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Summary

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Timelines - Decade
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American Cycles 1800s
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).


Note to readers: Work from the Kala-Rhythm archives is being offered here in the Timelines for the first time. We are allowing a view into the Timelines now by posting both the finished and the unfinished pages of the Timelines as editing from our references continues.  Unfinished pages (like this one) contain raw data from history sources to which we give credit in our "biblio/webography". Check back for updates to this and other pages.

Some notable facts from this decade...

Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr (Democratic-Republicans) ran for president against John Adams and Charles Pinckney (Federalists) in 1800. Since candidates for pres and VP were not separately nominated, a tie resulted between Jefferson and Burr with 73 votes each.  The House of Representative chooses Jefferson for president and Burr for Vice-President.

Congress enacted a law to divide the Northwest Territories into two territories, Indiana and Ohio.

The Federal Government moved from Philadelphia to the new, permanent federal capital of Washington on the Potomac River in June, 1800. Washington became the first planned capital city in the world.

The Treaty of Morfontaine, more commonly known as the Convention of 1800, is signed by the French consulate and by American peace commissioners William Vans Murray, Oliver Ellsworth, and William R, Davie on September 30, 1800. It restored normal diplomatic relations between the two nations and put an end to the undeclared war. The treaty of 1778 was officially annulled, and the question of French compensation to America for the seizure of its was is left to future negotiations.

 Congress convened for its first session in the new federal capital of Washington on November 17, 1800. John and Abigail Adams moved into the new presidential palace which would later become known as the White House.

The Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812, when it was signed on Dec 24, 1814  by representatives of the US and Great Britain.

John Marshall became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1801.

Georgia ceded its western territory to the US in 1802.

Congress established a military academy at West Point, New York on March 17, 1802 which opened officially on July 4.

Congress passed a new Judiciary Act on April 29, 1802 to restore to six the number of Supreme Court justices, to provide for one session a year of the Supreme Court and to establish a system of six circuit courts, each of which would be presided over by a Supreme Court justice.     

Ohio became 17th state on March 1, 1803.

 Since the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 outlawed slavery in the territory, Ohio is the first state in which slavery is illegal from the beginning.

  Congress passes the 12th Amendment to the US Constitution to provide for the election of the president and vice-president on separate ballots and sent it to the states on December 9, 1803.  This came after the tie in the Jefferson-Burr election of 1800.  The 12th Amendment will now be set to the states for ratification.

1804 Extremists plan a separate northern confederacy in alliance with Aaron Burr. Plan fails when Hamilton blocks Burr's attempt to be governor of New York. Hamilton also attacks Burr's character. Burr challenges Hamilton to a pistol duel, in which Hamilton is fatally wounded.

1804 Jefferson is re-elected pres in the first election with separate balloting for pres and VP. George Clinton is elected VP. They are Democratic-Republicans.

1805 Michigan Territory is formed out of the northern part of the Indiana Territory.

3/1/05 The Senate dismisses the charges against Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase, who had been impeached by the House of Reps for partisan conduct unbecoming to a judge. Chase retakes his seat on the bench, although with a considerable loss of credibility. The failure of the case against Chase discourages later administrations from attempting to use the impeachment process to limit the power of the fed judiciary for political reasons.

1806 Jefferson protests Britain's interference with and France's restrictions on neutral US shipping. Congress passes Non-importation Act, forbidding the purchase of British foods. The act is suspended.

1806 Burr plans to establish an independent republic in the Southwest. Plot fails when pres Jefferson orders his arrest.

1807 British frigate "Leopard" attacks US frigate "Chesapeake;" four seamen, alleged to be British subjects, are seized. Jefferson, opposed to war, order British warship to leave US waters.


 

1807 Burr is tried for treason and acquitted.

1808 James Madison is elected pres, and George Clinton is reelected VP on the Democratic-Republican ticket.

1809 Illinois Territory is formed from the western part of the Indiana Territory.

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1. Political  1800s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Cycle - High (1803 - 1817)

Apr 30 1803 The LA Purchase, the first territorial acquisition made by the US, added to the country some 828,999 sq. mi. of land between the Miss R. and the Rocky Mts.  It was bought from France for 80,000,000 francs (about $25 million).  The price included 20 million francs for assumption by the US of claims against France by US citizens.  The LA Purchase increase US national territory about 140%.  The territory later formed Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa, Arkansas, North and South Dakota, most of Louisiana, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Wyoming, and parts of Colorado and Oklahoma.

5/02/03 US purchases Louisiana Territory from Fr for $11,250,000. For approximately $15 mil. the US purchases the entire LA territory.  The cost of the territory is $11,250,000, while the remaining $3,750,000 covers the debts owed by France to Am citizens.  The US assumes these debts. This acquisition doubles the land areas of the US, adding some 828,999 sq. miles between the Miss. R. and the Rocky mountains.

8/31/03 Lewis and Clark begin their government sponsored transcontinental exploration.

1803 John Sibley sets out to explore the Red R as far as the present site of Shreveport, La.

1803 Explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin exploring lands west of the Miss R. They follow the Ohio, Missouri, and Columbia Rivers to the Pacific Ocean and return by a similar route, a total of 8000mi.

1/05 A government-sponsored scientific expedition to explore the lower Red R and the Ouachita R returns to Natchez, Mississippi, after successfully completing its mission.  Begun in Oct 1804, the expedition to the old Southwest was led by Scottish-born scientist and Miss planter Emily Dunbar, who was assisted by Dr. Geo Hunter.  Dunbar's important reports back to Pres Jeff made the first mention of features such as the mineral wells at Hot Springs, Ark.

3/4/05 Jeff is inauguration for 2nd term  He asks for a federally-finance public works program.

8/9/05 Gen James Wilkinson commissions LT Zebulon Montgomery Pike to explore the territory of the LA Purchase, and specifically to search out the sources of the Miss R.  On his first expedition, Pike leaves St. Louis w a part of 20 men that he leads into the Minnesota region, which he mistakenly takes to be the source of the Miss R.  Pike will return from this expedition on Apr 30, 1806.

Apr 27, 1805 In the Tripolitan War, the US achieved its major victory when Wm Eaton , a special US naval agent, led a small force of Marines and Arab mercenaries in capturing the Tripolitan port city of Derna.  Eaton's force, a squad of US Marines under Lt. Preston N. O'Bannon and about 100 Arab mercenaries, had marched 500 miles from Egypt to Derna and were assisted by a coordinated bombardment of Derna by US naval vessels.  Eaton's ultimate mission, approved by Pres. Thom Jeff, was to replace the ruling pasha of Tripolitan with the rightful ruler.  However, the coming of peace in early June aborted the plan.  The phrase "to the shores of Tripoli" in the official song of the US Marine Corps refers to the Derna campaign, which was the first engagement to US land forces in North Africa.  the campaign marked the first time that the US false was raised over an Old World fort.

