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Summary

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  1880s 1890s 1900s 
Timelines - Decade
28y Physical 36y Emotional 44y Intellectual
American Cycles 1890s
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).


Note to readers: Work from the Kala-Rhythm archives is being offered here in the Timelines for the first time. We are allowing a view into the Timelines now by posting both the finished and the unfinished pages of the Timelines as editing from our references continues.  Unfinished pages (like this one) contain raw data from history sources to which we give credit in our "biblio/webography". Check back for updates to this and other pages.

 

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...farmer distress had led to an agrarian political revolt culminating in the Populist movement in the 1890's.

For a quarter of a century local reform movements in almost every large city addressed these problems. Occasionally they enjoyed spectacular successes; as often they endured defeat. By 1894 they brought together urban reformers from across the country for the first time and created a wide programmatic consensus to inform national policy.

In 1901 Americans were perhaps most alarmed about the spread of so-called trusts, or industrial combinations, which they thought were responsible for the steady price increases that had occurred each year since 1897. Ever alert to the winds of public opinion, Roosevelt responded by activating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act or 1890, which had lain dormant because of Cleveland's and McKinley's refusal to enforce it and also because of the Supreme Court's ruling of 1895 that the measure did not apply to combinations in manufacturing. Beginning in 1902 with a suit to dissolve a northwestern railroad monopoly, Roosevelt moved next against the so-called Beef Trust, then against the oil, tobacco, and other monopolies. In every case the Supreme Court supported the administration, going so far in the oil and tobacco decision of 1911 as to reverse its 1895 decision. In addition, in 1903 Roosevelt persuaded a reluctant Congress to establish a Bureau of Corporations with sweeping power to investigate business practices; the bureau's thoroughgoing reports were of immense assistance in antitrust cases. While establishing the supremacy of the federal gov in the industrial field, Roosevelt, in 1902, also took action unprecedented in the history of the presidency by intervening in coal strike.

1890 Congress establishes OK Territory from lands not assigned to the Indians.

1890 Idaho becomes 43rd state,

1890 US troops massacre 200 Sioux Indians at the Battle of Wounded Knee, SD.

1890 Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks are established in CA by the fed government largely through the efforts of John Muir and Robert U. Johnson.

1890 Congress passes McKinley Tariff Act, raising duties to new highs. It is meant to protect industry, not to raise revenue.

1890 Wyoming becomes 44th state.

1891 Forest Reserve Act permits the Pres to close public lands to settlement for the establishment of national parks.

1891 Indian Territory land ceded to the US by the Sauk, Fox, and Potawatomi Indians is opened to settlement by pres proclamation

1891 US Navy captures Chilean ship carrying arms from CA to rebels in Chile. A mob at Valparaiso, Chile, attacks US sailors on shore leave and kills two. War seems imminent until Chile apologizes and pays indemnity to the injured and to relatives of the dead in 1892.

1892 Chinese Exclusion Act is Extended fro ten years.

1893 Supreme Court declares Chinese Exclusion Act constitutional.

1892 Grover Cleveland and Adalai E. Stevenson are elected Pres and VP, on the Democratic ticket. Democrats advocated tariff for revenue only and repeal of the Silver Purchase Act of 1890.

1893 Congress creates the rank of ambassador under the Diplomatic Appropriation Act.

1893 US Minister to Hawaii proclaims the islands a US protectorate, Pres. Cleveland refuses annexation of the islands, requested by Hawaiian provisional government.

1893 Cherokee land between Kansas and OK, purchased by the government in 1891, is opened to settlement.

1893 US-Canadian agreement provides for surveillance of illegal immigrants into the US through Canadian ports on West coast.

1895 Supreme Court declares income tax unconstitutional in "Pollack v. Farmers Loan and Trust Company."

1895 US interference in the British-Venezuelan boundary dispute is based on the application of the Monroe Doctrine.

1896 Utah becomes the 45th state.

1896 Bryan delivers his "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Free-silver Democrats nominate him for Pres. Populist Party also nominates Bryan.

