end of the War of 1812, the national financial situation has been characterized by commodity inflation, land speculation, overextended manufacturing investments and the unwise policies of the second Bank of the US. The South and the West are particularly hard hit. In a number of western states, including Kentucky, Ill and the Missouri Territory, legislation is passed to alleviate the desperate situation of debtors. The financial panic, which will extend through the end of the year. sees the collapse of a number of state banks and the foreclosure of large tracts of western real estate by the Bank of the US. [what mo.?]

2. Business & Economy  1810s Polyrhythms top    

External Aberration (XXX)

6/6/16 A meteorological phenomenon occurs. Ten inches of snow fall in the Berkshire Mountains in Mass, and in Vermont and New Hampshire. this the "Year in which there is no summer" in New England, wreaking havoc on agricultural crops.

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1811 Using his simple "transit finder," Bond discovers a comet.

3. Science & Technology  1810s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1810 - 1817)

1810 Yale Medical School is established.

1810 aeronauts A. R. Hawley and Augustus Post will complete an 1172-mile balloon flight from St. Louis to Canada.

1810 Also in 1810, aeronauts S. R. Hawley and Augustus Post will complete an 1172-mile balloon flight from St. Louis to Canada.

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was founded in 1812, dedicated to the advancement of natural sciences.  It was immediately popular and generously supported.  Within two years the original membership of seven doubled, 33 correspondents were making contributions, and a program of lectures on plants and insects was scheduled.  The public was admitted in 1828, two years after the museum had been expanded by the addition of another building.  Among today’s more than 140,000 volumes, those presented by the original donors maintain a place of honor.

6/11/16 Baltimore Maryland, becomes the first Am city to institute a gas co for the purpose of street lighting. The Gas Light Co of Baltimore will illuminate the city at night through the use of coal gas.  June 1816 Baltimore MD, became the first city in the US to launch a gas co.  The Gas Light Co of Baltimore was org to provide coal gas for lighting the city’s streets.

1817 Baltimore lights its streets with gas lamps.

3. Science & Technology  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1810s Polyrhythms top    

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4. Mechanical  1810s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical HIgh (1803 - 1817)

The Newburyport Bridge over the Merrimack R. in mass, the most famous suspension bridge in the 19th-century Am, was erected by John Templeman, holder of several patents on suspension bridge improvements.  The bridge had a span of 224 ft,  In 1909 it was rebuilt, w its original structure carefully preserved.

 The first steamboat to sail down the Miss. R. was owned by a Mr. & Mrs. Roosevelt.  After several interruptions, including an earthquake at New Madrid, Mo., and the birth of a baby to Mrs. Roosevelt, the boat reached New Orleans on Jan. 12, 1812, where it caused a sensation.  The boat commenced regular runs between New Orleans and Natchez, charging $18 for the downstream trip and $25 for the upstream trip.

 1814 Francis Cabot Lowell built the first US plant designed to manufacture cloth

fr raw cotton by power machinery.  A Boston importer, Lowell had observed power machinery in Brit textile plats and had violated Brit laws by smuggling secretly drawn sketches of that machinery out of the country.  With the financial backing of his brother-in-law, Patrick Tracy Jackson, and the mechanical skill of machinist Paul Moody, Lowell secured a charter for the Boston manufacturing Co, w a capitalization of $300,000.  The machinery used in the Waltham factory and all subsequent equipment of the company came to be known as Lowell-Moody machinery and soon was quite different from the English models upon which they had been based.  The city of Lowell, Mass., was named after Lowell.

 1814 In Waltham, Mass, Boston textile manufacturer Francis Cabot Lowell establishes the first factory enclosing power cotton spinning and weaving machinery in the same bldg.  Lowell  invented a power loom of his own after covertly observing similar machinery in operation in Great Brit.  His Waltham Boston Manufacturing Co will be followed by his establishment of subsequent cotton textile factories in the city of Lowell, name for him.  His paternalistic attitude toward his factory workers will draw national attention.

4. Mechanical  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1810s Polyrhythms top    

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1812 I. Thomas founds the American Antiquarian Society and becomes the organization's first pres.

1814 First large library network west of the Alleghenies is established from several circulating libraries in Pittsburgh, Pa.