1806 Pike explores the southeastern territory, traveling through Kansas Nebraska, Colorado, and New Mexico. He first sees Pike's Peak on this trip.

3/29/06 congress passes leg authorizing the construction of the federally-financed Cumberland Road from Cumberland, Maryland, to the village of Zanesburg, VA, on the Ohio R.   A new charter is granted to Zanesburg, renaming it Wheeling, no in the state of West VA,  The road is to eventually reach as far as Vandalia, Illinois.  The Cumberland Rd will facilitate the flow of pioneers into the West, as well as increase commerce along its route.  9/23/06 The Lewis and Clark Expedition ends its epic two=year journey across the American western wilderness to the Pacific coast in the Oregon areas and back.  W its return to St. Louis, the successful expedition proves the feasibility of an overland route to the Pacific coast.

1806  Cong passes leg authorizing the construction of yet another wilderness route.  The Natchez Rd is to run some 500 miles from Nashville, Tennessee, to Natchez, Miss. following an old Indian trail.

1809 Cong establishes the Territory of Illinois, which has been formed from the western portion of the Indiana Territory.  The Illinois Territory including the present-day states of Ill, Wisconsin, and eastern Minnesota.

Physical Cycle - 1st Qtr. Foundation (1803 - 1810)

10/21/06 Cong passes leg to dev an organizational and legal framework for the governance of the military forces of the US.

1. Political  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

...

1. Potitical  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual Low (1797 - 1818)

1807 Congress passes Embargo Act, which prohibits US trade with any foreign country. Act tries to force Britain and France to remove restrictions on and stop interference with US trade. New England merchants oppose Act as scheme to deprive them of business.

1808 Congress prohibits the importation of African slaves.

1808 Congress tries to enforce the Embargo Act. US farmer and merchant opposition results in smuggling and other illegal trade. France confiscates US ships and cargoes in European ports. None of the acts had the desired effect.  Trade to and from Canada was difficult to stop, and neither British nor France suffered.  The chief result was damage to shipping and commercial interest of the North, especially New Eng.

1809 Congress passes Non-intercourse Act, repealing the Embargo Act and resuming trade with all countries except France and Britain.

Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review (1797 - 1808)

1802 Gov repeals excise taxes, the Naturalization Act, and the Judiciary Act (which had allowed pres Adams to appoint more the 200 "midnight judges" just before he left office). Alien and Sedition Acts are allowed to expire.

4/14/02 Congress nullifies the Naturalization Act of June 18, 1798 that was part of the Alien and Sedition Acts.  The Naturalization Act of 1795, which required five years of residency in order to render an alien eligible for Am citizenship, is reinstated.

1/8/02 As mandated by Jay's Treaty, a specially appointed commission finds that in settlement of the Revolutionary War financial claims of Brit citizens-of both colonial Loyalists and the English mercantile establishment-the US owes $2,644,000.

4/24/02 The state of GA seeks to extricate itself from the aftermath of the Yazoo land fraud of 1795 and the state's 1796 invalidation of the sale of these lands, by ceding the lands in question to the US.  The Fed Gov will seek to end the controversy over land claims by grantin 4 million acres to the holder of Yazoo land warrants.  This move will be blocked in Congress, and in 1810 the issue will come before the Supreme Court in the case of Fletcher v. Peck.  Chief Justice John Marshall will rule that the state of GA could not revoke its original act, since to do so would constitute a breach of contract.  In 1814, Congress will be forced to award the Yazoo land claimants, most of them real estate speculators, $4.2 million.

1803 Supreme Court under Chief Justice declares unconstitutional and void an act of Congress for the first time (Marbury v. Madison). Decision establishes the principle of  review.

2/24/03 In the case of "Marbury v. Madison," the Supreme Court rules an act of Congress null and void when it conflicts with the provision of the US Constitution. this decision, written by Chief Justice John Marshall, establishes the principle of  review. The plaintiff in the case, William Marbury, had been appointed by Pres John Adams as a justice of the peace of the District of Columbia during the last hours of Adams' presidency. Under orders from Pres Jefferson, Sec of State James Madison had refused to deliver the signed commission to Marbury and to three other last minute Federalist appointments, who join w/ Marbury in his legal suit. Chief Justice Marshall dismisses the suit on the grounds that the court lacks the jurisdiction to issue the requested writ of madamus, since the applicable section of the 1789 Judiciary Act empowering the court to do so is in fact unconstitutional. In employing this stratagem, Marshall avoids an open conflict between the executive and judiciary branches of government Marshall thus strengthens the concept of the balance of power among the three branches of the Fed Gov.

Sep 25 1804 the Twelfth Amendment to the US Const was ratified, providing the part that voters shall "name in their ballots the person voted for as President and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice president."  In the election of this year, electoral vice president.  Previously the candidate having the second largest number of votes in the electoral college became vice president.  [This was prompted by the 1800 elections in which  Dem-Reps tied between Jeff. and Burr, and the other party was almost tied}].

12/9/03 congress passes the 12th Amendment to the US Constitution. This Amendment provides for the election of the pres and VP on separate ballots. This move is prompted by the tie in the Jefferson-Burr election of 1800. The 12th Amendment will now be sent to the states for ratification.

1/5/04 In the House of Reps, members of the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican party beg. to investigate a Federalist associate justice of the Supreme Court, Samuel Chase, for alleged biased conduct in the trials of publisher James Thomas Callender under the Sedition Act, and of the leader of a PA taxpayer's rebellion.

2/15/04 New Jersey passes legislation calling for the gradual emancipation of the slaves within the state.  

3/1/05 The Senate dismisses the charges against Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase, who had been impeached by the House of Reps for partisan conduct unbecoming to a judge.  Chase retakes his seat on the bench, although w a considerable loss of credibility.  The failure of the case against Chase discourages later administrations from attempting to use the impeachment process to limit the power of the feral judiciary for political reasons.3/12/04 The Senate impeaches New Hampshire fed district judge John Pickering. He is rules guilty of unlawful decisions, intoxication and profanity. Although evidence is presented at the trial proving Pickering's insanity, his is still held responsible for high crimes and misdemeanors. Pickering's impeachment and the investigation of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase are part of the Pres Jefferson's continuing conflict with the Federalist judiciary.

1804 In the House of Reps, members of the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican party begin to investigate a Federalist associate justice of the Supreme Court, Samuel Chase, for alleged biased conduct in the trials of publisher James Thomas Calendar under the Sedition Act, and of the leader of PA taxpayer's rebellion, John Fries.

12/02/06 Pres Jefferson sends Cong a message asking for a ban on all slave importations to the US, to become effective Jan 1, 1808.

3/2/07 On the recommendation of Pres Jeff, Cong passes leg prohibiting the importation of any more slaves into the US after Jan 1, 1808.

