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  1850s 1860s 1870s 
Timelines - Decade
28y Physical 36y Emotional 44y Intellectual
American Cycles 1860s
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).


Note to readers: Work from the Kala-Rhythm archives is being offered here in the Timelines for the first time. We are allowing a view into the Timelines now by posting both the finished and the unfinished pages of the Timelines as editing from our references continues.  Unfinished pages (like this one) contain raw data from history sources to which we give credit in our "biblio/webography". Check back for updates to this and other pages.

 

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11/6/60 Abraham Lincoln is elect Pres w a clear majority of the electoral college votes but only a plurality of the popular votes.  Although Lincoln has deliberately muffled his message of attacking slavery, there is no mistaking the fact that for the first time in its history the US has a president of a party that declares that “the normal condition of all the territory of the US is that of freedom.”  Within days of Lincoln’s election Southern leaders are speaking of secession as an inevitable necessity, yet some, such as Alexander H. Stevens, give anti-secession speeches and urge state legislatures to support the Constitution.

1861 Kansas becomes 34th state.

1861 Congress creates Dakota, Colorado, and Nevada Territories.

1861 West VA breaks away from VA it becomes the 35th state in 1863

 1861 First fed income tax of 3% on incomes over $800 is enacted. Increased in the following years, it supplies about on fifth of the fed government revenues by 1865.

1861 Congress abolishes flogging in the Army.

1/9/61 A state convention in Miss votes to secede fr the Union

 1/10/61 Florida secedes from the Union

1/11/61 Alabama secedes

1/19/61 Georgia secedes from the Union

 1/26/61 Louisiana secedes from the Union

1/29/61 Kansas admitted as a slave-free state to the Union, becoming the 34th state

2/4/61 At a convention in Montgomery, Alabama, delegates from the seceding state - currently Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Miss, South Carolina - meet to form the provisional government of the Confederate States of Am.  Meanwhile, in an effort to forestall hostilities, a peace convention, called by VA, meets in Wash.  The convention fails in its attempts to propose compromise leg.

 2/9/61 The Confederate Provisional Congress elects Jefferson Davis Pres and declares that laws of the US Constitution not inconsistent w the new Confederate Constitution are to remain in force.

 2/18/61 In Montgomery, Alabama, Jefferson Davis is inaugurated President of the Confederate States of America.  “Dixie,” the unofficial anthem of the South, is played at the ceremonies.

2/23/61 Texas secedes from the Union.

 3/11/61 Having been informed by Pres Lincoln that provisions are on the way to Federal Fort Sumter, South Carolina demands the immediate surrender of the garrison.

 3/3/63 The Idaho Territory is formed from part of the New Mexico Territory.

4/12/61 The war begins when South Carolina forces, under the direction of Gen Beauregard, fire on Fort Sumter.  The Union commander there, having suffered no casualties but lacking supplies, surrenders on April 13.

4/17/61 In the wake of Fort Sumter, other Southern states will secede; this day VA becomes the eighth.

5/6/61 Arkansas secedes from the Union.

5/20/61 North Carolina secedes from the Union.

8/5/61 To aid in financing the war, the US Congress passes the first income tax law.  Gov calls for volunteers increase steadily from three moths to two years.

1863 Congress creates the Arizona and Idaho Territories.

2/24/63 The Arizona Territory is formed from part of the New Mexico Territory.

6/20/63 Pro-Union West VA is admitted as the 35th states, its constitution mandating gradual emancipation of slaves.

1864 Nevada becomes 26th state.

1864 Montana Territory formed from part of Idaho Territory.

1864 Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors, women, and children are massacred at San Creek, Colo.

1864 "In God We Trust," appears on a US coin, the 2 cent piece, for the first time.

1865 Colorado militia suppress the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians who have been on the warpath.

4/8/65 Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Va.  As Lincoln requested, the terms are generous: Confederate officers and men are free to go home w their own horses and officers may retain sidearms; all equipment is to be surrendered. 

1866 Eighteen hundred Irish Americans, part of the Fenian movement to free Ireland from Brit, cross the Niagara R and defeat Canadian militia. They are arrested by US officials but released. Raids continue to 1871, drawing attention to the Fenian cause.

1866 US government tries to build road from Fort Laramie to the mines of Montana across the Sioux Indians' hunting founds. Sioux massacre US troops at Ft. Philip Kearny, Wyo.

1867 US buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 mil (less than two cents an acre) through the efforts of Secretary of State William H. Seward.

1867 Congress sets up reservations in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) for the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles).

1860 Sen. John J. Crittenden proposes resolution for amending the Constitution in order to conciliate the North and south. The Crittenden Compromise, calling for 36 degrees 30 minutes parallel as the boundary between free and slave states, is rejected by Lincoln and by congress in 1861.

1860 South Carolina secedes from the Union, affirming the doctrine of states; rights and condemning the North's and Lincoln's attack on slavery.

1860 South Carolina troops capture the US arsenal at Charleston.

1861 Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee secede from the Union.

1861 Confederate States of Am, a new Southern union, is formed in Montgomery, Ala. Jefferson Davis and Alexander H. Stephens are elected Pres and VP, respectively.

1861 Confederates fire on Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC, forcing Union troops to evacuate. US Civil War begins.

1861 Pres Lincoln proclaims blockade of Confederate ports.

1861 Confederates defeat Union troops at the First Battle of Bull Run, Manassas, Virginia.

1862 Union forces capture Forts Henry and Donelson and defeat the Conf army at Pea Ridge, Arakansas.

1862 Union fleet under Admiral David G. Farragut defeats Confederate fleet near the mouth of the Mississippi and captures New Orleans.

1862 Union army of Tennessee under Gen. Ulysses S. Grant forces Confederates to withdraw at the Battle of Shiloh, Tenn.

1862 Union forces under Gen. George B. McClellan and Conf forces under Gen. Robert E. Lee engage in inconclusive Seven Day's Battles in Virginia

1862 Confederates under Gen. Stonewall Jackson and Gen. Lee defeat Union forces at the Second Battle of Bull Run, Va.

1862 Gen. Lee's invasion of the North is halted by Gen. McClellan at the Battle of Antietam, Md. Gen. Lee wins the Battle of Fredericksburg, Va.

1863 Conf army under Gen. Lee defeats Union army at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Va. Gen. Lee begins invasion of the North.