1896 Congress passes resolution granting belligerent rights to Cuban rebels. Spain rejects offer that Pres be peace arbitrator.

1896 William McKinley and Garret A. Hobart are elected Pres and VP, on the Republican ticket. Republican platform endorses the gold standard. Reps retain control of Congress.

A patent the electric stove was issued to William S. Hadaway in 1896.

1897 National Monetary Conference meets at Indianapolis and endorses existing gold standard. Appointed commission submits plan for monetary system to Congress. With free-silver issue settled, the US begins decade of prosperity.

1898 Eugene V. Debs helps form the social Democratic Party, later called the Socialist Party.

1898 First Food and Drug Act is passed because of public outcry against the meat supplied for US troops fighting in the Span-Am War.

1. Political  1890s Physical Cycle top    


 

Physical High (1887 - 1901)

1896 Supreme Court rules in "Plessy v. Fergusson" that "separate but equal" facilities for whites and black are constitutional. Ruling marks start of "Jim Crow" era, legalizing segregation.

1898 US annexes Hawaii.

1899 Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris. Filipinos, disappointed by terms of the treaty, begin three-year rebellion against Am rule.

1899 US annexes Wake Island in the central Pacific for use as a cable station.

1899 US participates in first peace conference at The Hague with 25 other nations. US upholds the Monroe Doctrine in the Western Hemisphere.

1899 Treaty between the US. Germany, and Britain recognizes US interest in Samoa east of longitude 171 degrees W. Am Samoa is placed under control of the US Navy.

1894 US recognizes Hawaiian Republic established by provisional government. (US forces withdrew in 1893, ending US protectorate).

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1887 - 1894)

1892 Leaders of farm and labor organizations form the Populist, or People's Party, which calls for free coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, government ownership of railroads, and other measures designed to strengthen political democracy.

1. Political  1890s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1883 - 1901)

1893 Colorado adopts women's suffrage.

1. Political  1890s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual Low (1895 - 1907)

1897 Pres vetoes bill requiring literacy test for immigrants

1897 Congress passes the Dingley Tariff, which increases duties on imported goods to new highs.

1897 Supreme Court declares that an association of 18 railroads established to set transportation rates is a violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review (1895 - 1896)

1890 South Dakota, Kentucky, and Mississippi pass antitrust laws, Oklahoma, Montana, Louisiana, Illinois, Minnesota, Missouri, and New Mexico in 1891.

1890 Congress passes Sherman Antitrust Act, which declares illegal every contract, combination (in the form of trust or otherwise), or conspiracy in restraint of interstate of foreign trade.

1891 Congress creates the Circuit Court of Appeals to relieve the Supreme court's case load.

1. Political  1890s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Emotional High (1887 - 1901)

1891 Mob lynches 11 Italian immigrants indicted for the murder of the New Orleans police chief after the acquittal of three of them. Italy protests and recalls its minister to the US, and the US recalls its minister to Italy.

1892 US pays $25,000 indemnity to the families of the Italians lynched at New Orleans in 1891.

1897 Congress votes for relief of Americans destitute in Cuba. Imprisoned Americans are released. US anti-Spanish sentiment increases; many people advocate intervention in Cuban rebellion.

1898 US battleship "Maine" arrives at Havana, Cuba, to protect Am residents and property and is blown up in the harbor.

1898 McKinley sign congressional resolution declaring Cuba independent and authorizing use of army and navy to force Spain to leave Cuba. US blockades Cuban ports. Spain and US declare war on each other, and Spanish-American War begins.

1898 US fleet under Admiral Geo Dewey destroys Spanish fleet at the Battle of 7Mannilla Bay in the Philippines.

1898 US forces defeat Spanish forces at Guantanamo Bay, El Caney, and San Juan Hill in Cuba.

1898 US fleet destroys Spanish fleet off Santiago, Cuba. Santiago sure enders to US.

1898 Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War. Spain fives up claim to Cuba and cedes the US Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines (the latter for a payment of $20 mil). US is recognized as world power.