11/27/06 After Gen James Wilkinson reveals the Aaron Burr conspiracy to carve out an empire in the Am Southwest and Mexico, Pres Jeff issues a proclamation warning American citizens against joining any illegal expedition against the Span.  Apparently unaware of Wilkinson's betrayal and Jeff's proclamation, Aaron Burr leads his expedition down the Miss R. to a point 30 miles above Natchez.  Here he is informed of the recent developments and escapes toward FL.

2/19/07 In Alabama, the fleeing Aaron Burr is captured and arrested for the misdemeanor of forming and leading an expedition against Span territory.

3/30/07 In Richmond, VA, the arrested Aaaron Burr is brought before the fed circuit court presided over by Sup Court Chief Justice John Marshall.

6/25/07 In the Richmond, VA, federal circuit court, Aaron Burr is indicted for treason, although the charge on which he had originally been arrested was a misdemeanor.

9/1/07 In Richmond, VA, the treason trial of Aaron Burr ends w the acquittal of Burr and his associates.  Presiding judge and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall interpreted the US law on treason strictly, finding that Burr was not actually present when an overt act was committed.  Before he can stand trial on other charges facing him, including one for Alexander Hamilton's murder, Burr jumps bail and escapes to Europe, where his plans to overthrow Pres Jeff and to unite France and Eng against the US are snubbed.

External Aberration

1801 Pasha of Tripoli declares war on the US, demanding that US ships pay more tribute to the pirates of the Barbary States (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli). Jefferson sends naval ships to Mediterranean area. [external accidental]

5/14/01 Increasing his demands for tribute from the US, Pasha Yusuf Karamanli of Tripoli declares war on the US. In spite of his predisposition for peace, Pres Jefferson decides to take up the challenge and send naval warships into the Med Sea. This was will last into 1805.

1802 Act of Congress recognizes Tripolitan War against the US and empowers pres to arm merchant ships. Act does not explicitly declare war but states the intent of the US to protect its ships at sea.

2/6/02 In recognition of the May 14, 1801 declaration of war on the US by the Pasha of Tripoli, Congress passes legislation authorizing the arming of merchant ships in order to defend Am interests in the Tripolitan war. By doing so, congress in effect admits that a state of war exists between the two nations.

2/16/04 In the Tripolitan War, Am naval LT Stephen Decatur wins a stunning victory by sailing his ketch "Intrepid" into Tripoli harbor and daringly recapturing and burning the frigate "Philadelphia," seized by the Tripolltans more than three months previously when the vessel ran aground on a reef.

1804 US expedition under Stephen Decatur enters the harbor of Tripoli and destroys the US frigate "Philadelphia," which had been captured by the Tripolitans.

1805 US forces capture the seaport of Derna in North Africa, a stronghold of the Barbary pirates. Peace treaty ends the Tripolitan War; US prisoners are ransomed, and Tripoli grants free passage to US ships in the Mediterranean. US and Tunis sign treaty. However, piracy by the Barbary States continues until 1815.

1. Political  1800s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual Low (1803 - 1807)

11/15/07 The Am Non-Importation Act of April 18, 1806 becomes effective.  The act bars a long list of Brit imports from the US.  Its threatened use has failed to secure any concessions from the Brit in the matter of the harassment of Am commercial shipping.

12/18/07 Pres Jeff sends a message to Cong asking for an embargo on all trade and commerce w foreign nations.  The Federalist vacation fails to block this measure and the Embargo Act passes the Senate on the same day, 22 to 6.  On Dec 21 it will pass the House 82 to 44.

12/22/07 The Embargo Act becomes law.  The act essentially bans all trade w foreign countries and specifically it forbids all Am ships to set sail for foreign ports.  The US vessels plying the coastal trade are required to post a bond double the value of the ship and its cargo in order to guarantee that the cargo is destined for another Am port.  The Embargo Act does not actually state that imports arriving on foreign ships are banned; rather, the provision that no foreign ships can carry cargos our of American ports has the same effect.  This law is widely protested in states w sizeable maritime interests, as in New England.  The destructive effect on the New Eng econ will lead to a surge in smuggling activities, especially from Canada.  Those American ships at sea when the Embargo Act is passed remain abroad and continue their trade activities, w the cooperation of the Brit.  Both the Brit and French eventually suffer little from the Embargo Act.  For Brit merchants, Am competition is removed and they turn to S Am for imports.  The French use the embargo as an excuse to seize those Am ships that remain abroad.  In New England, the widespread trade losses outweigh the stimulation to regional industry; and the act ends by harming Am more than the England and the French.  The Embargo Act will be reinforced the the Embargo Acts of Jan 9 and March 12, 1808.

1/9/08 The Embargo Act of Dec 22, 1807 is supplemented by and additional Embargo Act, to be followed by a third Embargo Act on March 12.  These Embargo Acts prove relatively ineffective, as smugglers carry on an active trade across the Canadian border, as well as at sea using ships that remained abroad after the passage of the first Embargo Act.

The Third Embargo Act is passed by cong, reinforcing the first two Embargo Acts.  By the end of 1808, contrary to Pres Jeff's expectations, the Embargo Acts will nearly destroy the Am shipping industry, as well as impose severe eco hardships on the New Eng States, which depend on trade in large amounts of perishable goods and manufactured goods.  The Embargo Acts also lead to the virtual demise of small New Eng seaports such as Newburyport, Mass, and New Haven, Ct.  The Southern States are not as seriously affected because their staple exports, including cotton, tobacco and wheat, can be stored for long periods of time.  Nor does the embargo achieve its ultimate goal of causing the Brit to cease their policy of harassing Am commercial shipping.

1/9/09 Cong passes the Enforcement Act, which is designed to halt smuggling activities and other illegal avoidance of the Embargo Acts.  The Enforcement Act mandates the strict enforcement of the Embargo Acts, along w harsh penalties for evasion  of the acts,  including the authorized seizure of any goods suspected of being cargos in violation of the Embargo acts.  In the New Eng states, already severely economically depressed as a result of the acts, popular antagonism to the Embargo and Enforcements Acts leads to town meetings attacking the embargo as pro-French and anti-Brit.

2/1/09 Former Sec of War and State, Senator Timothy Pickering of Mass calls for a New Eng convention to nullify the embargo.  A Federalist and former member of the secessionist New Eng Essex Junto, Pickering has vigorously opposed the Democratic-Republican policies of the Jeff admin and has supported the Brit cause.

2/20/09 In the case of the "United State v. Peters," also known as the Olmstead Case, Sup Court Chief Justice John Marshall hands down a decision supporting the power of the national government over that of the state governments.  Although the case involved the nullification of a federal court order by the state of PA, the decision is also applicable to the proposals current in the New Eng states to try to rescind the Embargo Acts.  The Embargo Act itself will be upheld later in 1809 in a Mass fed district court by Federalist Judge John Davis.  The appeal of this decision will never reach the Supreme Court. 