1863 Union forces under Gen. George G. Meade defeat Confederate forces under Gen. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg. Pa. Gen. Lee retreats into Virginia.

1863 Union forces under Gen. Grant capture Vicksburg. Miss.

1863 Union forces are beaten at the Battle of Chickamauga, Ga. but win the Battle of Chattanooga, Tenn.

1863  Pres. Lincoln offers amnesty to all Southerners taking Loyalty oath.

1863 First Union conscription act makes all mew 20 to 35, and unmarried men to 45 years old, subject to military service. It is easy to avoid actual service, though, by paying $300 for a substitute to enlist for 3 years.

1864 General Grant is made Commander-in-Chief of the Union armies.

1864 Armies of Grant and Lee fight the inconclusive, but destructive, Battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor in Va. Union army suffers far greater casualties than Conf.

1864 Union army under Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman captures and burns Atlanta. Sherman's army marches through Georgia to the sea, destroying everything in its path, and captures Savannah.

1864 Union army defeats Conf army at Nashville, Tenn.

1864 Union Navy under Admiral Farragut defeats Conf navy at the Battle of Mobile Bay, Ala. Conf blockade-running is stifled in the Gulf.

1864 Lincoln (Republican) wins reelection as Pre., defeating Gen. McClellan (Democrat), Andrew Johnson is elected VP on the Republican ticket.

1865 Gen. Sherman's army marches northward through South and North Carolina. Ravaging the country. Confederates evacuate Columbia and Charleston, SC.

1865 Lee is made General-in-Chief of all Confederate armies.

1865 Deprived of food and supplies and caught between Sherman in the south and Grant in the north, Confederates under Lee abandon Petersburg and Richmond and retreat westward.

1865 Union forces under Grant pursue and surround Lee, who surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Va. Other Conf armies follow suit. Civil War ends.

1866 Congress authorizes the issuance of a 5 cent coin, known as a "nickel." Piece is minted of copper and nickel with not more than 25% nickel.

6/16/66 Congress proposes the Fourteenth Amendment.  so far the Thirteenth Amendment has freed the slaves and the Civil Rights Act of 1866 has buttressed civil laws to protect freed men.  But Congress is still uneasy about readmitting the rebellious states to gull representation.  Lurid stories of ugly treatment of blacks by whites fill the newspapers.  The Joint Committee on Reconstruction, led by the radical Republicans, now brings forth the Fourteenth Amendment to provide constitutional definitions of civil rights.

1867 Nebraska becomes 37th state.

3/1/67 Nebraska is the 37th state to be admitted to the Union.

1868 Congress readmits Arkansas, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Fl, Ala, and La, to the Union.

1868 Burlingame Treaty between the US and China encourages Chinese immigration to the West.

1868 Wyoming Territory is formed out of parts of the Dakota, Utah, and Idaho Territories.

1868 General Ulysses S. Grant and Indian Representative Schuyler Colfax are elected President and Vice-President, respectively, on the Republican ticket.

11/3/68 It is a landslide victory for Gen Ulysses S. Grant and Schuyler Colfax.  They win by 214 electoral votes over 80 for Seymour and Blair.

2/24/69 Under rising pressure from industrialists, the Morrill Tariff Act is enacted by congress to protect US manufacturers even though they are not in a particularly vulnerable position.  More costly imports impose additional burdens on the poor.

5/15/69 Inspired by a patchwork quilt of political successes across the country in the form of voting rights and election to public office, women form the National Woman Suffrage Association.  This group will press for voting rights at the federal level.  Elizabeth Cady Stanton is elected pres.

10/10/69 In keeping w the ever-greater freedom allowed the pioneer women of the West, Wyoming Territory passes the first law in the US giving women the right to vote.

1/19/69 The Am Equal Rights Assoc meets in Wash DC.  It is the beg of an org women’s movement.  Susan Brownell Anthony is elected pres.

1. Political  1860s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical High (1859 - 1873)

4/11/65 In his last pub address, Pres Lincoln urges reconstruction in the spirit of generous conciliation.  He voices similar sentiments to his Cabinet on the morning of April 14.

5/29/65 Johnson begins to put his own reconstruction plan into effect.  He prefers to call I “Restoration.”  The essential difference between his plan and the subsequent one which Congress will devise is the lack of protection for civil rights for blacks.  Johnson sees the Southern states as part of a federation, whereas the reconstruction plan devised piecemeal by Congress will attack them as having committed ”state suicide,” as needing to be punished for their rebellion, and requiring a strong Northern hand to prevent excesses toward freed blacks.  Johnson names a provisional governor for North Carolina to help reorganize and prepare the state for re-entry into Congress.  It is one of the first acts in the long struggle for what Johnson calls “restoration” and Congress calls “reconstruction.”

12/12/65 The Senate agrees to a joint committee on Reconstruction.  Wm P. Fessenden of Maine will be name chairman of the Senate committee.

3/30/67 The US purchases Alaska from Russia.

8/28/67 The Midway Island in the Pacific are annexed by the US.  Captain Wm Reynolds of the “Lacawanna” is put in charge of occupation formalities.

7/13/69 Riots against the Chinese take place in San Francisco.  Chinese laborers have come into the US in increasing numbers.  Not speaking he language, and willing to work extremely well for the lowest wages, the Chinese call forth great anger from competing groups of laborers.  They are discriminated against in their social life, beaten up at work and often involved in bloody riots such as this one in San Francisco.

1. Political  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional High (1847 - 1865)

3/19/60 Elizabeth Cady Stanton appears before the NY State leg to promote the cause of women's suffrage.

8/5/64 With the famous phrase, “Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!” - or something to that general effect - Federal Admiral David Farragut leads his flagship into Mobile Bay, Alabama.  On Aug 23 the port is taken and closed to Southern blockade runner, further choking the South’s critical supply line.

1864 “In God We Trust” appears on US coins for the first time.  In his presidential campaign.  Lincoln coins the phrase, “it was not best to swap horses while crossing the stream.”

2/27/69 The Fifteenth Amend is proposed by Congress.  Increasingly worried about violence in the South, but reluctant to bring about more stable conditions by increasing army control, Congress resorts to another constitutional Amend.  these recent amendments will apply to all US citizens, although they emerge out of the immediate needs of the black freedmen of the South.  The Fifteenth Amendment is in tow sections: “I.  The right of citizens of the US or by any State on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude.  2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”:  Despite an already active agitation on the part of women, the word “sex” is omitted.

