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Timelines - Decade
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American Cycles 1780s
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).

The overall energy of the 1780's was high as all three Cycles peaked following their emergence with the birth of the nation in 1775. This rendered all three Cycles in the 1st Quarter of setting Foundations for a while and we established a nation. Following the peak of each Cycle in the 1780's, each Cycle went into 2nd Quarter Expansion and we expanded on our foundations to reach out across the land to improve conditions. During this time, the first Cycle to cross down in the low half came with a Downward Physical Crossover in 1789, but the other two Cycles remained High.

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The Revolutionary War continued until 1781 with wins and loses on both sides. The British captured Charleston and most of South Carolina in 1780, but Benedict Arnold's plot to surrender West Point to the British was spoiled. Colonials won the Battle of Cowpens, South Carolina in 1781 but lost Guilford Court House, North Carolina. This same year the French fleet defeated the British a British naval force and blockaded the Chesapeake Bay and Gen Charles Bornwallis surrendered to Washington thus ended the war. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay negotiated a treaty with the British in Paris in 1782. Britain evacuated the colonies and European states recognized US independence during 1782 and 1783. Congress formally proclaimed and end to the war in April, 1783. The ensuing economy was off to a rough start and some 1200 debt-ridden farmers in western Massachusetts follow Daniel Shay's in a revolt against the state government over high taxes, failing paper money and money shortages, bankruptcy and insistent creditors. Shay's rebellion against the federal arsenal at Springfield Massachusetts in 1786 failed. The US Constitution was drafted in 1787 and the first session of the new Congress met in March, 1789. In April, Congress elected the nation's first president, George Washington. America was on its way.

1. Political  1780s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Cycle - 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1782 - 1789)

Andrew Ellicot surveys and extended the Mason-Dixon Line Mason-Dixon Line in 1784. Originally it was the boundary between the Maryland and Pennsylvania that in pre-Civil War times was considered the dividing line between slave and free soil states. Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon defined long disputed grants by surveying the 233-mile long line between 1765 and 1768. In the second quarter of the Physical Cycle that always influences land, this line was improved and extended.

Physical Downward Crossover (March 21, 1789 - March 21, 1790)

The Society of Saint Tammany formed as an Anti-federalist fraternal organization in New York City on May 12, 1789. This group of laborers, tradesmen and political activists, headed by William Mooney, sought reforms against the federal government

Physical Cycle - 3rd Qtr. Review (1789 - 1796)

The Bill of Rights became the First Ten Amendments of the Constitution by a vote of Congress to submit them to the state on September 25, 1789. Some had concerns about adopting the Constitution that lacked guarantees for rights of freedom of worship, freedom of speed, freedom of press and freedom of assembly. This act became one of the most significant reforms in history.

1. Political  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

The First Laws Against Slavery emerged in the first Emotional High that brought with it a morality high. The Pennsylvania assembly enacting legislation for the gradual abolition of slavery on March 1, 1780. Massachusetts endorsed its constitution on June 11, 1780 that asserted "All men are born free and equal" and held that it also applies to slaves. The Virginia legislature led by Thomas Jefferson in 1782 made it lawful for any man "by last will and testament or other instrument in writing sealed and witnessed, to emancipate and set free his slaves" and on October 10, 1783 the Virginia House Burgesses granted freedom to black slaves who served in the Revolutionary War. Maryland outlawed slavery in 1783 and New Jersey banned it in 1786.

1. Political  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1775 - 1797)

The new nation was setting up in its early years as it institutionalized it decision making capabilities. A federal Judiciary Act in 1789 created the Supreme Court, thirteen District Courts and three Circuit Courts. John Jay became the first Chief Justice. The federal government agencies came in 1789 with the creation of the Department of Foreign Affairs (later named the Department of State), the US Treasury Department with Alexander Hamilton as the first secretary, and the War Department with Henry Knox as Secretary of War. The first postmaster, Samuel Osgood, was appointed by President Washington in 1789 (who remained until the government moved from New York to Philadelphia in 1789). Congress passed the first tariff to raise money on July 20, 1789 with the tonnage act to tax cargo on foreign ship. Edmund J. Randolph became the first US attorney general in September, 1789. Supporters of Constitution formed the Federalist Party and chose General George Washington and John Adams as President and Vice President respectively.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1786)

The Great Seal of the United States was adopted in 1782 and first used on September 16. Congress declared it to be the official seal of the US. Since then six official dies of the seal have been cut and used.