2/23/09 Connecticut Governor John Trumbull delivers an address to the state led in which he maintains that the Embargo Acts constitute an unconstitutional exercise of power by the Federal Gov, infringing on the rights of the states and on the civil liberties of the people.  As the New Eng state legs concur in questioning the constitutionality of the Embargo Acts, the  New England governors will refuse to supply militia in order to help enforce the embargo.

3/1/09 Faced w unrelenting widespread opposition to the Embargo Act, Pres Jeff signs the Non-Intercourse Act, which repeals the Embargo Acts, effective March 15.  The act reopens all overseas commerce to Am shipping, except that of France and Great Brit.  But should either France or Great Britain, or both, holt their interference w neutral shipping, then trade may resume w these nations also, upon presidential proclamation.

Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Reivew (1797 - 1802)

The Federalist Party dominated the US until the Democratic-Republicans gained control with the election of Thomas Jefferson during a near double third quarter period on 1802, (e 3rd 1793-1802 & i 3rd 1797-1808). The "Jeffersonian Revolution" strove for the repeal of primogeniture and added the Bill of Rights to the Constitution.

1/2/00 The free blacks of Philadelphia present a petition opposing slavery, the slave trade, and the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, to Congress, which lets the petition expire in committee.

5/6/00 Convinced that he is the victim of a Cabinet conspiracy in which Timothy Pickering and James McHenry are working in collusion with Alexander Hamilton for Adams' defeat in the 1800 pres election. Pres John Adams requests the resignation of his Sec of War James McHenry to be effective 5/31

5/12/00 Pres Adams dismisses Sec of State Timothy Pickering from office because of suspicion that he is conspiring with Alexander Hamilton to defeat John Adams in the 1800 pres election.

5/13/00 Pres Adams appoints VA Federalist John Marshall to replace Timothy Pickering as sec of state.

6/12/00 Samuel Dexter of Mass is appointed the new sec of war, replacing James McHenry.

1803 A landmark decision was handed down by the Sup Court this year in the case of "Marbury v. Madison."  In Mar. 1801, in the last hours of John Adam's presidency , Wm Marbury was awarded a commission as justice of the peace of the District of Columbia.  the new pres, Thom Jeff, instructed his secretary of state, James Madison, not to deliver the commission.  Marbury and three other men in the same situation sued Madison.  The Court's decision, written by Chief Justice John Marshall and issued on Feb 24, held that the law under which the suit was brought was null and void because it contravened the Constitution.  this was the first decision of the Sup Court to declare an act of cong unconstitutional, thereby establishing the doctrine of judicial review and expanding the power of the judiciary.

Physical Low with
     Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Review
(1797 - 1802)

3/4/01 Thom Jeff is inaugurated as the third president of the US.  His is the first inauguration to be held in the new national capital of Wash.  In his Inaugural Add.  Pres Jeff Calls for a government of limited powers, operating economically, supporting states' rights, acquiescing in major decisions, preserving civil liberties, and avoiding "enabling alliances" with foreign nations.

Trirhythmic Low (1797 - 1803)

1803 The British Passenger Act of 1803 appeared to be a humanitarian measure, but its practical effect was to cut down dramatically on the number of immigrants coming to the US.  Ships from Londonderry and Belfast, Ireland, had been carrying 400 to 500 immigrants on each voyage, but the new law required that 43 sq .ft. of space be allowed for each passenger, so they could transport only  few score.  As a result, fares increased so after 1803 only about 1000 emigrants a year left Ireland for the US.  Between 1810 and 1812 these ships were preyed upon by British naval vessels, which impressed hundreds of young men into service.  The falling off of immigration to the US during the early years of independence gave more time for earlier settlers to become assimilated before the next influx.

1804 The Federalist party, greatly diminished in influence and power since the 1800 election debacle following the unpopular implementation of the Alien and Sedition Acts and by the death of of Alexander Hamilton, feels threatened by the Louisiana Purchase because the incorporation of this territory into the US could radically upset the balance of power.  The reactionary New Eng arm of the Federalist part, the Essex Junto, going so far as to express secessionist sentiments, puts forth a plan for a Northern Confederacy, to be formed of the southern New Eng states, NY and NJ.  The election of Aaron Burr as NY's government was central to this scheme.  This move is opposed by the more moderate Alexander Hamilton before his death.

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1800 William Young of Philadelphia is the first shoemaker in Am to make different shoes for the right and the left feet.  [confirm date]

1801 Josiah Bent popularizes hard water crackers made in his factory in Milton, Mass.

1802 Merino sheep are brought from Spain by Col. David Humphreys establishing the industry of raising sheep for fine wool.

4/6/02 Congress abolishes all excise duties, including the controversial whiskey tax.

1802 First hotel, the Union Hotel, is built at Saratoga, NY by Gideon Putnam.

1806 Trial of the striking Philadelphia cordwainers (shoemakers) is the first prosecution of a trade union in a criminal conspiracy for the purpose of increasing their wages. The union is disbanded.

2. Business & Economy  1800s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Cycle - 1st Qtr. Foundation (1803 - 1810)

1805 First important shipment of ice from New England is made by Frederick Tudor, who exports it to Martinique (West Indies). Shipping ice to the East, especially India, becomes a profitable business.

1806 The first industry-wide strike in the US resulted when 200 journeymen shoemakers in NYC, suspecting that struck employers were having their work done in other establishments, obtained a nationwide strike order from the Journeymen Cordwainer's Society of Baltimore  Leaders of the strike were indicted for criminal conspiracy in their attempt to secure higher wages.

1808 John Jacob Astor establishes the Am Fur Co, the first of several companies founded by him in the West that make him the dominant figure in the industry.

1808 One of America's first and most successful entrepreneurs was German-born John Jacob Astor, who came to the US in 1784.  On Apr 6, 1808, he received a charter for the American Fur Company, planning to compete in the far Northwest w the long established Canadian firms.  In 1811 a subsidiary company establish Fort Astoria (now Astoria, Oregon) on the Columbia R. estuary, the first permanent US settlement on the Pacific coast.  By the 1820s Astor held a virtual monopoly on fur trading in the US West.  Manuel Lisa, Wm Clark, Pierre Chouteau, and others operating out of St., Louis, Mo., formed the Missouri Fur Company on July 16, 1808, to compete but in 1821 Astor formed an alliance w them.  Aston retired in 1834 and at his death on Mar. 19, 1848, was the wealthiest man in the US.

1809 The Boston Crown Glass Company was incorporated.  The company had been in business since 1792, when it made the fist successful window glass in the US.  Its glass  was said to be superior to any imported product.  the charter of incorporation suspended company taxes and freed employees from military service.