1898 US and Filipino forces capture the city of Manila.

1899 Secretary of State John Hay sets forth his Open Door Policy with regard to China, stressing freedom of trade for US merchants. Hay asks six major power to preserve China's integrity as a nation and not to interfere with the free use of Chinese ports for trade.

The consolidation of Greater New York City occurred with the "merger" of Brooklyn and Manhattan. Before the merger Brooklyn had absorbed Williamsburg, Bushwick, Flatbush, Flatlands, and New Lots among other towns. The merger created a city of 3.4 million people. Manhattan, the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island were consolidated into New York City.

Physical High with
     Intellectual Low
(1887 - 1901)

1894 Coxey's Army, a band of jobless men led by Jacob S. Coxey, marches to Wash, DC, to petition Congress for public workd programs to help the unemployed. Coxey is arrested for trespassing, and the army disbands.

1894 Gov sells bonds to replenish gold reserve.

1894 Democratic Silver Convention, led by William Jennings Bryan, adopts free-coinage plan on silver-gold ratio of 16 to 1.

1894 Congress passes first graduated income tax law. It is part of Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act, which lowers duties to about 40 percent.

1895 Minority of House Democrats issue an appeal for the immediate return to the free coinage of silver at silver-gold ratio of 16 to 1.

1895 Supreme Court upholds the use of the injunction as as strike-breaking device.

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1890 Child labor grows in the South; almost 23,000 children of 13 southern states.

1898-1905 In the US over 3,000 major mergers took place in manufacturing and mining.

2. Business & Economy  1890s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1887 - 1901)

1890 Sherman Silver Purchase Act requires the US Treasury to purchase monthly 4,500,000 ounces of silver for coinage and to issue treasury certificates redeemable in either silver or gold.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1887 - 1894)

Sears, Roebuck and Company was founded in 1893 and began its catalog that went on to revolutionize the sale of goods to people living in rural areas who made purchases via mail order.

2. Business & Economy  1890s Emotional Cycle top    

2. Business & Economy  1890s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual Low (1885 1907)

1893 Cleveland calls a special session of Congress and secures repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890.
 

Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review (1885 1896)

Three controversial bill were passed in 1890 to amend the practices of monopolies, silver and tariffs. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act made illegal all combinations that restrained trade between states or other nations. This action was boosted by growing public dissatisfaction with industrial monopolies. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was passed to abate the falling price of silver. The McKinley Tariff was aimed at the failing agricultural economy, (i 3rd)

2. Business & Economy  1890s Polyrhythms top    

Physical High with
     Intellectual Low
(1887 - 1901)

1892 Strikers at Carnegie steel plant in Homestead, Pa., protesting pay cuts and demanding recognition of their union, kill ten Pinkerton detectives and wound many others hired by management to break the strike and the union. Pa militia restores order; strike is broken.

1892 Fed troops restore order in Idaho silver mines when strikers clash with non-union workers.

1894 American Railway Union, led by Eugene V. Debs, boycotts all Pullman railway cars as sympathy gesture for Pullman strikers protesting wage cuts. Railroad traffic out of Chicago comes to a halt. Court injunction is issued against strikers, and federal troops break the strike on grounds of interference with interstate commerce. Debs is jailed fro violating the injunction.

1894 In a year of unemployment and labor discontent, a riot among striking miners in Pa leaves 11 dead; 136,000 coal miners strike for high wages in OH; 12,000 NY clothing workers strike against the piecework and sweatshop systems; and railroad strikes paralyze 50,000 mi, of railroads in the Midwest....

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Thomas A. Edison invented the electric voting machine which was not used until 1892.

RAW^

1890 Psychologist and philosopher William James pubs "Principles of Psychology," which revolutionizes the study of psych in the US.