1. Political  1780s Polyrhythms top    

     Physical Cycle - 2nd Qtr. Expansion with
Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1782 - 1786)

Congress adopted Jefferson's Plan for Governing Western Lands as we set precedents to for our Physical expansion in this combination of quarters.

Trirhythmic High (1775 - 1789)

New York City becomes the Nation's Served as the First Capital as Congress made it the federal seat on September 13, 1788 after it had located there in 1785.

Trirhyhtmic 1st Qtr. Foundations (1775 - 1782)

1781 Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union are Ratified in 1781 to establish the governing of a new nation.

Trirhythmic 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1776 - 1789)

The US Constitution Replaced the Articles of Confederation after the Constitutional Convention convened on May 25, 1787 in Philadelphia. The Articles were deemed inadequate for governing the United States and the new Constitution solved many problems. All states would be equally represented but the House of Representatives would be weighted by state population. A conclusion came on June 21, 1788 by which time the required number of state had ratified the Constitution.

The Three Branches of Government are Formed. The Legislative branch will have a Senate and the House of Representatives. The Executive branch to be headed by a president who has; powers over Congress, is the Commander in Chief over the armed forces, can appoint judges and other officials and can recommend legislation. And the Judicial branch will consist of a Supreme Court.

Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance to govern the Northwest Territory east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio Territory in 1787. It holds that the Territory is to be divided into three to five states when population levels are substantial enough.

Washington, D.C. was Established as the New Home of the Nation's Capital when Maryland and Virginia gave land on the Potomac River to Congress for this purpose in 1788. New York City had become the temporary site of the federal capital this in 1785. The seat of the federal government moved to Philadelphia in 1790. Later, Washington, D.C. became the permanent site of the capital

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2. Business & Economy  1780s Physical Cycle top    

As if a war was not a big enough obstacle for a new nation to overcome, following the war was a post-war depression that reached a low point in the latter part of this decade with bankruptcies and paper currency failures. Congress enacted the first tariff bill on July 4, 1790 that effected more than thirty different commodities. On one bright note in the world of business of this time, however, was the first commercially marketed ice cream that appeared in New York City in 1786.

Physical High (1775 - 1789)

Construction of the First Toll Road Began in 1785 when the state of Virginia financed its construction of the Little Rover Turnpike.

The First Recorded Strike in the US was called by the printers of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who successfully in won a wage of $6 a week. Labor often shows its strength in a Physical High.

Physical Cycle - 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1782 - 1789)

A New Trade Route to China proved lucrative to American merchants when the "Empress of China" sailed from Sandy Hook, New Jersey, around Cape Horn with ginseng root, which brought huge sums in China. Though the voyage took more than a year, the trade route allowed commerce to rebound after a stifling British blockade during the war. Salem, Massachusetts became the main American port for the route.

Regular stage routes linking New York City, Boston, Albany, and Philadelphia began in 1785. They traveled from Boston to New York in six days in coaches from 3 a.m. until 10 p.m.

2. Business & Economy  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

2. Business & Economy  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1786)

Congress Officially Created a Treasury Board to replace the Office of Superintendent of Finances on May 28, 1784. In order to dissuade Congressional fears that too much power was in the hands of one may, Robert Morris announced that he would resign. A panel of three commissioners would govern the new board.

The Bank of North America is Officially Chartered by Congress on December 21, 1781 under the Article of Confederation. The bank was founded with $400,000 since capital to supply the federal government with money since Congress could not tax.

2. Business & Economy  1780s Polyrhythms top    

     Physical High with
Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1775 - 1786)

Thomas Jefferson proposed a new Coinage System in 1785 that was adopted by Congress in 1786. It was based on the Spanish milled dollar and had a gold piece with a value of ten dollars, a dollar in silver, a tenth of a dollar in silver, and a hundredth of a dollar in copper.

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3. Science & Technology  1780s Physical Cycle top    

Physical Cycle - 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1782)

The Philadelphia Humane Society was Established in Philadelphia in 1780 to teach first aid for reviving drowning victims as Franklin proposed mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

3. Science & Technology.  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1786)

The First Detailed Description of an Eclipse came from Samuel Williams who described droplets of sunlight around the edge of the moon during the eclipse in 1780.

The Massachusetts Medical Society was Established by Cotton Tufts in 1781.

Harvard Medical School Opened in 1782

America's First Dentist was Josiah Flagg of Boston in 1783. George Washington's dentist, Dr. John Baker, began the use of porcelain for false teeth in 1785.