2. Business & Economy  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

2. Business & Economy  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

2. Business & Economy  1800s Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Review (1797 - 1802)

2/02 Newly appointed Sec of the Treasury Albert Gallatin proposes federal aid for the building of roads, suggesting that in the Ohio Territory one-tenth of the proceeds from public land sales be used for the construction of roads from the Atlantic seaboard towns to the Ohio R. This requested increase in fed expenditures, however, is atypical of Pres Jefferson's fiscal policy of retrenchment, as implemented by the assiduous and far-seeking Gallatin. Gallatin is able to make good Jefferson's promise of a significant reduction in the national debt (from $83 mil in 1901 to $57 mil 1809)., in spite of the heavy costs of the Tripolitan war and of the LA repeal of all internal taxes, cuts in defense expenditures and a congressional system of appropriations for designated uses.

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1800 Waterhouse gives Americans first smallpox vaccination to his son.

1800 Semaphore communication system is set up on a series of "telegraph hills" between Boston and Martha's Vineyard, Mass.

1802 James Smith, MD physician opens a clinic that gives free smallpox vaccinations to the poor.

1802 Abel Porter, Connecticut metalworker, opens America's first brass rolling mill in Waterbury, Conn.

1803 John James Audubon, ornithologist, performs first banding studies on wild Am birds.

1803 Barton pubs "Elements of Botany".

1804 William c. Bond, astronomer, designs a ship's chronometer.

1805 Richard Gallagher, Conn. scientist, describes "Wildoc syndrome", later called "shell shock" or "battle fatigue."

Gas Street Lighting was Introduced in Newport, Rhode Island, by David Melville in 1806 who set
up lamps along one of its streets

1807 Barton pubs his studies of Am natural history and makes suggestions for further scientific research.

3. Science & Technology  1800s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1803 - 1810)

1806 Gas street lighting is introduced by David Melville, who sets up lamps on a street in Newport, Rhode Island.

1807 In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, Am physicians and surgeons made significant contribution to medical science.  Samuel Bard wrote a manual on midwifery and a forward-looking report on medical education.  Nathan Smith helped found Yale's medical school and wrote a treatise on typhoid fever.  Philipp Syng Physick  performed many operation for cataracts and improved methods for treating fractures.  Ephraim McDowell, who practiced in Kentucky, performed the first ovariotomy on record in 1808.

1809 William Maclure, "Gather of American Geology," pubs the first detailed geological survey of the US (revised 1817).

1809 Among those who contributed to the growing knowledge about the US and to the achievements of American scientists was Wm Maclure, a well-to-do Scottish merchant who became a US citizen in 1796.  His "Observations on the Geology of the United States" (!809) included the first geological map of the US.  In preparing a revise edition (1817), Maclure crossed the Allegheny Mts. dozens of times.  He also introduced to the US the educational theories of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, the Swiss educational reformer.  Pestalozzi emphasized individual dev and the study of nature.

3. Science & Technology  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1800s Polyrhythms top    

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1800 4-tined forks come into common use in Am homes at this time, replacing 2-or3-tined forks.

1800 Fireboats are used NY Harbor.

1801 Robert Hare, Pa. chemist, invents a blowpipe (cutting that uses oxygen and hydrogen to produce a high-temperature flame.

1802 John C. Stevens, NY inventor, builds a screw-driven steamboat.

4. Mechanical  1800s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Cycle - 1st Qtr. Foundation (1803 - 1810)

1804 What was perhaps the first automobile was built by Oliver Evans, and Am inventor, who was commissioned by the Philadelphia Board of Health to build a steam engine from dredging the Schuykill River and cleaning the city docks.  His five-hp engine propelled a scow 12 ft. wide and 30 ft. long.  The scow weighed 15 ˝ tons and was drive 1 ˝ miles from its construction she, down Center St., much to the amusement of Philadelphians.  Evans offered to be an onlooker $3000 that he could build a steam-driven vehicle that would go faster than any horse in the world.  The scow's drive belt was shifted from its rollers to paddle wheels and it went steaming down the river against the wind, leaving all sailboats behind.  Despite this demonstration, the public was not much impressed w the principle of steam locomotive. [E/I low].

In 1805, the first steam engine to be driven on wheels in the U.S. was brought forth by Oliver Evans.

1807 Fulton launches the "Clermont," a 150 ft.-long steamboat that travels 150 miles up the Hudson R in 32 hours.

March 21, Aug.11, 1807 Robert Fulton's steamboat "Clermont" mad its first urn to Albany fr New York in 32 hours, traveling at about 5 mph.  The initial trial of the "Clermont" had taken place the previous Spring when it crossed the Hudson R. from NY to NJ.  Also in 1807 Pres. Jeff corresponded with Fulton about the torpedoes Fulton was proposing was the chief defense of harbors.  But Jefferson could not see gambling the safety of the nation on the success of a single weapon.  Fulton had also proposed the dev of submarines.  Jeff noted how effective torpedoes launched from submarines would be, and encourage Fulton in his research and experiments.

8/17-21/07 The voyage of the steamboat "Cleremont" from NYC up the Hudson R to Albany and back again inaugurates the era of commercially successful steamboat navigation.  The trip from NY to Albany takes 32 hrs.  Designed by Robert Futon, w the financial  backing of Robert R. Livingston, the "Clermont" is a 150-foot paddlewheel vessel driven by a Watt engine that travels at a rate of five miles per hour.  Pres Jeff will encourage Fulton in his other experiments w submarines and torpedoes.  The first steamboat, invented by John Fitch, had been demonstrated on the Del. R in 1787, but lacked the reliability of its descendant.

1808 Stevens launches the "Phoenix," a 100-ft.-long steamboat powered by a low-pressure engine.

1809 The "Phoenix" becomes the first sea-going steamboat as it travels from NY to Philadelphia 

June 1809 The "Phoenix," a seagoing steamboat, completes the first ocean voyage made by a steam-powered vessel.  Designed by John Stevens, the "Phoenix," travels from Hoboken, NJ, to the sea, and around southern NJ to the Del R near Philadelphia  The "Phoenix," is to travel successfully on the Del R for six years.  One of America's most successful inventor, Stevens was an ardent advocate of Am patent law.  The inventor of a screw propeller in 1802, he later went on to dev the railroad in NJ, to invent the Stevens plow, and to found the Stevens Institute of Technology.

 1807 Eli Terry and Seth Thomas of Connecticut begin the manufacture in quantity of clocks with interchangeable parts.

In 1807 he went into partnership with Seth Thomas and Thomas Hoadley to carry out a contract for 4,000 clocks. When this was completed in 1810, Terry again went into business for himself. His specialty was the manufacture of one-day wooden shelf clocks, especially his "perfected wood clock" designed in 1814. Using interchangeable parts made by mechanized techniques, his production rose as high as 10,000 to 12,000 of these clocks per year. By the end of his life Terry had patented 10 improvements on clocks.
In 1807, Seth Thomas began a company in partnership with Silas Hoadley and Eli Terry. Terry's interest in interchangeable parts, touted by Eli Whitney in his gun manufacture, influenced the development of the clock industry. They established a water-powered factory in Plymouth. In the first three years of operation, it produced 4,000 clocks.