Emotional Downward Crossover (March 21, 1865- March 21, 1866)

1865 Pres. Lincoln is shot and killed by John Wilkes Booth in Ford's Theater, Wash DC, Johnson is inaugurated as Pres.

4/14/65 While watching a comedy at Ford’s Theater in Wash, Pres Lincoln is mortally wounded by actor and Sothern patriot John Wilkes Booth.  Lincoln dies early the next morning at the age of 56.  He is the first Pres to be assassinated.  Secretary Seward is stabbed by a co-conspirator.

2/19/66 The authority of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands is extended and expanded by an Act of Congress.  The Freedmen’s Bureau had been formed by Lincoln in the spring of 1865.  Congress has become increasingly concerned over the condition, treatment and rights of blacks.  Reacting to the nefarious Black Codes with which the South is attempting to subjugate the blacks, Congress strengthens the powers of the bureau, giving it jurisdiction over anyone depriving blacks of their civil rights.  The bureau is also to continue to give relief in the form of food, clothing and shelter to those in need.  To northern dismay, including moderate Johnson supporters, the president vetoes the bill.  He explains that it is unconstitutional , since it expands federal jurisdiction in states which have not been permitted representation in Congress. In his view the states have been legitimately restored to the Union and should be seated.  If Johnson had maintained his stance at this constitutional level, he might have rallied congressional support.  Instead he went on to clarify his position:  the freedmen, he explained, should manage “though their own merits and exertion.”  Johnson’s veto is met with boos and hisses.  Congress will override on 10 July 1866.

4/9/66 The Civil Rights Bill of 1866 is enacted by Congress. Noting the flagrant breach of the spirit of the Thirteenth Amendment by southerners who have been slowly forcing blacks back into a condition bordering on slavery, northerners propose to buttress the amendment w the Civil Rights Bill. It grant full citizenship to all person born on US soil *Indians, not taxable, excepted).  All citizens are to have equal rights to enforce contracts, to sue, to give evidence, to buy property - in effect to have all the civil laws a full citizen is entitled to.  It is moderate although precise in tone.  If Johnson accepts it, he might regain some of his lost leadership.  Rutherford G. Hayes, later to become President himself, but now Congressman, writes: “If he sings, the chances are that a compete rupture will be avoided.  Otherwise, otherwise.”  To the dismay of all parties, Johnson vetoes the bill.  Johnson arms himself w some sound constitutional arguments: it will dim shish the rights of states to make their own laws, it will weaken the limits to fed power.  It will provide “security for the colored race, safeguards which go infinitely beyond any that the General Government has ever provided for the white race.”  Congress, still reluctant to challenge the Pres directly , nonetheless overrides the veto by one vote.  The galleries erupt in noisy glee.  The executive will now be bypassed in all essential federal considerations.  In an intense power struggle Congress has come out on top.

2/22/66 A group of Jonson supporters, called “copperheads” by disgusted radicals, marches to the White House to show its delight in Johnson’s veto.  In the light of a candle, Johnson puts on such an extraordinary performance that Washington concludes he must have been drunk.  Says John Sherman, Sean from Ohio: “There is no true friend of Andrew Johnson who would not be willing to wipe out that speech from the pages of history.”  First he reads from a prepared text, then he ad-libs, vilifying the Rep opponents, calling them traitors.  When egged on by the crowd, he names Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner as two of the traitors.  The crowd loves it, but it is to be a turning point in Johnson’s fortunes.  His behavior this evening decisively erodes his support in Congress, leaving the field to men who have neither links nor sympathies with Southern white cause.

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1865 - 1874)

1865 Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery, is ratified by 27 states, including eight formerly Conf states.

1866 Congress passes Civil Rights Act over Pres. Johnson's veto.

1866 Congress passes Fourteenth Amendment, which contains the "due process" and equal protection" clauses securing the civil rights of Negroes.

1866 Congress passes Freedman's Bureau Bill over Pres. Johnson's veto. Military can try person accused of depriving newly freed Negroes of their civil rights.

1866 Congress passes a Civil Rights Act, which treats the same rights to all natural-born Americans (except Indians), including Negroes, who had been denied such rights.

1867 Congress passes tenure of Office Act over Pres. Johnson's veto. It forbids the Pres to remove any officials without the consent of the Senate.

1868 Pres. Johnson is impeached by the House of Reps for violating the Tenure of Office Act and for abusing his veto power. He is tried and acquitted by the Senate.

1868 Fourteenth Amend ratified by 29 states.

1868 Congress passes bill providing eight-hour working day for federal employees.

1869 Congress adopts Fifteenth Amend, stating that the right to vote shall not be denied or abridged because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

1869 Prohibition Party is founded in Chicago. It supports the temperance cause-Legislative prohibition of the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages.

1869 Wyoming Territory grants women the right to vote (suffrage) and to hold public office. National Woman Suffrage Ass, led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and the Am Woman Suffrage Ass, led by Lucy Stone, are separately org to work for women's voting rights.

It was Susan B. Anthony who gave direction to the movement. Forming and reforming, always under her influence, women's groups successfully campaigned for voting rights at all levels of government. And it was the 19th Amendment, first broached in 1869, and often called the Susan B. Anthony Amendment, which gave coherence to the movement for 50 years.

1. Political  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual XXXward Crossover (March 21, 1863- March 21, 1864)

7/1-3/63 The Battle of Gettysburg, one of the most devastating of the confect and the turning point of the war, sees the Southern Army defeated by the superior numbers and strong defensive positions of the Union Army.  On the third day Lee, in one of his rare mistakes, orders the disastrous attack on impregnable Union lines that comes to be known as “Pickett’s Charge”  (though that general does not lead it).  The South withdraws having lost nearly 28,000 casualties to the Union’s 23,000.  Never again will the South have the strength to mount an offensive into the North.

7/4/63 Lee’s defeated army begins its retreat to Virginia.

7/4/63 The siege of Vicksburg, Miss, ends w Grant coolly demanding “immediate and unconditional surrender” and getting it (thus acquiring the occasional nickname “Unconditional Surrender” Grant).  Over 29,000 Rebel troops surrender w the city, giving the Union control of the Miss R and splitting the Confederacy north to south.

7/8/63 Port Hudson, Miss, the last major Confederate stronghold on the Miss R, surrenders to the Union forces after a six-week siege.