Manasseh Cutler published "An Account of Some of the Vegetable Productions Naturally Growing in this Part of America" in 1785 was a highly regarded scientific study of American vegetables.

The First issue of "Memoirs, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences" was published in 1785

Botanist, Humphry Marshall, Published "The American Grove," in 1785 as a systematic catalog of trees.

Benjamin Rush Published "Observations on the Cause and Cure of the Tetanus" and suggested that some illnesses are psychosomatic in 1786.

Rittenhouse Described the Molecular Theory of Magnetism and 1786 and he experimented with diffraction gratings and light dispersion.

The Pennsylvania Hospital Opened an Outpatient Dispensary in 1786 and it became a forerunner of free clinics.

3. Science & Technology  1780s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1775 - 1789)

Balloon Experiments were advanced by physician, John Foulke, who flew a small paper balloon in 1784. Peter Carnes paid a 13 year old boy that same year to make the first manned balloon flight in America, (the first hot-air balloon was launched by Frenchmen Joseph Montgolfier and his brother Jacques in 1783).

Casper Wistar and Samuel Latham Mitchill conducted independent experiments on evaporation in 1787

The College of Physicians of Philadelphia was Founded as a professional medical organization in 1787

John Fraser and Thomas Walter Published "Flora Caroliniana" in 1788 as a description of plants in the Carolinas.

America's First Collection of Medical Papers, "Cases and Observations," was published in 1788 by the Medical Society of New Haven in 1788

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion with
     Intellectual High
(1782 - 1789)

Benjamin Franklin invented bifocal spectacles as a Improvement of regular glasses in 1783.

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4. Mechanical  1780s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1775 - 1789)

The First American Cotton Mill opened in 1787 in Beverly, Massachusetts.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1782)

Jeremiah Wilkinson produced cold-cut iron nails from iron plate in 1781.

The First Multi-tubular Boiler Steam Engines came from 1781 to 1787 from John Stevens who obtained his patent in 1783.

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1781 - 1789)

Oliver Evans Automated a Flour Mill Production Line near Philadelphia in 1784.

Oliver Evans Improved Steam Engines in 1787 with the Non-condensing high-pressure steam engine.

Boats Became Steam Powered when John Fitch invented the steamboat in 1786 that sailed one on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787 as witnessed by the delegates of the Constitutional Convention. It reached a top speed of three miles per hour.

Shipbuilding Expanded to the West Coast in 1788 when "Northwest America" was launched.

The "Jet-propelled" Steamboat that shoots a stream of water through the stern was invented by James Rumsey in 1787.

4. Mechanical  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1780s Polyrhythms top    

     Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion with
Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1782 - 1786)

The First Publication with Movable Type, "Lans Deo!", was published in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1786. All books prior to that were engraved

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5. Education  1780s Physical Cycle top    

5. Education  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

5. Education  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1786)

The American Academy of Arts an Sciences is Founded in Boston on May 4, 1780, and is the second oldest learned society in the United States.

The First Free School was Established for Orphans on the third floor of the new Alexandria Academy in Virginia in 1785.

The Continental Congress Made Provisions for Education by providing in 1785 that a section of each township in the Western Reserve (north-east Ohio) be set aside for the support of public schools.

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 to divide lands east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio Territory to five states and to make education mandatory.

5. Education  1780s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Emotional High (1775 - 1789)

Mobs rioted in New York against the use of cadavers for dissection in medical schools in 1788. Morality increased with the Emotional High and did action with the Physical High.

Physo-Intellectual High (1775 - 1789)

":Observations" describing Indian tools was published by Benjamin Barton, a Pennsylvania physician.

Emo-Intellectual High (1775 - 1784)

The First Catholic parochial school ("Mother School") was founded by St. Mary's Catholic Church in Philadelphia in 1782. The first theological college in the US, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary was established in New Jersey in 1784. Georgetown University was became the first Catholic college in the US on January 3, 1788, founded by Father John Carroll. Both religion and education rise in an Emo-Intellectual High.

Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1784)

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences was organized in Boston in 1780.

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6. Religion & Spirituality  1780s Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1784)

The First American Universalist Church was built by Reverend John Murray in Gloucester, Massachusetts in 1780. It favored the separation of Church and Sate. The first Protestant Episcopal bishop in America, Dr. Samuel Seabury, was elected in March 25, 1783 by fellow ministers in Woodbury, Connecticut.