4. Mechanical  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1800s Polyrhythms top    

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4/24/00 The Library of Congress is established by an act of Congress. The 1815 purchase of Thomas Jefferson's 7000-vol library will form the nucleus of the collection.

1805 Free School Society (later Public School Society) is grounded in NYC as a private charitable group interested in establishing an alternative to the pauper school system.

1806 First Bell-Lancastrian school in the US (employing monitorial system of mass instruction) established at NYC; reduced teaching costs.

1807 Boston Athenaeum is founded. It combines the activities of a subscription library limited to commercial, academic, and professional citizens of Boston, a social meeting place for the group, a reference library, and a museum of natural history.

 [above text re-written for web below…]

The century began with a Low in all three Cycles but Education went on to make major advances during the 1800s. The Library of Congress was established by an act of Congress in 1800 and the 1815 purchase of Thomas Jefferson's 7000-volume library in 1815 formed the basis of the collection. 1806 First Bell-Lancastrian school in the U.S. was established in New York City in 1805, employing a monitorial system of mass instruction that reduced teaching costs. The Boston Athenaeum is founded in 1807 which combined the activities of;  a subscription library (only for commercial, academic, and professional citizens of Boston), a social meeting place for the group, a reference library, and a museum of natural history, all in one place.

5. Education  1800s Physical Cycle top    

5. Education  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

5. Education  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

5. Education  1800s Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual Low (1797 - 1811)

1807 The nation's new sense of political independence was reflected in the lives and  words of its writers, who felt that American letters should also be independent of the Old World.  Leader in this movement were the Connecticut Wits, also know as the Harvard Wits because they were centered in the Connecticut city.  This informal group began as one devoted to modernizing the Yale College Curriculum.  The members soon, however, entered the political arena.  They shared the views of the conservative Federalists and collaborated on satirical verse attacking the liberal position.  Among the group's members were Joel Barlow, John Trumbull, Timothy Dwight, Theodore Dwight, and Lemuel Hopkins.  The group's political and literary importance was greatest in the late 1700s but continued to be an influence into the early 1800s.

Jan 1807 the first number of "Salmagundi," a series of whimsical, mildly satirical, and very popular essays written by Emily and Washington Irving and James Kirke Paulding, was published.  Following the informal style of London essayists of the previous century, these pieces afforded delightful glimpses of New York's social, cultural, and political life in the early 1800s.  They also marked the be of what came to be called the Knickerbocker movement in Am lit.  Many imitations followed at once.  Paulding and the Irvings were men of affluent background and similar literary taste. At this point in their lives they were little concerned w the major issues of the day.  "Salmagundi," therefore, remains charming embroidery rather than basic fabric in the dev of Am literature.  But the essays are a lasting memorial to the old days of New York City and its Hudson R. Valley suburbs, and they established the tradition of metropolitan wit that continues unbroken to our day.

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6. Religion & Spirituality  1800s Physical Cycle top    

1801 "Plan of Union" by Congregationalists and Presbyterians permits their ministers to serve in each other's churches, helping to spread religion to scattered frontier settlements.

8/6/01 At a Presbyterian camp meeting in Cane Ridge, Kentucky, the religious Great Revival of the West begins.

1803 Jacob Albright was ordained an elder in Religious group that came to be known as "Albrights." 1st annual conference 1807. 1816 it took the name Evangelical Assoc. [E/4?]

1806 Latrobe designs his greatest work, the Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Baltimore), the first Roman Catholic cathedral in the US.

1808 First Bible Society is established in Philadelphia its first pres. the Rev. William White.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1802 - 1811)

A schism among revivalist resulted in the org. of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (1810). In Ky., the revival of Barton W. Stone led to the New Light ("Stoneite") schism (1803; ultimately merging w Methodist and Baptist groups as the "Christian Church"). In New Eng. the revival was led by the Edwardeans, who were opposed by (1) the old covenant theologians (Timothy Dwight and Lymand Beecher, and (2) by the rationalist and Unitarians.

9. Religion & Spirituality  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

6. Religion & Spirituality  1800s Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1802 - 1811)

1805 Rappists, a group of German pietists led by George Rapp (!744-1847), was org. in Pa., founded New Harmony, Ind. (1815), sold to Robt.Owen(1824), and then moved to Economy, near Pittsburg. A celibate, authoritarian sect, it declined following Rapp's death, and its affairs were terminated (1905).

1803 Among the religious groups that attempted to fund utopias in the US were the Rappites, so-called after their leader George Rapp, who emigrated fr Germany in 1803.  In 1805 he and his followers founded Harmony, PA.,  where they dev a prosperous industrial and agricultural community.  In 1814 and 1815 they moved to Indianan and founded another Harmony.  There they also prospered but in 1825 sold their property to Robert Owen, the English manufacturer and social reformer.  Moving back to PA, the Rappites established Economy (now Ambridge), northwest of Pittsburgh.  The Harmony Society was an austere group who practiced celibacy.  The group weakened after Rapps' death and faded as its members grew old.  It ceased to exist in 1906.

 1805 A book of theological thought pub this year marked a change in the course of belief within the Universalist Church.  The book was "A Treatise on the Atonement" by Hosea Ballou, who for about 34 years was pastor of the Second Universalist Society in Bonton.  After about 1796 Ballou, was the most influential voice in the denomination and turned it away from its Calvinistic tendencies.  Ballou emphasized "Christ's subordination to the Father," giving Universalism a position much the same as that of Unitarianism.  His basic viewpoint was that of anti-Trinitarianism, w God the universal father and Jesus Christ, His son, the spiritual authority and leader in uniting man w God.  Ballou affirmed the freedom of man's will, w the sacrifice of Christ an example of the perfection man can attain by turning away from sin.  The Winchester Profession, stating the doctrinal position of the church, had been adopted in 1803. 

1808 Methodist Church adopted a const. Previously, a schism led by James O'Kelly, who opposed Asbury's appointive powers, had resulted in the org. of the Republican Methodist Church (1792). The Methodist Protestants seceded (1830).

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The houses of Boston, Salem, and Portsmouth that were built around 1800-1810 by or under the influence of Bullfinch and Samuel McIntire, an architect of Salem, are the best examples of the changes wrought by the fine scale and delicate precision of their Adam-inspired designs, producing what has become known as the early Federal style. In the houses of the time, the circle, the ellipse, and octagon were introduced as occasional variations in the plan, and the flying or freestanding staircase became a characteristic of the entrance hall.

1802 The American Academy of Arts was established in NYC.  shares of stock in the org were sold as if the academy were a business corporation reflecting the domination of the upper class in Am culture. 