7/13-16/63 Resentment of the Union Conscription Act boils over into violence as NY sees four days of draft riots, a largely Irish-American mob pillaging property and lynching blacks.  The riots are quelled by Federal troops.

1. Political  1860s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1863 - 1873)

1869 Congress enacts Public Credit Act, which provides for payment of US debts in gold. Greenbacks (paper money) worth $356 million are left in circulation.

Physical High with
     Emotional Low
(1859 - 1865)

12/21/66 The ongoing war against the Indians leads to constant skirmishing.  Gen Patrick E. Connors, expressing the exasperation that whites feel over the Indian question, declares that Indians living north of the Platte R :must be hunted like wolves.”  Organizing a three-column march on the area known as Crazy Woman’s Fork of the Powder River in the Black Hills of Dakota, his orders are to attack and kill every male Indian over the age of 12.  The Sioux defend their traditional hunting grounds.  On Dec 21 they defeat Colonel William Judd Fetterman at Fort Kearney on the Bozeman gold trail in Montana Territory, Eighty whites are killed and settlers are predictably furious.

Physical High with
     Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review
(1865 - 1873)

1867 Congress passes three Reconstruction Acts over Pres. Johnson's vetoes. Act divide the South (except Tenn.) into five military districts in which army commanders control voter eligibility and registration.

3/5/68 The Senate chambers are arranged for the awesome trial.  The Senate will sit as the jury; the House will act as the prosecutor; the Supreme Court, in the person of Chief Justice Chase, will be the judge.  Scalpers get exaggerated amounts for gallery seats.  Police roam the tense galls of the Capitol.  All the unhappiness and disappointments relating to Reconstruction are now projected onto the stolid, well-meaning, though partisan, pres and much malice is intertwined with the proceedings.  People such as the dying Thaddeus Stevens, who believes blacks will soon be disenfranchised if something drastic is not done, add vehemence to the drama.  Stevens warns that anyone voting to acquit will be “tortured on the gibbet of everlasting obloquy.”

3/16/68 The strategic vote indicating whether the thrust against Johnson will succeed or fail is scheduled fro this day. (etc. etc. etc.)

5/28/69 The final vote for acquittal formally ends the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson.

Physo-Intellectual Dbl. 1st Qtr. Foundation
     Emotional High
(1863 - 1865)

1/1/63 The Emancipation Proclamation takes effect.  Although historically a monumental step in ending slavery, it actually frees no slaves at this time, since it applies only to areas not under Union control, and exempts the four loyal slave states and areas of the South under Federal occupation.  The Confederacy views the proclamation as confirming its view of Lincoln as a hypocritical anti-Southern abolitionist.

Trirhythmic High (1863 - 1865)

1863 At dedication of national cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield, Pres. Lincoln gives his "Gettysburg Address."

11/19/63 Pres Lincoln delivers his Gettysburg Address, dedicating a military cemetery on the blood-stained Pa battlefield.  He prophesies that the “honored dead” of both sides “shall not have died in vain,” that there will be “a new birth of freedom’ and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”  With less accuracy, he also predicts, “the world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here.”  The Address is to become one of the immortal utterances of human history.

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1862 Congress authorizes the first US legal tender bank notes; by 1865 more than $400 mil in "greenbacks" have been issued.

2. Business & Economy  1860s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical High (1859 - 1873)

1860 Cotton prod in the US us more than 2 billion pounds per year.

2/22/60 A major strike in Lynn, Mass, shoe factories results in higher wages for workers.

1863 Pacific Railway Act authorizes the Union Pacific Railroad to build a line from Nebraska to Utah to meet the Central Pacific, which is building eastward from Ca.

1864 Unionism spreads w the org of the Cigar Makers and Iron Molders.

1866 National Labor Union is org in Baltimore, Maryland. Ira Steward and George McNeil lead the movement for and 8-hr workday.

3/2/67 Congress removes excise taxes imposed during the war, and exempts incomes under 1000 dollars from taxation.

1868 The Chisolm Trail.  Jesse Chisolm was a half-breed - half Scot and half Cherokee. He is remembered for having traced out the most famous of all cattle trails, the legendary Chisolm, named after hem.  The trail was begun in 1867 when Chisolm mapped out the flattest route between south-central Kansas and his own place on the Canadian River.  The Chisolm had supplanted the earlier Shawnee Trail, which had led to St. Louis and the earlier shipping points to eastern markets, by the time that Joseph McCoy offered forty dollars a head for cattle arriving at his new town.  Abilene, Kansas.  Sometimes as many as 28 herds would start the trail in a day, each head numbering somewhere between 1000 and 3000 head of cattle.  The opening of the Chisolm Trail marked the beg of the Ranger’s frontier.  When, 20 years later, the railroad had spread its tentacles north and south from the transcontinental line, it signaled the end of the Chisolm.  The Ranger frontier was officially declared dead in the mid-1880s.

1868 Congress passes a bill limiting the work hours of federally employed laborers and mechanics to an 8-hour day. The concept was still something new, although ineffectual 8-hour laws had been passed in Illinois, NY and Missouri.

3/18/69 The Public Credit Act is adopted by congress.  the Act stipulates that payment of government bonds be mad in gold.  The so-called “Ohio Idea,” which was a pro-inflationary plank in the Democratic platform, had backed the printing of more “greenbacks.”  Congress repudiates the paper-money solution, but does not resolve the currency argument - for instance, what to do with the #356.000.000 in still-circulating “greenbacks.”

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1859 - 1866)

7/1/62 Congress passes the Pacific Railway Act, authorizing construction of the first transcontinental railroad.  The Union Pacific, building west, and the Central Pacific, building east, will connect in Utah in 1869.

1863 A pioneering labor union is formed, the Brotherhood of Railway Locomotives Engineers.

1864 Bessemer steel is first made in the US in Michigan

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1866 - 1873)

2/2/69 James Oliver patents the chilled iron plow.  This plow improved on John Deere’s original round-bladed plow.  After 12 years of searching, Oliver produces a tool made of a body of good iron w a hardened surface to which was fitted a cutting edge of tempered steel.  The edge can be removed for sharpening.  The blade will help make homesteading possible on the hard prairie, where temperatures range fr 100 degrees in summer to 40 below in winter.

5/10/69 The first rail line to cross the contentment is completed.  As a Union Pacific engine bumps “cowcatchers” w the engine fro the Central Pacific Railroad, the news is flashed by telegraph and the nation celebrates fro coast to coast.  Aside from America’s tapping of  its own vast resources, a railroad network will be the single most influential factor in the emergence of the  new industrial age.