Emotional 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1775 - 1793)

Virginia's Ordinance of Religious Freedom in on January 1, 1786 followed its Declaration of Rights of 1776. This same statute written by Thomas Jefferson had been voted down by the assembly in 1779 during the 1st Quarter of Unification and Coalescence, but it passed in the 2nd Quarter of Improvement when reintroduced by James Madison. In its basis, it held that no man can be forced to attend or support any church, not be may he discriminated against because of his religious freedom.

The Protestant Episcopal Church independent of the Church of England organized in 1789. Its first triennial convention was held in Philadelphia where revised prayer and adopted canons. By 1792 they had five bishops.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1780s Polyrhythms top    

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8. Arts & Design  1780s Physical Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1780s Polyrhythms top    

Trirhythmic High (1775 - 1789)

C. W. Peale opened an exhibition gallery near his Philadelphia studio on July 18, 1786. It is considered to be the first art gallery in the US

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8. Literature & Publication  1780s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1775 - 1789)

John Trumbull published is anti-loyalist poem, M'Fingal, with installments that appeared in 1776 with additional cantos that appeared five years later. Territoriality was of course high during the war and the first Physical High of the nation.

"Notes on Virginia" defines the state and physical boundaries and natural history, written by Thomas Jefferson from 1781-1784

"Geography Made Easy" included descriptions of American plants and animals, published by Jeridiah Morse in 1784.

The First American road map was published by Christopher Colles in 1789.

8. Literature & Publication  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

The First Complete English Language Bible in America was published by Robert Aitken in 1782.

Methodists established the Methodist Book Concern in 1789 to further Christian education and publish religious material.

8. Literature & Publication  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1775 - 1797)

Philip Freneau emerged as a major American poet with his collected "Poems" published in 1786 and "Miscellaneous Works" in published in 1788. Poems in these volumes in include "The Hurricane," "The Indian Burying Ground," "To the Memory of Brave Americans" and "The Wild Honey Suckle" which was considered to be his finest.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1786)

Webster standardized American English. and published "The American Speller" in 1783 with stories, aphorisms, notes on ethical behavior. It became the principal text for early grades of public school. Then he issued the first part of his "Blue-Backed Spellers, a Grammatical Institute of the English Language." which included a grammar in 1784 and a reader in 1785. The last two volumes followed by 1785. It united America with a common language of standardized pronunciation and spelling that distinguished it from British.

Enrollment at Yale College is 270 in 1783.

The first daily newspaper in the US, "The Pennsylvania Evening Post," was published by Benjamin Towne in Philadelphia in 1783. Joel Barlow, poet, established a weekly newspaper, "American Mercury" in Harford, Connecticut in 1784. Mathew Carey founded the "Pennsylvania Herald" in 1785.

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Quarter Expansion (1786 - 1797)

Serial Publication advanced as a leading means. "The Federalist," America's great work on political theory, began on October 7, 1787 and the last of its 85 essays appeared on April 4, 1788. After the debate over adoption of the Constitution Alexander Hamilton of New York wrote at least 51 of the papers in an attempt to persuade New York State toward ratification. They also appeared in book form with two volumes between March and May of 1788.
"Publius" evolves into "The Federalist Paper". Federalists in favor of the new constitution began publication of supportive articles on October 27, 1787, known as "Publius." Alexandar Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay wrote the first essays, all 77 of which were eventually compiled and published as "The Federalist Papers" in 1788.

8. Literature & Publication  1780s Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual High (1775 - 1793)

The periodicals designed especially for women made their publication appearance as "Gentlemen and Ladies" and "Town and Country Magazine," were in 1784.

Emo-Intellectual High (1775 - 1793)

William Brown's novel promoted female education. "The Power of Sympathy; or The Triumph of Nature," which has been regarded as the first American novel, was printed in Boston in 1789 "to expose the dangerous Consequences of Seclusion and to set forth the advantages of female Education." and exposed "dangerous consequences of seduction." It also dealt with such serious topics as incest, desertion, and suicide.

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

The first American edition of "Mother Goose Rhymes" was published by Isaiah Thomas in 1785

Trirhythmic High (1775 - 1789)

"Letters from an American Farmer" by J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur was published in 1782 and became an extremely popular book with 12 letters with of warm and vivid detail of farm life, animals the geography of the colonies. It carried the ideals of that the goodness of man is traced from his connections with soil.

"Columbian Magazine" was founded by Mathew Carey 1786 which became important periodical of the day.

The first magazine for children, "The Children's Magazine," was published in Hartford, Connecticut in 1789.