1891 Westinghouse standardizes alternating current at 60 cycles per second.

1891 James Keeler, astronomer, confirms that Saturn's rings are not solid but are made of tiny meteor particles.

1891 Tesla invents the Tesla coil fro producing high-voltage, high-frequency electric current. It is later widely used in radios and televisions. Granville Hall, Mass, psychologist, established the American Psych Assoc

1892 George Nuttal, CA biologist, discovers a gas-producing bacterium, "Bacillus aerogenes."

1892 Acetylene gas is produced by Thomas L. Willson, NC chemist.

1893 Attempts to have Am switch to the metric system are defeated Congress.

1893 Michelson standardizes the meter, basing his measurement on the wavelength of red cadmium light. This measurement is universally accepted in 1925.

1893 Leo H. Baekland, chemist, develops "Velox," the first photographic paper sensitive enough to be printed by artificial light.

1893 Early film studio is built in West Orange, NH, by the Edison Laboratories. It is a small building pivoted so that it can turn with the sun.

1894 Lowell Observatory is built at Flagstaff, Arizona.

1894 Thomson patents an electrical resistance furnace.

1895 Hale orgs the Yerkes Observatory at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.

1895 Percival Lowell, astronomer, pubs "Mars."

1895 Morley determines the atomic weight of oxygen.

1896 Edmund B. Wilson, biologist, describes cellular differentiation in "The Cell in Development and Inheritance."

1896 Wallace Sabine, OH physicist, devisees a reverberation equation that becomes the basis of acoustics.

1896 March pubs "Dinosaurs of North America."

1896 Edison invents the fluoroscope, an instrument that is later used for viewing x-ray images. He also invents the fluorescent lamp.

1897 Yerkes Observatory installs a refracting telescope with a 40-in. lens-the world's largest. It was designed by Alvan Clark and built by George Hale.

1897 William Morton produces the first full-length w-ray of a living human body.

1897 Steinmetz pubs "Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena," a work so advanced that it is years before scientists are able to understand it.

1897 Corbett is defeated by Bob Fitzsimmons, and Englishman, in a 14-found boxing match. It is the first match photographed by a moving picture camera.

1898 New York State Pathological Laboratory for the Study of Cancer opens.

1898 John J. Abel, Ohio pharmacologist, extracts epinephrine (adrenalin) from the adrenal glands of a sheep. This is the first hormone to be isolated in a laboratory.

1898 Keeler's photographs prove that the most common type of galaxy has a spiral shape.

1899 Geo E. Crile, surgeon, develops new, more successful methods for treating shock, particularly that resulting from surgery.

1899 Jacques Loeb, Ger-Am physiologist, uses chemicals to cause unfertilized sea urchin eggs to develop into larvae. This process, known as parthenogenesis, proves that cell division is controlled chemically.

3. Science & Technology  1890s Physical Cycle top    

1896 James F. Kemp, geologist, pubs "Handbook of Rocks."

1897 William Hillebrand, geologist, determines the chemical make-up of the Earth's crust.

1897 America's first hospital for crippled children opens in St. Paul, Minn.

1899 America's first tuberculosis hospital opens in Denver, Colorado.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1887 - 1894)

1891 Edward Acheson, Pa. inventor, discovers carborundum, an abrasive hard enough to polish diamonds.

1891 Edison patents his kinetoscopic camera, which takes moving pictures on a strip of film. The film, called a peep show, is seen by one person at a time, looking into a lighted box whiles turning a crank. 1891 George E. Hale, Ill. astronomer, invents the spectroheliograph and uses it to photograph sunspots.

1891 Osler pubs "Principles and Practice of Medicine," which remains a standard text in Am.

1893 Thomas C. Chamberlin, geologist, establishes the "Journal of Geology."

1893 Chlorine is used to treat sewage in Brewster, NY.

1894 Still establishes the "Journal of Osteopathy."

1894 William H. Park, NY physician, opens the world's first antitoxin laboratory and clinic in NYC.

1895 Pneumatic (air-filled) rubber tires are produced by the Harford Rubber Works in Connecticut.

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1894 - 1901)

1895 National Medical Association is formed by a group of black doctors who state that their interests are not adequately represented by the American Medical Association.

1895 Woodville Latham demonstrates his moving-picture projector, the Panoptikon, which combines Edison's kinetoscope with the magic lantern.