1814 First school for the higher education of women is started by Emma Hart Willard in Middlebury, Vt.

1814 Cost of education at Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass. is about $300 a year.

5. Education  1810s Physical Cycle top    

5. Education  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

1816-73 Infant school intro in Boston, 1816, and including in the public school system, 1818; admitted children at 4 yrs.; NY, 1827. First Germ. kindergarten (Froebel) introduced in the US at Watertown, Wis., 1855, by Mrs. Carl Schurz; 1st Eng kindergarten at Boston, 1860, by Eliz. Peabody (1804-94); 1st pub school kindergarten by Susan Blow at St. Louis (1873) under sponsorship of William Torrey Harris (1835-1908), superintendent of schools. (instituted Commissioner of Education, 1889-1906).

 The Second Great Awakening resulted in the establishment of numerous societies to aid in spreading the gospel, including the American Bible Society (1816),  American Sunday School Union (1817),

1818 School for children as young as 4 years is made part of the public school system in Boston.

 

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1811 - 1819)

1815 Boston Society for the Moral and Religious Instruction of the Poor is established. It promotes Sunday school education in the city.

1816 American Bible Society is founded in NYC. Its purpose is to increase the circulation of texts of the Bible, particularly to the poor.

5. Education  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

1819 Norwich U opens in Vermont, specializing in technical training. This is something that has been neglected in most colleges at the time, except for the West Point Military Academy. [was the technical Physical or Intellectual?]

5. Education  1810s Polyrhythms top    

Physical Low with
     Intellectual High
(1810 - 1831)

In the Darmouth college case the Dup Court, under Chief Justice John Marshall, continued to uphold the power of the federal government.  In 1816 New Hampshire, without the consent of Darmouth college, amended the college charter, which in legal terms was a contract.  The college brought suit, w Daniel Webster as counsel.  Marshall wrote the court’s opinion, holding that New Hampshire acted unconstitutionally, violating the Constitution's prohibition against any state passing laws “impairing the Obligation of Contracts.”  The decision became a major instrument for protection of property rights against state abridgment.

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1818 Conn. constitution disestablish the Congregational Church.

1819 Unitarian Church (stressing the unity of God and denying Trinitarianism) founded by William Ellery Channing.

1819 William Ellery Channing leads the formation of the Unitarian Church in Boston.

5/5/19 In Baltimore, Maryland, William Ellery Channing delivers a sermon entitled "Unitarian Christianity" at the ordination of Jared Sparks. Channing's sermon underlines the schism - between the Unitarians and traditional Christians.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1810s Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1811 - 1819)

1810 American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions is established. This is the beginning of a wide missionary effort in the US.

1810 Org. of the Am Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (Congregational), which became interdenominational (1812), marked the be. of Am missionary interest, The Am. Bible Society (1816), the Home Missionary Soc. (1826), and the Am. Tract Soc. (1825) followed. In 1814 the Gen. Missionary convention of the Baptists for Foreign Missions initiated home missions movement. In 1832 the Baptist Home Missionary Soc. was org. to operate in the South & West.

[????] Disciples of Christ, a group of progressive Presbyterians opposed to closed communion, founded, the Independent Church of Christ at Brush Run, Pa. Two groups, 1 founded by Rev. Barton Warren Stone (1774-1844) and the other by Rev. Thomas Campbell (1763-1854) and his son, Alexander (1788-1866) united at Lexington, Ky. (1832).

 American religious groups, which in colonial days had been the object of missionary efforts from England and other countries, in the early nineteenth cent begin to proselytize abroad.  The Am Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was formed in 1810.  The Baptists established a group to support missions in 1814, the Methodists in 1819, the Episcopalians in 1820, and the Presbyterians in 1837, although work by the Presbyterians had begun much earlier.  Adoniram Judson, leader of the missionary movement that had spawned the  American Board, went to India in 1812.  In 1813 he traveled to Burma, where he remained for 30 years and where he translated the Bible into Burmese.  By 1848 there were 283 American Missionaries in the Orient.

1813-17. Large Negro groups. formed independent churches, incl. African Methodist Episcopal Church (Philadelphia, 1816). The 1st Negro Baptist church was founded in Ga. (1773). In 1861 there were 200,000 Negro members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South; 150,000 Negro Baptists.