2. Business & Economy  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

2. Business & Economy  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1863 - 1874)

1863 Traveler's Insurance Company is founded in Hartford, Conn. as the first traveler's accident insurance company. [what mo.?]

2. Business & Economy  1860s Polyrhythms top    

Physical High with
     Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1863 - 1873)

The next time the intellectual cycle was in the first quarter, the physical cycle was near its peak. In 1869 the Knights of Labor was formed and became the first major organization to expand beyond regional membership.

Internal Aberration (XXX)

9/24/69 This day will become known as Black Friday.  Despite Pres Grant’s refusal to cooperate w stock manipulators Jay Gould and James Fisk, Jr., they spread the word that he will prevent the sale of government gold.  Grant himself has been led to believe the sale would harm farmers and small businessmen.  Wining and dining hem, Gould and Fisk reinforce him in this idea.  The price of gold rises to panic-causing heights as the gold necessary for day-to-day business operation goes out of the reach of small merchants.  Slow-thinking Grant finally realizes the disastrous nature of the scheme and belatedly orders release of $4,000,000 in gold.  This offsets a cornering of the market, and bullion plunges from 162 to 135.  Small and large investors are caught in the aftermath of the ruinous adventure, and a tarnished Grant emerges as a crony of crooks.

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1860 A $5 chemistry set, the "Youth's Chemical Cabinet," is advertised as being perfectly safe. The set includes experiments, none of which calls for strong acids or other dangerous materials.

1860 Gray reviews Darwin's "Origin of the Species," gives his approval, and becomes a major Am supporter of the theories of evolution.

1860 Louis Agassiz, though his earlier work (1857) seemed to support evolution, bitterly attacks Darwin's theories. He rejects the idea that all animals have a common ancestor, and lists breaks or "missing links" in the evolutionary chain.

1860 Alvan Clark, Massachusetts. astronomer, discovers that Sirius is a binary (double) star.

1861 Mathew B. Brady, photographer, starts a photographic record of the Civil War.

1861 Holmes invents the stereoscope.

1861 Telegraphs wire are strung between NY and San Francisco, making instant coast-to-coast communication possible.

1862 Abraham Jacobi, "Father of Am Pediatrics," opens America's first children's clinic in NYC.

3. Science & Technology  1860s Physical Cycle top    

March 3, 1863 National Academy of Sciences (NASA) is founded in Wash DC with Alexander Bache as pres. [what mo.?]

Physical High (1859 - 1873)

1861 Eberhard Faber, German-American manufacturer, opens a factory in NY for the mass production of pencils.

1861 There are now more than 30,00 miles of railroad tracks in the US

1862 Am balloonist Thaddeus Lowe makes a record balloon voyage from Cincinnati, Oh, to the SC coast in 9 hrs.

1862 James Dana pubs "Manuel of Geology"

1866 Steamship "Great Eastern" reaches US completing the laying of the second Atlantic cable between Eng and Am. First cable laid in 1858 was not effective.

3. Science & Technology  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1863 - 1874)

1868 Mahlon Loomis, NY inventor, demonstrates wireless communication with a telegraph and an aerial he had invented.

1866 Sims performs the first successful artificial insemination of a human being at the NY Women's' Hosp.

1867 Alpheus Hyatt, Mass. naturalist, founds the "American Naturalist" magazine.

3. Science & Technology  1860s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1863 - 1873)

1864 Thomas Dougherty invents the periscope.

1868-72 Air Brake Patented by Geo. Westinghouse; improved 1872.

1869 Electric Voting Machine invented by Thomas A. Edison. First voting machine authorized for use, 1892.

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4. Mechanical  1860s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical High (1859 - 1873)

1869 The world's first transcontinental railroad line is completed as the last spike is hammered in at Promontory, Utah, by officials of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads. Union Pacific crews had laid track eastward from California while Central Pacific had worked westward from Nebraska.

1869 Noble Order of Knights of Labor is formed secretly in Philadelphia. by a group of garment cutter. Later a national org, its membership includes skilled and unskilled workers.

1869 Arabella Mansfield is admitted to the Iowa bar as the first woman lawyer since Margaret Brent.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1859 - 1866)

1860 Repeating Rifle into by Oliver F. Winchester (1810-80).

1861 Otis patents a steam-powered elevator.

1861 Union vessel "Monitor" and Conf "Merrimack" engage in first sea battle between ironclad warships Battle in inconclusive.

10/4/61 Construction is authorized by the US Navy for an armored warship, the “Monitor.”

1862 The "Monitor," an ironclad, steam-powered warship designed by John Ericsson, is launched. It features a screw propeller and a revolving gun turret.

1862 Richard J. Gatling, NC inventor, patents the 10-barrel "Gatling fun," a machine gun that fires 250 shots per minute.

1862 Revolving Machine Gun perfected by Richard J. Gatling (1818-1903).

1862 Colt's Conn. factory is producing 1000 guns a day.

1/30/62 The Union turreted ironclad ship, the “Monitor,” is launched.

3/9/62 In an historic naval battle, the first between two fully armored warships, the Federal “Monitor” and the Confederate “Merrimac” (called the “Virginia” since it had been encased in iron) fight off Hampton Roads, Va.  The “Merrimac” finally withdraws after five hours of fighting; on May 11 it is blown up to prevent its capture.

1863 Borden patents a process for concentrating fruit juice.

1863 Alexander Holley, NY engineer, purchases the American rights to the Bessemer steelmaking process and produces America's first Bessemer steel two years later.

1864 William F. Durfee, Massachusetts engineer, produces Bessemer-like by using the "Kelly's air-boiling process."

1864 Pa Railroad begins using steel for its rails.

1864 The "Pullman Car," the first comfortable railroad sleeping car is built by George Pullman.

2/17/64 In the first submarine attack of the war, the tiny Southern semi-submersible “H. L. Huntley” sinks a Federal ship in Charleston Harbor w a torpedo, but herself goes sown w all hands.

1865 Linus Yale, Jr. Conn., locksmith, invents the cylinder lock.

1865 Compression Ice Machine invented by Thaddeus Lowe (1832-1913), who made 1st artificial ice in US an in 1873 invented carbureted water-gas process.