1895 May 20, The 1st commercial movie performance was at 153 Broadway in NYC. (MC, 5/20/02)

3. Science & Technology  1890s Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1890s Intellectual Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1890s Polyrhythms top    

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4. Mechanical  1890s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1887 - 1894)

The principle of internal combustion had been known since the 17th century, its crudest practical expression, the firing of a gun, considerably longer. But it was in the mid-19th century that serious attention was given to internal combustion as a source of power.

Development then was quite rapid. The first practical internal combustion engine, using gas, was developed by Lenoir in 1859, the first widely used has engine by Otto in 1876. By the later 1870's, too, the principle had been successfully applied to vaporized oil and petrol. It took little time before the petrol-driven internal combustion engine was applied to the propulsion of a road vehicle - by Benz in 1885 and Daimler in 1886. By the end of the century, the petrol-driven road vehicle was the plaything of the industrial world.

Henry Ford build his first car in 1889, and between 1890 and 1893, Lambert and Duryeas separately built the first gasoline powered automobiles, (phy. 1st qtr. 1887 - 1894).

Ford founded the Detroit Automobile Company in 1899, his plans already moving toward concepts of mass production and of standardization of design and parts with which he was to revolutionize industry around the world.

RAW^

1890 Pneumatic Hammer patented by Charles B. King.

1891 Whitcomb L. Judson takes out a patent on a slide fastener (zipper).

1892 Geo W. G. Ferris designs his Ferris Wheel for the World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893. It carries 40 passengers 250 ft. high in its 36 cars.

1892 First Electric automobile, made by William Morrison of Des Moines, is driven in Chicago.

1892 Tool and bicycle makers Frank and Charles Duryea of Mass. construct the first gasoline automobile.

1893 Automobile manufacturer Henry Ford builds his first successful gasoline engine.

1894 Simon Lake, inventor, launches "Argonaut I," a small, hand-powered submarine.

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1894 - 1901)

The locomotive had long been in use, but in 1895, the Baltimore and Ohio electrified a section of its track in Baltimore to be free of smoke and noise in a tunnel. This was the first commercial electrification of a railway. (p 2nd 1894-1901).

Ford moved to Detroit in 1891 to become an engineer with the Edison company; meanwhile, he began experiments with gasoline engines that led to his first - only four horsepower - automobile in 1896 and an improved version in 1899.

1895 Baltimore & Ohio Railroad begins using electric locomotives.

1896 Maxim and House build the unsuccessful Maxim steam-powered flying machine.

1896 Samuel P. Langley, astronomer, builds the first successful motorized model airplane. It flies 3000 an 4200 feet in separate tests.

1895 Feb 4, The 1st rolling lift bridge opened in Chicago. (MC, 2/4/02)

1896 Successful offshore oil wells are drilled near Santa Barbara, CA.

1897 Lake launches "Argonaut II," a 36-ft.-long gasoline-powered submarine with wheels for rolling along the ocean floor.

1897 First practical subway is completed in Boston

1897-1912 Diesel engines. Adolphus Busch (1839-1913) bought Diesel rights for the US (1897); built 1st engine (1898); applied to submarine (1912, Vickers 4-cylander).

1898 "Argonaut II" is the first submarine to travel in the open seas-300 miles from VA to NYC.

1898 John Holland, "Father of the Modern Submarine," launches the "Holland," a 53-ft.long, cigar-shaped vessel. It is powered by electricity when underwater and by a gasoline engine when on the surface.

1898 Tesla demonstrates a remote-controlled boat.

1899 Frederick W. Taylor, Pa. engineer, develops a process of heat-treating steel that increases its strength and cutting ability by 300%.

1899 President William McKinley is the first pres to ride in an automobile when he takes a spin in a Stanley Steamer.

4. Mechanical  1890s Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1890s Intellectual Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1890s Polyrhythms top    

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1891 First correspondence school opens in Scranton, PA, to teach miners working methods that will make coal mines safer.