1813 Celebrated witch Molly Pitcher dies in Lynn, Mass. Her fame had spread throughout the country and hundreds went to her for prophecies, love potions, and information about lost property.

Sep 4 1813 The first religious weekly in America, “Religious Remembrancer,” founded in Philadelphia by John W. Scott, began pub.  Through successive mergers the magazine grows, and eventually became the “Christian Observer.”

4/11/16 In Philadelphia, Blacks establish the African Methodist Church, the first Black church in the US to be completely independent of white churches. Clergyman Richard Allen is ordained as the church's first bishop.

Black religious groups began to break away from largely white Protestant denominations to form their own churches.  In 1796 black members of the Methodist Episcopal Church in NYC formed the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, which in 1821 was org as a national group.  The African Methodist Episcopal Church was founded in 1816 by Richard Allen, a clergyman who had been born a slave.  He was pastor of a group that broke away from the Methodist Church in Philadelphia on Apr 11 he became the first bishop of the new denomination.

The American Bible Society was founded in NYC.  The purpose of  the org was to increase circulation of the Bible.  Through the society translations of the Bible in over 1000 tongues have been printed and distributed around the world.  The society emphasizes distribution of the Bible to the poor.  It was incorporated in 1841 and in cooperation w the Brit and Foreign Bible Society has dev into an org of worldwide influence w a large membership and many auxiliaries.

The distribution by religious groups of Christian lit not only spread religion but also contributed significantly to ed.  The Connecticut Tract Society was form in 1807.  In 1814 it joined with half a dozen similar groups to form a national org, the American Tract Society.  After 1817 the society supplied much religious literature, which was distributed widely by circuit riders.  In many homes these were then only books, and from the children learned to read and spell.  Peter Cartwright, and Methodist circuit rider for nearly 50 years, wondered whether he “had done the most good by preaching or by distributing religious books.”  He felt “it was part and parcel of a Methodist preacher’s most sacred duty to circulated good books.”  Cartwright sometimes handed out a thousand dollars worth of books a year, a large amount at that time.

1819 Wm Ellery Channing delivered his famous sermon, “Unitarian Christianity,” in Baltimore  In it he outlined the Unitarian view and provided liberals with a platform.  The sermon heightened tensions among Protestant factions and led to formation of the American Unitarian Association.

5/5/19 In Baltimore, MD, Emily Ellery Channing delivers s sermon entitled “Unitarian Christianity” at the ordination of Jared Sparks.  Channing’s sermon underlines the schism-between the Unitarians and traditional Christians.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1810s Polyrhythms top    

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1811 Construction begins on the buildings of Boston's aristocratic Colonnade Row, designed by Bulfinch.

1811 Allston paints "The Poor Author and the Rich Bookseller."

1815 Latrobe supervises the rebuilding of the Capitol and White House following the burning of Wash. DC, by the Brit.

1816 Bullfinch designs the Congregational Church in Lancaster, Massachusetts.

7. Arts & Design  1810s Physical Cycle top    

XXX 7. ARTS AND DESIGN PHYSICAL INTRODUCTION

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1817 - 1824)

More than any other painter, John Trumbull provided future generations w a record of the Revolutionary era.  after studying under Benjamin West in London, he began copying his teacher’s grand style in historical paintings.  An early and moving example was “The Defeat of General Montgomery at Quebec.”  In 1816 Trumbull secured a commission from Congress to decorate the Capitol, and the best known result was “Signing of the Declaration of Independence” (1818).  Others were “Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga, Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown,” and “Resignation of Washington.”  In 1831 he founded Trumbull Gallery at Yale and placed much of his work in it.

1819 William Strickland, architect and engineer bases his design of the Second Bank of the US in Philadelphia on the Parthenon in Athens, Greece.

7. Arts & Design  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1811 - 1829)

Cup plates became the rage at about this time.  They were miniature plates w a center cavity about the diameter of a cup bottom used as a dainty but practical perch for cups while a drinker sipped from his saucer.  Cup plates were decorated w lavish attention to detail, came in a great variety of patterns, and fairly chronicled the taste of the period.  They were introduced first as chinaware.  The dev of the glass industry, especially of the glass  press, made them even more plentiful and, considering their use, necessary.  Cup plates lasted as long as it was considered polite to drink from a saucer but went out of vogue before the Civil War.  