"Gazette of the United States" began in New York City as a Federalist newspaper on April 4, 1789 by John Fenno. It moved to Philadelphia in 1790 and was renamed the "United States Gazette."

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9. Entertainment  1780s Physical Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1794)

The first American comedy, "The Contrast" by Royall Tyler began on stage on at John Street Theater in New York City by a company of professional actors on April 16, 1787. It portrayed a rustic Yankee as the hero and ridiculed aristocratic values. It was an immediate success.

A law banning the performance of stage plays was repealed by the Pennsylvania legislature on March 2, 1789. A permissive view of the dramatic arts spread through the land and George Washington made frequent appearances to shows.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1784)

9. Entertainment  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1780s Polyrhythms top    

Trirhythmic High (1775 - 1789)

One of the first non-religious song books, "A Select Collection of the Most Favorite Scotts Tunes," was published in the US in 1787.

"Seven Songs for the Harpsichord" was published by Francis Hopkinson in 1788. Secular music was published in Boston and Philadelphia in 1789 as many forms of expression emerged.

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10. Sports  1780s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1775 - 1789)

A golf club was established at Charleston, South Carolina in 1786. The formation of sports organizations would consistently show a greater prevalence during Physical Highs.

10. Sports  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

10. Sports  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  1780s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Emotional High (1775 - 1789)

Women riders appeared in Horse Racing in 1780 in Long Island, New York. The appearance of women reflected the Emotional High and that they were in the genre of activity reflected the Physical High.

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11. Fashion  1780s Physical Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

The elegance and splendor of Annapolis, Maryland was noted by a quoted French traveler who commented on the fine women, elegant horses and coaches, elaborate dinners and refined balls: "A French hairdresser is a man of importance...,and it is said, a certain dame here hires one...at a thousand crowns a year salary."

The elegance of men's clothing was noted in a Boston printer's description who said, "He wore a pea-green coat, white vest, nankeen small clothes, white silk stockings, an pumps fastened with silver buckles which covered at least half the foot from instep to toe. His small clothes were tied at the knees with ribbon of the same colour in double bows, the ends reaching down to the ancles. His hair in front was laden with pomatum, frizzled or draped and powdered. Behind, his natural hair was augmented by the addition of a large queue called vulgarly a false tail, which, enrolled in some yards of black ribbon, hung half-way down his back."

11. Fashion  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1780s Polyrhythms top    

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Boring numbers: The US population in 1780 was estimated at 2.781 million. In 1783 it was estimated at 2.4 million with a decrease due to war deaths the departure of Loyalists during the Rev War.

12. Lifestyles  1780s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1789 - 1796)

The first temperance group was formed in Connecticut in 1789 by 200 farmers who pledged to drink no alcoholic beverages during farming season.

12. Lifestyles  1780s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

The beginning of social courtesy and sensitivity to women soon to spread and in 1789 as reflected by the announcement at a performance in the Park Theater of New York City in 1789 as: "The offensive practice to Ladies, and dangerous to the House, of smoking segars during the performance, it is hoped, every gentlemen will soon set to an absolute prohibition of."

Use of scarlet letter for adulterers in New England was discontinued in 1782 during the Emotional High and the absence of any Cycle in 3rd Quarter Reform.

A state liquor tax was opposed in a Town Meeting in Worcester, Massachusetts because they felt that liquor was a necessary contribution to the morale of farm workers.

Thanksgiving day is celebrated as a national holiday for the first time in 1789 during our first Emotional High.

12. Lifestyles  1780s Intellectual Cycle top    

12. Lifestyles  1780s Polyrhythms top    

Internal Aberration

Fire raged through the city of New Orleans in 1788 destroyed 800 buildings and leveled most of the old French and Spanish architecture. No internal clockwork or cycle would predict this, but as conditions were restored, life went back into the flow of national rhythms.

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The first fifteen years of America's existence were filled with strife and getting started. After the end of the Revolutionary War in 1781, America saw the simultaneous effect all three Cycles going through their First Quarters after the birth of a nation. This brought the all-powerful and necessary establishment of laying foundations and setting precedents for things to come. In the 1780's, all three of these Cycles reached their peaks and began their trek through the 2nd Quarter of Expansions and Improvements where we already began to improve and expand on what we were setting up. The nation's first Downward Crossover of the Physical Cycle came in 1789 and we faced the first internally derived crisis in the life of a nation. It was all part of the process that is encoded in the patterns of life.