5. Education  1890s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1887 - 1894)

1891 Physical-education professor James A. Naismith of Springfield, Mass., invents basketball as an indoor substitute for baseball and football.

1894 Boston Board of Health begins medical examinations of school-children.

1898 Fernow establishes the fist college of forestry at Cornell U, Ithaca, New York.

5. Education  1890s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1883 - 1901)

1898 S. Lanier pubs "Music and Poetry," which argues for music education and chairs of music at Universities.

5. Education  1890s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1884 - 1896)

In 1896, John Dewey founded the Laboratory School in Chicago to test the "Progressive Education" theories designed to teach the "whole child", the physical and emotional, as well as the intellectual.

5. Education  1890s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Emotional Dbl. 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1896 - 1901)

1899 Educator John Dewey begins a revolution in education with the publication of "The School and Society." among other concepts, Dewey believes that education begins with actual experience rather that with learning traditional subjects.

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6. Religion & Spirituality  1890s Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1890s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1883 - 1901)

1895 Negro Baptist groups merge to form the National Baptist Convention of the USA.

1895 National Baptist Convention of the USA, representing merger of Negro Baptist groups, formed at Atlanta; incorporated (1915). The National Baptist Convention of Am separated (1916).

1896 Former baseball player William Ashley ("Billy") Sunday begins a career of evangelism. He conducts 300 revivals in major cities and is heard by 100 mil people before his death in 1935.

1897 Congregational minister Charles M. Sheldon pubs "In His Steps," a collection of sermons in which he tells young people what they would do in a year if they copied Jesus Christ.

1899 The Gideons, Christian Commercial Men's Association of American, is org by 3 traveling salesmen in Jamesville, Wis. First Gideon Bible is placed in the Superior Hotel, Iron Mountain, Mont., in 1908.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1890s Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1890s Polyrhythms top    

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7. Arts & Design  1890s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1887 - 1894)

1890 Sullivan designs the 10-story steel frame Wainwright Building in St. Louis, Mo.

1891 Stanford White, architect, designs Madison Square Garden in NYC.

1894 Holabird's design of the Marquette Building includes an all glass facade.

1896 Cass Gilbert, arch, gains public recognition with his design of the Minnesota State Capitol Building.

1897 Dankmar Alder designs the Chicago Stock Exchange Building.

7. Arts & Design  1890s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1883 - 1901)

The principle behind a great deal of 20th century interior decorations was first expounded in Chicago in 1896 in a magazine entitled the "House Beautiful". This journal opposed both the perpetuation of vulgar display and the excess of ornament that had characterized most of the 19th century. Other American magazines like "Ladies Home Journal" soon followed "House Beautiful's lead and published articles on modern decorating. {Enc Brit 9:725] [p & e 1st]

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1883 - 1894)

1893 L. C. Tiffany develops Favrile glass, an elegant type of stained glass with which he makes screens, lampshades and other items.

7. Arts & Design  1890s Intellectual Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1890s Polyrhythms top    

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1890 "Poems by Emily Dickinson" is pub posthumously by the poet's sister Lavinia.

1890 Jacob A. Riis, writer, pubs "How the Other Half Lives," a shocking portrayal of slum life.

1891 Melville completes the novelette "Billy Bud" (pub 1924) 5 months before his death.

1891 Emily Dickenson's "Poems: Second Series" is pub.

1892 Joel Chandler Harris pubs "Nights with Uncle Remus." [Joel Chandler created Uncle Remus in 1880, is this a retrospection?]

1893 Stephen Crane, novelist, writes "Maggi: A Girl of the Streets."

1893 Paul Laurence Dunbar, black author, pubs "Oak and Ivy," a poetry volume.

1894 Twain pubs "Tom Sawyer Abroad" and "The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson."

1896 Dickenson's "Poems: Third Series" is pub.

1899 Charles Dana Gibson, illustrator, features his famed "Gibson Girl" in his book of sketches "The Education of Mr. Pipp."

1899 Eakins paints "Between Rounds."

8. Literature & Publication  1890s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1887 - 1894)

1890 Howell pubs the pro-labor novel "A Hazard of New Fortunes."

1895 "Field and Stream" magazine begins publication.