Emotional XXXward Crossover (March 21, 1000- March 21, 1000)

ZZZ 7. ARTS AND DESIGN EMOTIONAL CROSSOVER DATA

7. Arts & Design  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1810s Polyrhythms top    

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1810 I. Thomas pubs the 2-vol "History of Printing in America."

1815 In Boston, the first issue of the "North American Review," edited by Connecticut-born historian Jared Sparks, is pub. Intended to raise the standards of Am lit and criticism, the "Review: will become a widely respected scholarly journal.

What when p 229.  A report on the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1803 - 1806), based on the papers of Meriwether Lewis and made available by Wm Clark, was pub by editors Nicholas Biddle and Paul Allen.  The report, “History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark,” carried a preface by Thom Jeff in which the career of Lewis was related in succinct but memorable detail.  ... Lewis was so busy w the affairs of his office that he found not time to finish his revision before his mysterious death in Tenn. in 1809. ... The complete papers remained unpublished until 1903.

1816 John Pickering pubs "Vocabulary," a dictionary of some 500 indigenous Am words and phrases. In spite of continuing vocabulary and spelling alterations, American English is never to achieve independence from British English, so fervently hoped for by the nationalistic partisans. [note that in 1828, Noah Webster pubs monumental dictionary] 

Benjamin Silliman Conn. chemist, establishes the "American Journal of Sciences and Arts," known popularity as "Silliman's Journal” in 1818

8. Literature & Publication  1810s Physical Cycle top    

1809 William MaClure Published the First Detailed Geological Survey of the United States titled,  "Gather of American Geology," in 1809. He prepared a revised edition of the Survey in the subsequent 2nd Quarter of the Cycle which he presented in 1817. 

1810 Francois Michaux, Fr. botanist, pubs a 3-vol description of North American trees.

1812 Rush pubs "Medical Inquiries and Observation Upon the Diseases of the Mind."

1814 Based on his collection of fossils, Barton pubs a report on extinct plants and animals of North Am.

1816 Parker Cleaveland, (yes, Cleaveland) Massachusetts mineralogist, pubs "Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy and Geology," America's first book in this field.

1817 Bigelow pubs the 3-vol "American Medical Botany."

1811 Wistar publishes "A System of Anatomy," America's first anatomy textbook.

1814 Jacob Bigelow, Mass. physician, pubs "Flora Bostoniensis," the standard botany manual for years.

8. Literature & Publication  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

The most successful woman author to the last eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries was Susanna Rowson, who had come to America from England in 1793.  In Eng. she had pub in 1791 the sentimental and didactic novel “Charlotte Temple: A Tale of Truth.”  It was issued in Am in 1794, described as “designed...for the perusal of the young and thoughtful of the fair sex.’  By 1933 it had gone through 161 editions in the US.  Mrs. Rowson was also an actress and author of comedies and comic operas.  Although she left the stage in 1797 and opened a girls’ boarding school near Boston, Mrs. Rowson continued to write, her work including the novel “Sarah; or, The Exemplary Wife” (1813).

Emotional High (1811 - 1829)

An unusual example of an Am playwright of the early years of independence who won acclaim, although not riches, on both sides of the Atlantic was John Howard Payne (1791-1852).  Showing a precious interest in the drama, he pub the “Thespian Mirror” in NYC when he was only 14.  It so impressed the literary and theaters world that he was encouraged to write.  He proceeded to write a melodrama, “Julia; or, The Wanderer.” in 1806.  His early fame waned, and it was not until 1818, in England, that he regained recognition.  Success stemmed from the production by Edmund Kean, the noted Brit actor, of Payne’s “Brutus; or, The Fall of Tarquin,” which opened on Dec. 3.  This romantic tragedy, in blank verse, was equally successful in NY in 1819.  It was performed for many years.  By 1832, after other successes and writing the poem “Home, Sweet Home,” which was put to music, Payne was honored but died in debt while working on further literary and dramatic works.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1811 - 1820)

Aug. 1816  “The Culprit Fay,” a poem of more than 600 lines, was written in three days by Joseph Rodman Drake.  Drake died of tuberculosis in 1820, and his poem was not pub until 1835, in the volume “The Culprit Fay and Other Poems.”  On his deathbed Drake had ordered his wife to destroy the manuscripts of what he described as his  “trifles in rhyme.”  Fortunately, she did not do so.  “The Culprit Fay,” set against the background of the Hudson R. Valley, is considered an important milestone in the dev of Am lit.