1806 John Trumbull, architect (first cousin of the poet), designs the Congregational Meeting House in Lebanon, Ct., his only architectural work still standing.

1801 John Brester, Jr. paints "Sarah Prince," which portrays a young girl at a piano.

1802 Benjamin West paints "Death on the Pale Horse."

1804 Washington Allston, leading figure in American Romantic art, paints "The Deluge." [in what country?]

1805 Charles W. Peale is instrumental in founding the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.

7. Art & Design  1800s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Cycle - High (1803 - 1817)

1804 One result of Napoleon's established of the French Empire in Europe in 1804 was the development of the Empire style in furniture and house furnishings.  The style was not long in reaching the US and dominated until after Napoleon's fall in 1815.  By contrast w late eightieth-century styles, which favored the classical manner of straight lines and minimal carving, Empire furniture was heavier an more massive.  There were combinations of marble and brass, and ormolu and wood.  Animal forms, such as claw feet and eagle heads, were used together w elaborate decorative carvings.  Heavy textiles were used in upholstery.  Larger and more imposing interiors were needed to settle off the monumental furniture so couches were modeled after Roman beds and bookcases w facades like temples appeared.  Although most Am pieces were not as lush as the French originals, the furniture suggested wealth and power in the Napoleonic manner but did not provide a relaxed setting for social life.

7. Arts & Design  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    
 

Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review (1797 - 1808)

1801 Architect Benjamin H. Latrobe transmits the Greek revival form of arch to the US with his design of the Bank of Pennsylvania.

1803 New York City Hall, a classic example of Georgian arch, is constructed.

7. Arts & Design  1800s Polyrhythms top    

Physical Cycle with
     Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review
(1803 - 1810)

1805 In the early years of independence the US was still dependent on Europe, especially Eng, for architects and architectural styles.  Benj. Henry Latrobe, who came to the US from Eng. in 1796, is considered the first professional architect in the US Pres Thom Jeff appointed him surveyor of public buildings in 1803.  Latrobe introduced classical Greek designs and styles, which contributed greatly to the Classical revival.  His 1799 design for the Bank of PA in Philadelphia was modeled after a Greek Ionic temple.  Latrobe also designed the Roman Catholic Cathedral in Baltimore  Built between 1805 and 1815, it was the first cathedral in the US and represented the best monumental architecture of the period.  In 1800 Latrobe designed Sedgley, a residence near Philadelphia, said to be the first executed example of the Gothic revival in the US.  After the Brit burned the Capitol in Washington, DC, in 1814, Latrobe took charge of its rebuilding.

Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Review (1797 - 1802)

1800 The Sheraton and Directories styles in furniture, both reflecting a continued classical influence and a return to simpler design, appealed strongly to public taste.  The NYC workshop of Duncan Phyfe turned out many superb examples.

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1801 "New York Evening Post" is established.

1801 American company of Booksellers is organized in NYC by Mathew Carey.

1802 First chess book, "Chess Made Easy," is published in Philadelphia.

1805 Noah Webster's "Compendious Dictionary of the English Language" represented a retreat from Webster's  earlier attempts to Americanize the Eng language.  Although many supporters of a purely American language continued to agitate fro linguistic change, Webster's dictionary compromised w the Brit mother tongue, and its standards became the accepted practice in the US.  The dictionary was the culmination of a series of works by Webster, beginning in 1783 w the "The Grammatical Institute of the English Language" and including readers, spellers, and grammars w enormous circulation in Am.

1808 Earliest legal periodical, the "American Law Journal," is founded in Baltimore MD, by John Elkin Hall.

1806 Noah Webster pubs his "Compendious Dictionary of the English Language," in which he establishes "i" and "j" and "u" and "v" as separate letters.

1809 Royall Tyler pubs the satire "The Yankey in London."

8. Literature & Publication  1800s Physical Cycle top    

8. Literature & Publication  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

8. Literature & Publication  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review (1797 - 1808)

1800 almost as soon as G. Wash died in 1799, writers began to depict him as a hero of almost mythical proportions.  Chief contributor to this legend was Mason Locke Weems, and Episcopal clergyman usually referred to as Parson Weems, who supposed to have had Was as a parishioner in NA.  In 1800 the first edition of his best-known work appeared, "The Life and Memorable Actions of George Washington."  There were nine editions of the book by 1809.  It was the fifth edition, issued in 1806, that Weems first including in the story o Wash and the cherry tree.  In all, the biography went through 86 printing between 1800 and 1927.  Weems' practice was to fictionalize biographies to increase their sales.  for more than 30 years he was primarily a book peddler, selling his own books as well as those of other authors.  He worked for Mathew Care, the leading pub and bookseller of Philadelphia  Weems wrote biographies of Francis Marion, Benjamin Franklin, and Emily Penn.  He also composed moral tracts such as "The Drunkard's Looking Glass (1812) and "Hymen's Recruiting Sergeant (c1799)."

1803 A versatile Am of the early national period was Wm Wirt of VA.  A lawyer, politician, and essayist, he served as US attorney general for 123 years.  His most pop literary work was "Letters of a British Spy,": purporting to be written by a member of the Brit Parliament during a visit to the southern US.  Writ's essays, attempting to mimic the style of Joseph Addison, first appeared anonymously in a Richmond, VA, newspaper.  They followed the example of eighteenth-century commentators who posed as foreign observers of the customs of a strange society.  Published in book form in 1803, the essays became very pop and went through 12 editions.  The essays dealt w southern customs, education,, politics, and history.  In 1817 Wirt pub "Life and Character of Patrick Henry," the first book to appear under his own name.  In it he recreated many of Henry's speeches.

1804 The first volume of "Life of George Washington" by John Marshall was pub.  the fifth and final volume appeared in 1807.  Although the work reflected Marshall's Federalist bias and lacked literary style, it was considered the most impressive and authoritative biography of the first president to appear in the 50 years following Washington's death.  Shorter biographies of Washington were written by Aaron Bancroft (1807) and David Ramsay *(1807).

11/29/04 Wealthy New York merchant and philanthropist John Pintard, along w/NYC Mayor DeWitt Clinton, Judge Egbert Benson and botanist Dr. David Hosack, established the NY Historical Society. John Pintard is also credited with encouraging the earlier establishment of the Mass Historical Society and similar organizations in other New England areas. This provision for the permanent preservation and cataloging of the nation's significant historical documents and records is an essential contribution to scholarship.

1805 Mercy Otis Warren, sister of James Otis, pubs her three-volume history of the American Revolution, the "Rise, Progress and Termination of the American revolution."  This is the earliest account of the era written by an American.  although Warren's history is provocative, clever and full of anecdotes, it is also marred by a partisan anti-federalist bias that portrays Warren's old friend John Adams in an unfavorable  light.  the work is imbued with a patriotic tone typical of those years. 