Sears, Roebuck and Company was founded in 1893 and began its catalog that went on to revolutionize the sale of goods to people living in rural areas who made purchases via mail order.

8. Literature & Publication  1890s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1883 - 1892)

1894 Margaret M. Saunders, author, pubs the classic children's tale "Beautiful Joe," the story of a dog.

1893 Henry Blake Fuller, novelist, pubs "The Cliff-Dwellers," often considered the first Am "city novel."

1894 Sunday comics first appear.

1895 Stephen Crane publishes his best-known work, "The Red Badge of Courage."

1896 "New York World," pubs "The Yellow Kid," forerunner of modern comic strips. The words are printed on the boy's bright yellow shirt instead of outside of the frame as in earlier cartoons.

1897 Rudolph dirks, cartoonist, creates "Katzenjammer Kids," the first newspaper comic strip to enclose words in balloons and to have a continuous cast of characters.

1898 The National Institute of Arts and Letters is founded.

8. Literature & Publication  1890s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 4th  Qtr, Alternatives (1896 - 1907)

1895 Breaking with the Hudson School, Homer Martin introduces Impressionism to the US with the painting "The Harp of the Winds."

8. Literature & Publication  1890s Polyrhythms top    

Emotional High with
     Intellectual Low
(1895 - 1901)

James Whitcomb Riley poet famous for nostalgic dialect verse and often called "The poet of the common people." Although of simple origins, Riley was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters, received the gold medal of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, and was given several honorary degrees.

Among Riley's numerous volumes are "Pipes o' Pan at Zekesbury (1888). "Old-Fashioned Roses (1888), "The Flying Islands of the Night" (1891), "A Child-World" (1896), and "Home Folks" (1900). His best known poems included "When the Frost is on the Punkin'," "Little Orphan Annie," "The Raggededy Man," and "An Old Sweethart of Mine." The best collected edition is the memorable edition of his "Complete Works" (10 vol. 1916).

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1891 Charles Ives composes "Variations on America," his best known work.

1896 Motion pictures are introduced into vaudeville shows.

1891 Donnlley's "Ceasar's Column" predicts the development of TV, radio, and poison gas.

1893 World's Columbian Exposition opens in Chicago to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America.

1894 Actor Richard Masfield produces "Arms and the Man," the first production of G. B. Shaw in the US.

1896 First moving picture on a public screen is shown at Koster and Bial's Music Hall in NYC.

9. Entertainment  1890s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1887 - 1901)

Ragtime, propulsively syncopated musical style, the immediate forerunner of jazz and the predominant style of the U.S. popular music from about 1890 to 1920. Ragtime evolved in the playing of honky-tonk pianists along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers in the last decades of the 19th century; it was influenced by minstrel show songs, Negro banjo style, and syncopated (off-beat dance rhythms of the cakewalk, and also by elements of European music, such as the mazurkas and waltzes of composers such as Chopin and Johann Strauss. Ragtime found its characteristic expression in formally structured piano compositions that were generally based on a 16-bar (later a 32-bar) theme. The regularly accented left-handed beat, in 4/4 or 2/4 time, was opposed in the right hand by a fast, bouncingly syncopated melody that gave the music its powerful forward impetus. Most rags, like marches, comprised several themes, each stated and developed in turn.

The first home of ragtime was Sedalia, Mo., where Scott Joplin, called "King of Ragtime," published the most successful of the early rags, "The Maple Leaf Rag," in 1899.

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1899 "Maple Leaf Rag" by composer Scott Joplin helps popularize the ragtime style.