Sep 1817 The poem “Thanatopsis” by Wm Cullen Bryant won for Am poetry its first attention and respect from Brit critics.  Printed in the “North American Review,” the poem’s appearance was “much as if a classic temple had been exorcised from the wilderness by the strains of a new Amphion.”  Its quite reflections on death and nature created an entire school of American poets.

8. Literature & Publication  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual Low (1797 - 1819)

R. W. Emerson described the period between 1790 & 1820 as a time when "there was not a book, speech, or a conversation, or a thought" in Massachusetts. [E&I low]

Intellectual 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1808 - 1819)

1815 "New England Renaissance" of Transcendentalism Begins in Lit.

1816 Experimental Infant School in Boston (leads to Kindergarten 1860)

1816 Pickering's Dictionary "Vocabulary" Attempts American English (pre. Webster-1828) 

8. Literature & Publication  1810s Polyrhythms top    

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1810 "Repository of Sacred Music," an important source of US folk hymnody, is published by John Wyeth.

1810 Gottlieg Graupner organized the Philharmonic Society in Boston.

1813 A choir book is composed for the use in Span. missions of the Southwest.

1814 During the Brit bombardment of Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key writes the lyrics to "The Star-Spangled Banner," now the US national anthem.

1814 In the Park Street Church, Boston, a flute, bassoon, and cello are used to accompany the singing.

What When p. 229  The words to “The Star Spangled Banner” were written during the war of 1812 by Francis Scott Key, a lawyer, on the night of Set. 13-14, 1814, during the unsuccessful bombardment of an Am fort by Brit warships.  Although long considered the national anthem of the US. “The Star Spangled Banner” sis not officially gain that status until 1931.

1815 A musical jubilee is held at King's Chapel in Boston to celebrate the Peace of Ghent. On Christmas Eve, the first concert of the Handel and Haydn Society is held in the same building.

1816 Ananias Davisson pubs "Kentucky Harmony," a collection of music of the South and Midwest US.

9. Entertainment  1810s Physical Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional High (1811 - 1829)

April 13 1812 “Marmion” by James N. Barker, a highly successful dramatization of the poem by Sir Walter Scott, opened in NYC.  W the US at war w Great Brit, the anti-English sentiments expressed by Scott’s characters held great appeal for NY audiences.  Yet the producer listed the play as written by an Englishmen, Thomas Morton, to cater to the esteem Americans placed on Brit culture.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1811 - 1820)

The first complete performance of an oratorio in the US is presented in Boston by the Handel and Haydn Society in 1818.

9. Entertainment  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1810s Polyrhythms top    

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1813 Craps is first introduced into New Orleans La. It was adapted from a French dice game, "hazards."

10. Sports  1810s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1803 - 1817)

1810 First unofficial heavyweight boxing champion, Tom Molineaux, a freed Virginia slave, is beaten in the 40th round in a match in England. [what mo.?]

Dec 10, 1810 The first unofficial Heavyweight champion of the US, Tom Molineauz, a freed slave fr VA, was beaten in the 40th round by Tom Cribb, the English champion, in a boxing match at Copthall Common, London.

1811 Competitive rowing races are popular. A race between "Knickerbocker" of NYC and "Invincible" of Long Island attract thousands. "Knickerbocker" wins.

1816 Jacob Hyer beat Tom Beasley in a grudge fight and calls himself America's first boxing champion.

1818 First recorded trotting contest occurs when "Boston Blue" does the mile in less than three minutes, winning his supporters $1000.

10. Sports  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

10. Sports  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  1810s Polyrhythms top    

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11. Fashion  1810s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical Low (1817 - 1831)

Men’s fashions also changed.  Knee-length pantaloons, w buckles, silk stockings, and low-cut shoes, as well as the wig, were on their way out by 1800.  Pres. James Monroe was the last chief executive to dress this way, and an 1823 painting of him and his cabinet show Monroe the only person so clothed.  Long trousers came in, reflecting the French Revolution, whose supporters came from the middle and lower classes and dressed this way to contrast w the nobility.  The style seemed appropriate for democratic America.