1806 More and larger book publishing firms began to emerge as the nation grew.  The most important publisher before the turn of the century was Isaiah Thomas of Worchester, Mass., whose firm published everything from magazines to reference books to almanacs.  Thomas wrote a valuable "History of Printing in America (1810)."  Another publisher was Matthew Carey of Philadelphia, who also labored for a protection tariff system.  His son, Henry Charles Carey, became the head of Care, Lea, and Crey, whose authors included Washington Irving Henry Carey, like his father, was deeply interested in economic and the protective tariff.

January 1807 in NY, the series of essays titled "Salmuagundi; or the Whim-Whams and Opinions of Launcelot Longstuff, Esq., and Others" begins pub.  These satirical social and political pieces in the 18th-cent style of Eng writers Addison and Steele are written by Washington Irving, Wm Irving and James Kirk Paulding.  "Salmugundi" marks the beginning of the Knickerbocker school of writers, a group on NY authors whose works were characterized by realism, humor and a preference from native American subject matter.

1807 Washington Irving and James Paulding found "Salmagundi," a periodical which satirizes local events.

1809 Irving pubs "History of New York...by Diedrich Knickerbocker," the first Am comic literature.

1809 A "History of New York" by Washington Irving, the first Am humorous masterpiece, was pub.  It was also the first Am worked to impress European critics and readers.  Written under the pseudonym Diedrich Knickerbocker, a comic scholar  "a little queer in his ways," Irving's book was a tongue-in-cheek history of Dutch New Amsterdam.  It became a best seller.  Although its has been said that the descendants of the original Dutch settlers were put out by the treatment Irving gave their ancestors, the Dutch patrons were but one target among many.  Irving had as good a time w Thom Jeff, Republicans, Yankees, Swedes, European literature, and historians who wrote the sort of books that did please the descendant of the Dutch.  He also possessed the redeeming quality of being able to laugh at himself.

8. Literature & Publication  1800s Polyrhythms top    

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1800 Benjamin Carr begins the weekly "Musical Journal."

1809 An exhibit in New York City features a Grand Panorama, a view of NY and the surrounding country. Admission is 50 cents, children half price. A $2.00 lifetime ticket is also available.

9. Entertainment  1800s Physical Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1800s Polyrhythms top    

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4/300 Congress authorizes the franking privilege for Martha Washington, allowing all mail sent and received by the president's widow to be carried postage free. Also extended to Revolutionary War veterans, franking becomes so widespread that a revision of the practice is soon called for.

Horses and horse racing continued to fascinate a large part of the population.  The thoroughbred stallion Diomed was imported from England in 1798 and put out to stud.  Diomed sired Sir Archie, sold to Gen Wm R. Davie, a veteran of the Am Revolution, for the unheard of sum of $5000.  there was widespread mourning when Diomed died in 1808 in VA.  The most important horse of the period was Justin Margan , foaled in 1792 and the sire of the breed that became known by his name.  The horse was name for its owner, a schoolteacher who brought him to Vermont, where there still is a Morgan horse farm near Middlebury.  The Margan horse is small, had great endurance, and can do almost anything but hunt or run well in long races.

10. Sports  1800s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Cycle - Low (1789 - 1803)

1802 NY State prohibits public horse races. the only races held are by private jockey clubs.

 

Physical Cycle - 1st Qtr. Foundation (1803 - 1810)

1805 First Am to win distinction as a boxer is Bill Richmond, a Negro, who knocks out Hack Holmes (Tom Tough) in the 26th round in England. Richmond never fought in the US.

 1808 Great popularity of horse racing is seen in the widespread mourning in Virginia for the death of a famous race horse named "Diomed."

 1809 Although cricket had a long head start over baseball, it quickly lost out in popularity once baseball was introduced later in the century.  A form of cricket was played in VA as early as 1709, and a match was played in NYC in 1751.  Boston's first cricket club was org in 1809, and the sport spread west w English settlers.  There were reports of cricket being played in Kentucky in 1818 and in Illinois a year later.  Chicago in 1804 had three teams.  But Philadelphia was the center of cricket in the US and its factory workers of English origin played weekly matches.

10 Sports  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

10. Sports  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  1800s Polyrhythms top    

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11. Fashion  1800s Physical Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1800s Polyrhythms top    

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1800 Second national census shows a population of 5.3 million, a 35 percent increase including more than 1 mil blacks, nine tenths of whom are enslaved. VA remains most populous state with 900,000 inhabitants.

The second US Census recorded a pop of 5,308,483, including 896,849 slaves.  The tot num represented a ten-year increase of 1,379,269; the number of slaves increased by 199,168.  The center of US pop was 18 miles southwest of Baltimore a westward shift from 1790 reflecting the expansion of the frontier.

12. Lifestyles  1800s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1810 - 1817)

1800 John Chapman ("Johnny Appleseed") visits pioneer settlements in the Ohio Valley, distributing religious material and apple seeds.

1800 PA  horticulturalist John Chapman, better known as the the legendary Johnny Appleseed, begins distributing young apple trees and seeds to settlers traveling to Ohio, as well as personally scattering apple seeds and Swedenborgian religious tracts in the Ohio R Valley.  In the latter part of his 50-year career as Johnny Appleseed, Chapman will ten and prune the mature apple trees.

1800 The remarkable career of Johnny Appleseed began about 1800.  Born John Chapman in Mass, about 1775, he moved to Pa, where he sold or gave away saplings and apple seeds to settlers moving west.  Chapman then moved on to Ohio, sowing and giving away apple seeds en rout,  For more than 40 years he traveled throughout Ohio, Indiana, and western PA.  He pruned trees he had previously planted and helped pioneers care for the orchards grown from his seeds.  His work bore fruit, literally, over an areas of perhaps 100,000 sq. mi.  Chapman was ragged in dress and eccentric in his ways.  He was also an itinerant preacher, expounding his faith in the Church of the New Jerusalem, the religious organization that grew out of the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg, the Swedish mystic whose teachings had been introduced to the US in 1784 and whose empathy w the natural world apparently appealed to Chapman.  During the War of 1812 Chapman traveled 30 miles to bring troops to Mansfield, Ohio, to forestall a raid by Indian allies of the Brit.  Chapman also introduced and encouraged the raising of many useful medicinal herbs.  He died near Fort Wayne, Ind., in 1847.

Physical Cycle - High (1803 - 1831)

July 15, 1806 Zebulon Pike began his exploration of what is now the southwestern US.  He traveled up the Missouri R., through Kansas and southern Nebraska to New Mexico, through the Rio Grande Valley and on to Mexico City.  On Nov. 15 Pike first saw the famous mountain named for him, Pike's Peak, in what is now Colorado.

12. Lifestyles  1800s Emotional Cycle top    

12. Lifestyles  1800s Intellectual Cycle top    

12. Lifestyles  1800s Polyrhythms top    

 

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