1865 Samuel Van Syckel installs an oil pipeline near Titusville, Pa. The pipe is 5 miles long and made of wrought iron.

1865 Union Stockyards open in Chicago, Ill. They become the largest in the US serving the cattle industry over a wide area. Chicago becomes the world's greatest meat-producing and meat-packing center.

1865 The Civil War has occasionally been labeled “the first modern war.” Just what are the credentials it offers for such a claim, desirable or otherwise?  On the most literal level, there were quite a number of “firsts” in weaponry and technology that would indeed seem to point the way to modern warfare.  Most soldiers fought the war w a mixed arsenal of weapons, many of which dated back to at least the Am Rev - and some even to much earlier wars - and many of the basic developments had in fact appeared well before the Civil War started.  These included such breakthroughs as the percussion cap, replacing the flintlock; breech-loading small-arms as well as artillery; rifled bores for more accurate shooting; and even repeating rifles; all these received their major trial-by=fire in the Civil War, however.  But the first machine gun used in  combat, the Williams Gun - invented by a Captain Williams of the Confederate Army - can claim a solid first, while the Gatling Fun that later served armies as a mechanical machine gun was developed during the Civil War, although it did not see much action it it.  Simple rockets and crude hand grenades were also used at times but neither of these were invented during the war nor did they count much in its outcome.

1865 (cont. fr/above)  At sea, there were several notable anticipations of modern naval warfare, of which the first use of ironclads is only the best known.  Equally crucial for modern ships was the revolving turret of the “Monitor.”  Submarines were neither invented in the Civil War nor were they used for the first time in a war.  (The American David Bushnell had tried to sink a British ship from his submarine during the Revolution.)  But the Confederates worked hard at perfecting a submarine, and even though their best effort went down w the Union ship it sank in 1864, they showed what might be done in future wars.

1865 (cont. fr/above) There were other important applications of new technology that looked ahead to the future, too. Thaddeus Lowe was by no means the first to fly in lighter-than-air balloons, but he was the first to use these craft for doing reconnaissance work on enemy positions.  Likewise, the telegraph had been around for some years, but the Civil War was the first was in which it played a crucial role.  So, too, railroads were already enjoying a robust adolescence, but it was during the Civil War that they found themselves making a major contribution.  Barbed wire entanglements were also used for the first time in the Civil War, as were land and water mines.

1865 (cont.fr.above) But beyond such weaponry and technology, the Civil War saw the beginnings of several innovations in tactics and strategy that would come to characterize modern warfare.  On the one hand, there was the first extensive use of trenches, while on the other there were the flexible maneuvers of commanders such as Sheridan and Sherman: the battles of the Am Civil War are still studied by those preparing for possible wars.  The naval blockade of the South was so thorough and relatively successful that it, too, would influence modern states in their conduct of war.

1865 (cont. fr/above) And what the blockade also represented was another of the Civil War’s major claims on the future: perhaps its is redundant, but as well as the “first modern” it is sometimes called the “first total” war.  This refers to the fact that it was not fought on remote fields by fairly small armies - and often at pre-arranged times - but rather involved the mobilization of large segments of both sides’ people and economies for an extended period.  Once this concept of “total war” is understood, many other elements of the Civil War begin to reveal their modernity: the demand for “unconditional surrender,” for instance or the almost incredible casualties borne by both sides.  And perhaps the most modern of all its characteristics is the fact that the Civil War is the war that left the double-barreled legacy of war as “hell” and war for a “noble cause.”

1866 Thaddeus S. Lowe, balloonist and inventor, opens a factory in New Orleans to produce artificial ice for commercial use.

4. Mechanical  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1860s Polyrhythms top    

Physical High with
     Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1863 - 1873)

1865-75 Web Printing Press (using web or roll of paper) invented by William A. Bullock (1813-63). Rotary Press (printing on both sides of a sheet at the same time) attributed to Andrew Campbell and Stephen d. Tucker (1875).

1866 Henry A. House, Conn. manufacturer, develops as 12-horsepower steam automobile.

1866 America's first refrigerated railroad car is built in Detroit, Mich.

1867 Beach exhibits a pneumatic subway that is propelled through a tube by a fan. Although this concept is largely ignored at the time, it is revived and modified 90 years later.

1867 First elevated railroad begins operating in NYC. Built by the West Side Elevated Railroad Co., its single track runs from Battery Place to 30th St.

1868 Thomas Alva Edison, creator of more than 1000 inventions, patents and electric voting mach.

1868 George Westinghouse, NY manufacturer, invents air brakes. (Improved 1872.)

1868 Christopher L. Sholes, Pa. printer, patents and names the first practical typewriter.

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1860 First kindergarten in England is established in Boston by Elizabeth P. Peabody. A German kindergarten had been started in Wis. in 1856.

5. Education  1860s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1859 - 1866)

1862 Morrill Land-Grant College Act provides for the endowment of colleges of agriculture and industry.

5. Education  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional High (1847 - 1865)

1860 Olympia Brown, admitted to St. Lawrence U, becomes the first woman to study theology along with men.

1861 Vassar College is established in Poughkeepsie, NY, by Matthew Vassar. Vassar is the first women's' college with facilities equal to those found in men's colleges.

5. Education  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1863 - 1874)

1865 Mass. Inst. of Technology (MIT) opens with 15 students.

1867 Congress created the Department of Education.

1867 Howard U is chartered in Wash, DC Named after Gen. Oliver O. Howard, its first pre, it is the first predominantly Negroe college to offer comprehensive university facilities.

5. Education  1860s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual Dbl. 1st Qtr. Founation (1863 - 1866)

7/2/62 Lincoln signs the Morrill Act, granting land to state for establishing agricultural colleges.

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1864 First Baptist social union composed entirely of laymen is established in Tremont Temple, Boston. It reflects the growing influence of businessmen in church affairs, especially in administrative posts.

1866 First Young Women's Christian Ass (YMCA) opens in Boston. The org had its beginnings in England.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1860s Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1865 - 1874)

The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, established by settlers in New York, became the Reformed Church of America.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1860s Polyrhythms top    

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7. Arts & Design  1860s Physical Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1847 - 1865)

1863 Artist James MacNeil Whistler causes a sensation in Paris with his painting, “Little White Girl.”

7. Arts & Design  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1860s Polyrhythms top    

XXX 7. ARTS AND DESIGN POLYRHYTHMS INTRODUCTION

Physical High with
     Emotional Low
(1865 - 1873)

1865 George Inness breaks from the Hudson R School with the paintings "Delaware Valley" (1865), and "Peace and Plenty" (1865).