1893 Sousa composes "The Liberty Bell."

1896 Sousa composes "The Stars and Stripes Forever."

1896 P. L. Dunbar gains recognition with "Lyrics of Lowly Life."

1899 The Sousaphone, a bass tuba designed for parade use, is developed and named for John Philip Sousa.

9. Entertainment  1890s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1883 - 1901)

The early history of the blues is centered in the rural South, particularly in the Mississippi Delta region. There, W. S. Handy, the most celebrated of the early blues musicians, reported hearing the blues for the first time in 1895. On the Dockery plantation near Cleveland, Miss,. Charlie Patton and others created a veritable school for bluesmen. It was the Delta bluesmen who were responsible for adapting the field holler, with its nodal scale, to the structured harmonic pattern of the guitar accompaniment.

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1892 Dvorak is appointed director of the National Conservatory of Music in NYC.

1892 Edward MacDowell, piano composer, creates the orchestral "Indian Suite," based on actual Indian tunes.

1893 Katherine Lee Bates, author writes the words to the patriotic hymn, "America the Beautiful."

1894 Walter Damrosch, orgs the Damrosch Opera Co, which tours the US presenting Wagner operas.

1897 Amy Marcy Beach, leading woman composer of the period, pubs "Symphony in E-Minor."

1898 Ethelbert Woodbridge Nevin, composer, composes the popular piano piece, "The Rosary."

1900 The Philadelphia Orchestra is founded.

1896 The first, close-up, prolonged embrace on the screen, The John Rice-May Irwin Kiss," scandalizes audiences across the country.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1883 - 1894)

1890 "Robin Hood," a light opera composed by Reginald DeKoven, begins a run of more than 3,000 performances.

9. Entertainment  1890s Intellectual Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1890s Polyrhythms top    

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XXX 10. SPORTS INTRODUCTION

10. Sports  1890s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1887 - 1901)

1895 First pro football game is played at Latrobe, Pa, when the Latrobe team hires a substitute quarterback for $10 in expenses. Up to this time the Latrobe team had shared the profits from its games.

1895 The first US Open Golf Championship is won by Horace Rawlins.

1895 Feb 9, Volleyball was invented by W.G. Morgan in Massachusetts. A game called "mintonette" was created by William George Morgan, physical director at the YMCA in Holyoke, Mass., to accommodate players who thought basketball was too strenuous. The objective was to hit a basketball over a rope. It was the predecessor to volleyball.

1896 First US hockey league, the Amateur Hockey League, is org in NYC.

1896 Athlete James B. Connolly becomes the first Olympic champion in 1500 years at the revival of the Olympic games in Athens, Greece.

1899 James J. Jeffries becomes world heavyweight boxing champion after knocking our Bob Fitzsimmons.

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1890 Smoking for men at social functions gains acceptance, but smoking by women in the company of men is still condemned.

11. Fashion  1890s Physical Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1890s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1883 - 1901)

As the eve of the 1890's rolled about, such extravagant styles as handlebar mustaches, bicycles built for two and striped beachwear were in fashion.

11. Fashion  1890s Intellectual Cycle top    

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pop US 1890 about 62.9 million

Strict Victorian standards first gave way to change during the emotional high period of the 1890's. The, courtship became more open and sociably accepted.

1892 Boll weevils enter Texas from Mexico and soon infest most of the cotton fields in the South.

1892 Cyclone rips through Kansas; 31 persons die and 2 towns are completely destroyed.

1892 Fire in Milwaukee destroys $5 mil worth of property over 26 acres.

1893 Fire in Minneapolis leaves 1500 persons homeless and destroys $2 mil worth of property.

1893 Hurricane in southern US devastates Charleston, SC, and Savannah, GA; about 1000 people die.

1894 Fire at Chicago's Columbian Exposition destroys nearly all the buildings property damage is estimated a $2 mil.

1894 Fire in Hinckley, Minn., burns more than 160,000 acres of forest and kills about 500 people there and in 18 neighboring towns.

1896 Rural free mail delivery is established.

1896 "Book" matches become popular. Invented in 1892 by Joshua Pusey, the Diamond Match Co bought his patent in 1895.

1900 Cyclone kills 600 at Galveston. Winds up to 120 mph drive Gulf water over land. Looter found with finger rings cut from hands of the dead. Property damage amounts to $20 mil.

12. Lifestyles  1890s Physical Cycle top    

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