11. Fashion  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional HIgh (1811 - 1829)

Fashions in clothing changed considerably in the early nineteenth cent.  Under the influence of the romantic movement and the French Rev, women’s fashions became simpler.  Light dresses, low-cut and sleeveless, replaced the elaborate billowing gowns of the old aristocracy.  Hoar was cut shorter, not piled high.  About 1815 fashion began moving back to the ear of stiff corsets, lot-of-mutton sleeves, and full skirts that developed into the hoop skirt. 

11. Fashion  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1810s Polyrhythms top    

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1800 pop US about 7.2 million, a gain of nearly 2 million inhabitants, or 36.4% since 1800. 1,4 American    s are blacks, and all but 186,746 of those are slaves. With the 1803 admission of Ohio, the numbers of states in the Union has reached 17.

Census pop 7,239,881, an increase of 1,931,398 over 1800.  Black pop rose by 481,361 to 1,378,110.  Of this total, 186,746 were free citizens, a group omitted in the 1800 census.  The center of pop moved to a point 40 mi. northw4ets of Wash. DC.

1810 In the third national census, the US pop is recorded at 7,239,881, marking a gain of nearly 2 million inhabitants, or 36.4 percent since 1800.  Of this total, 1,378,100 Americans are black and all but 186, 746 of those are slaves.  With the 1803 admission of Ohio, the number of states in the Union has reached 17.

1810 Third US census shows a pop of 7.2 mil, including 60,000 immigrants and about 1.2 mil slaves. Pop west of the Appalachian Mountains is slightly  more than 1 mil.

 1810 Lottery is held at Union College in which the winning ticket has a chance of drawing $100,000.

1811 Earthquake rocks the Ohio-Mississippi Valleys. Tremors are felt over an area of 300,000 sq. mi.

1812 Lucy Brenner, serving under the name of Nicholas Baker, is a member of the crew of the "Constitution." She serves for 3 years, successfully disguising her sex.

12/28/16 In Wash, Presbyterian clergyman Robert Finley founds the Am Colonization Society. This organization's goal is to resettle freed blacks in Africa. The eventual result of this program will be the establishment of the African republic of Liberia.

1817 Wild accounts of a sea serpent off the coast of Gloucester, Mass. describe a strange undulating creature, 3 ft. in diameter and from 70 to 100 fr. long. It has a long tongue that shoots our from its gaping mouth.

1817 American Society for the Return of Negroes to Africa is founded in Richmond, Va. Headed by a succession of distinguished Virginians, the Society first sends Negroes to Sierra Leone, then buys and establishes a neighboring area called Liberia. [what mo.?]

12. Lifestyles  1810s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical High (1803 - 1817)

The first large-scale highway construction project of the fed government began this year.  The project was the National Road, the first part of which was known as the Cumberland Road because it connected Cumberland, Md., already linked to Baltimore w Wheeling, in preset-day West VA. The Cumberland Rd was completed in 1818.  Originally the National  Road was to run to the Miss. R., but after it reach Vandalia, Ill., in 1830 construction stopped.  Until it lost its importance, first to canals and then to railroads, the National Road was the main route west for settlers and a vital commercial artery for farm products moving to eastern cities.

12. Lifestyles  1810s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional Upward Crossover (March 21, 1811- March 21, 1812)

Jan 1811 A slave insurrection took place in Louisiana when some 400 slaves rose up, killed the son of a plantation owner, and marched on New Orleans.  Armed soldiers and planters put down the uprising, and some 75 of the slaves were killed.  The uprising was and indication of the frail foundation on which the southern economy and social fabric were based.  Fear of further bloody uprisings was to play an important role in the nation’s political and social history leading up to the Civil War.

12. Lifestyles  1810s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1819 - 1830)

Apr 26 1819 The Independent Order of Odd Fellows made its first appearance in the US w the org of Washington Lodge No. 1 in Baltimore Md.,  by Thomas Wiley, who had arrived from England in 1818.  On Feb 1, 1820, the new lodge was chartered by Duke of York Lodge, Preston, England.

12. Lifestyles  1810s Polyrhythms top    

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