Instead, Inness focused more on precise and majestic physical proportions.

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James Russell Lowell poet, critic, and diplomat, whose major significance probably lies in the interest in literature he helped develop. His writing up to about 1850 was dominated by humanitarian interests, notably Abolition. In 1844, he was married to the poet Maria White, who had helped inspire his poems in "A Year's Life" (1841). After a three months' editorship (with Robert Carter) in 1843 of the abortive periodical "The Pioneer," which attracted work by Hawthorne, Poe, and Whittier, Lowell published "Conversations on Some of the Old Poets" (1845), which included pleas for Abolition and for the transcendence of nationalism over utopianism. From 1845 to 1850 he wrote about 50 anti-slavery articles for periodicals. Even more effective were his "Biglow Papers," which he began to serialize June 17, 1846 (first series collected in book form in 1848). Written in New England dialect, these satirized the Mexican War as an attempt to extend the area of slavery. The miraculous year" 1848 also saw the publication of the somewhat Tennysonian "Vision of Sir Launfal" and the witty "Fable for Critics," urging American reader to glorify native poets such as Whittier.

From 1850 to 1867, Lowell turned to nationalism, or Unionism. A trip to England in 1851-52 made him less anti-traditional, as "Leaves from My Italian Journal" (1854) suggests. His second series of "Biglow Papers" (1867), devoted to Unionism and collected from periodicals, include, "Sunthin' in the Pastoral Line," which, along with "New England Two Centuries Ago" (1865), drew upon his native Puritan heritage of ordered liberty, in contrast to the anarchy of disunion.

From about 1867 to the end of his life, Lowell was influenced by the corruption of the Grant administration, which proved that the Union did not automatically beget morally strong citizens. He now centered his work on making the individual man "sole sponsor of himself," on self-mastery in the midst of greed and perpetual temptation. One of the chief means was tradition, the examples of the heroes of the entire past, especially as embodied in literature. Thus, partly though his editorship (with Charles Eliot Norton) of the "North American Review" (1864-1872), Lowell published his critical essays on the great masters. Guided by Edmund Burke and by Coleridge (the "first of critics"_, Lowell exalted the Greeks' "sense of proportion, their distaste for the exaggerated"; Dante's sense of free-willed responsibility in the face of inward conflict between appetite and aspiration; and Shakespeare's view that this conflict can be resolved on the human rather than the theological plane.

RAW^ [note: duplicate entry as paragraphs in 1840s and 18590s[ 

1860 Emerson pubs "The Conduct of Life," a series of essays which present the author’s moral and ethical codes.

1861 Longfellow translates "Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri" into Eng.

1863 Samuel Langhorne Clemens, author and humorist, adopts the Mississippi riverboat term "Mark Twain" as a penname.

1863 Longfellow pubs "Tales of a Wayside Inn," the first poem of which is the classic "Paul Revere's Ride."

1864 John Quincy Adams Ward, sculptor, completes "Indian Hunter," which now stands in NYC's Central Park.

1865 Mary Mapes Dodge publishes "Hans Brinker; or The Silver Skates."

1865 In the last issue of "The Liberator," Garrison declares "my vocation as an abolitionist is ended.

1865 Whitman pubs "Drum Taps," a collection Civil War poems.

1865 J. Q. A. Ward sculpts "Freedman" in honor of the freed slaves.

1866 Whittier's best known poem, "Snowbound," earns him $10,000.

8. Literature & Publication  1860s Physical Cycle top    

8. Literature & Publication  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional High (1847 - 1865)

1860 Dime novels are first pub. They quickly become a popular form of entertainment.

1863 Still little recognized as a poet, Walt Whitman works as a hospital volunteer, writing heart-rending letters about his experiences.  Herman Melville and Wm Cullen Bryant pub wartime poems.

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1865 - 1874)

1866 Alexander Wheelock Thayer publishes the first volume of "The Life of Beethoven."

1866 Alexander Gardner pubs "Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War."

1867 Sidney Lanier pubs "Tiger-Lilies," a romance interwoven with the author's Civil War experience.

1868 Adah Isaacs Menken publishes "Infelicia," a collection of poems dedicated the Charles Dickens.

1869 Mark Twain pubs "The Innocents Abroad," a collection of letters written during the author's tour of Europe and the Holy Land.

1869 Louisa May Alcott pubs "Little Women," one of the most popular girls' books ever written.

1869 Josh Billings, humorist, begins publication of "Josh Billings' Farmer's Almanac," a parody of "The Old Farmer's Almanac."

8. Literature & Publication  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1852 - 1863)

Emily Dickinson master of the short lyric poem whose writing is characterized by passion, wit, and scrupulous craftsmanship.

She began to write verse about 1850, apparently inspired by the poetry of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Emily Bronte. Her main themes were love, death, and nature. About 1860 she began to experiment with language and prosody. In 1862 she sent four poems to Thomas W. Higginson, and became Emily's "preceptor" until her death. Her greatest literary output (some 800 poems) coincided with the civil war.

The poems of the 1850s are fairly conventional in sentiment and form, but beginning about 1860, they become experimental both in language and prosody, though they owe much to the meters of the English hymn writer Isaac Watts and to Shakespeare and the King James Version of the Bible.  Emily’s prevailing poetic form was the quatrain of three iambic feet, a type described in one of the books by Watts in the family library.  She used many other forms as well, and to even the simpler hymnbook measures she gave complexity by constantly altering the metrical beat to fit her thought:: now slow, now fast, now hesitant.  She broke new ground in her wide use of off-rhymes, varying from the true in a variety of ways that also helped to convey her thought and its tensions.  In striving for an epigrammatic conciseness , she stripped her language of superfluous words and saw to it that those that remained were vivid and exact.  She tampered freely with syntax and liked to place a familiar word in an extraordinary context, shocking the reader to attention and discovery

Intellectual 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1863 - 1874)

1865 In "From the Earth to the Moon," Jules Verne, Fr. author, predicts that America will lead the conquest of space.

1866 The Metropolitan Museum is founded in NYC.

1867 Horatio Alger pubs "Ragged Dick; or, Street Life in New York," the first of many "rags to riches" stories for boys. [note Physical High and 1st Qtr. also]

8. Literature & Publication  1860s Polyrhythms top    

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1862 Theodore Thomas develops the first highly professional orchestra in the country.

9. Entertainment  1860s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1859 - 1866)

1865 Tony Pastor, "father of American vaudeville,: opens a variety theater in NYC featuring entertainment for men only.

9. Entertainment  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional High (1847 - 1865)

1860 Foster pubs the song "Old Black Joe."

1861 Actress Isaacs Adah Menken shocks Bostonian audiences when she appears when she appears nearly naked on stage.

1863 Foster composes the song "Beautiful Dreamer."

1866 Joseph Jefferson becomes the most popular actor in the US with his depiction of Rip Van Winkle.

Emotional High (1865 - 1874)

1867 "Slave Songs of the United States," the first collection of Negro spirituals pub, includes the still popular "Michael Row the Boat Ashore."

1868 Episcopal clergyman Phillips Brooks writes the hymn "O Little Town of Bethlehem."

9. Entertainment  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual WHATEVER (1863 - 1874)

1866 Franz Schwarzer, Missouri eccentric opens a zither factory.

1867 The New Eng Conservatory of Music in Boston is founded.

9. Entertainment  1860s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Emotional High (1859 - 1865)

1862 Julia Ward Howe writes "Battle Hymn of the Republic"

1863 Thomas Bishop writes the words to the Civil War ballad "When Johnny Comes Marching Home."

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10. Sports  1860s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical High (1859 - 1873)

1865 Interest in baseball mushrooms w the formation of 91 clubs with in the National Association.

1867 "Ruthless" wins the first annual Belmont Stakes for winnings valued at $1850.

1867 Record for long-distance walking is set by Edward P. Weston who covers the distance from Portland, Maine, to Chicago, Ill, in 26 days, winning $10,000.

1868 Popularity of ice skating leads to the meeting of an Am skating congress in Pittsburgh, Pa., to establish regulations for the sport.

1868 New sport of "velocipeding" (cycling) becomes popular. Schools for all ages and both sexes are set up throughout the large cities.

1868 First annual track and field meet (indoors) is held by the NY Athletic Club.

1869 First all-pro baseball team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, is founded. Baseball has been played only by amateurs since 1839.

1869 First intercollegiate football game is played at New Brunswick, NY, between Rutgers and Princeton. Rutgers wins 6 to 4.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1859 - 1866)

The formal football organization in the U.S., the Oneida Football Club of Boston, was founded in 1862. Various forerunners to football had existed prior to this which had evolved from English rugby.

1860 Croquet is introduced from Eng and becomes very popular.

1862 The first enclosed baseball field opens in Brooklyn, NY

1863 Roller skating is introduced into Am by James L. Plimpton, who invents the 4-wheel skate.

1863 Joe Coburn wins the American boxing championship from Mike McCoole in a 63-round match in Charleston, Md.

1864 First croquet club is founded in Brooklyn, NY.

1864 Travers Stakes is established at the first race track in Saratoga, NY.

1865 Interest in baseball takes tremendous upsurge after the war. There are 91 clubs included in the national association.

10. Sports  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

10. Sports  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  1860s Polyrhythms top    

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11. Fashion  1860s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical High (1859 - 1873)

1865 Beads become fashionable just after the war. 

11. Fashion  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

 

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1863 - 1875)

1863 Ebenezer Butterick of Sterling, Massachusetts invents the first paper dress patterns sold in US. [what mo.?]

11. Fashion  1860s Polyrhythms top    

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pop. US about 31.4 million

Until the opening years of the 19th century, no city in the world had ever held a million people; by the end there were 18 of them. London reached its million shortly after 1800, Paris around 1930, New York around 1860 and then, in the final quarter of the 19th century, another 15 places burst through the barrier. The million-strong metropolis had become the norm. Really big cities had several millions: London, for example, had 6 1/2, New York 4 1/4, Paris and Berlin 3 or more each.

These Victorian cities were constantly changing their character. The development of new forms of public transport - the horse drawn omnibus and the train in the mid-19th century, then the electric tram in the 1880's - freed the people from the tyranny of the walk to work and created suburban man. The numbers living in the city centers started to fall, the centers themselves were rebuilt with more offices and less dwellings, ever widening belts of middle income housing spread into the countryside. Overall densities fell; the quality of life improved.

RAW^

10/3/63 Pres Lincoln proclaims the last Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day.

1866 Cholera Epidemic strikes many cities. About 200 people die each day in St. Louis, Mo, during the worst of the epidemic.

1868 New England Woman's Club is founded. Its objective is to concentrate and promote the efforts or women to win recognition of their rights.

12. Lifestyles  1860s Physical Cycle top    

 

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1859 - 1866)

1860 Pony Express begins fast overland mail service from St. Joseph. Missouri., to Sacramento, Ca., a distance of more than 1900 mi. When the transcontinental telegraph is completed a year later, the Pony Express is discontinued.

4/3/60 The Pony Express mail service begins and thrives before the transcontinental telegraph line is in operation in 1861.  Riders cover the route between St Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, Ca, in about 8 days.

1861 US mails begin to carry merchandise as well as letters.

1864 Kights of Pythias, a fraternal order, is founded in Wash. DC.

1865 First fire dept with paid firefighters is established in New York City

1865 First railroad train holdup takes place at down in North Bend, Ohio, when an Ohio and Miss. train is derailed. Male passengers are robbed and the express car is looted.

12. Lifestyles  1860s Emotional Cycle top    

 

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1865 - 1874)

1866 Am Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is established in NYC by Henry Bergh.

9/1/69 Riding a rising tide of public opinion, the National Temperance Convention meets in Chicago to form the Prohibition Party.

12. Lifestyles  1860s Intellectual Cycle top    

12. Lifestyles  1860s Polyrhythms top    

Trirhythmic WHATEVER (XXX)

12/4/67 Oliver Hudson Kelley, an obscure young clerk in the government’s Agriculture Department, resigns his job to found the Patrons of Husbandry.  It begins as a secret society w the usual rituals and trappings, but will ultimately become the voice of the farmer across the land, and will tangle successfully w the formidable railroad cabal.  The Grange, as it will subsequently become named, starts out as an educational social, non-political society which even admits women.  At first it attracts few members but when it undertakes to challenge the Goliaths of industry, suspicion dissipates and only six years after its slow inception at Fedonia, New York, the Grange Movement has enrolled 858,000 members into its ranks.

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