Personality Studies

 

KalaRhythms & Interpersonal Style
Personal Styles - Analytical, Amiable, Driver, Expressive, Facilitator, Organizer

Related Works

Various Models of Styles, Types, Modalities and Archetypes of Personality

Triadic Personality Traits

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Sanskrit: Ayurvedic

The Three Doshas, or “that which changes,” define three metabolic types as described in the Sanskrit of ancient India”s Ayurveda, which means “science of life.” Each Dosha is formed by the five elements that combine to create three dynamic forces. The Tridoshaare:
Pitta: [kala. Physical] [mesomorph] “That which digests things” comes from fire to create heat, light and vision. It forms chemical and metabolic transformation in the body, governs our digestions, and our perceptions of reality. Pitta forms are moderate in build, averse to heat, have good appetites, learn at a moderate pace, organized and quicker to temper.

Kapha: [kala. Emotional] [endomorph] “That which holds things” comes from water. Kapha forms are more solid and heavier in build, enduring, slower paced, good natured with positive emotional traits, compassionate and patient.

Vata: [kala. Intellectual] [ectomorph] “Wind, to move, flow, direct the processes of, or command,” is formed from air and ether. Vata forms are thin built, averse to to cold, quick to learn and verbal.

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Plato: (427-347 BC) The Three Parts of the Soul

From Plato’s Republic: Book IV (434d-441c) we have the description proved to be the basis for defining parts of the self throughout the ages. Later in Republic Plato would equate these three parts with the Tripartite system of the city in which three classes of citizens perform different roles. The Three Parts of the Soul are:

Appetite: [kala. Physical]non-rational, uninfluenced by beliefs, seeks satisfaction for thirst, hunger, desire and lust.Spirit: [kala. Emotional]emotion, influenced by beliefs of good and bad, sometimes in conflict with reason.Reason: [kala. Intellectual] rational, calculating, independent and reflective part of the serf.

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Aristotle: (384-322 BC) Parts of the Human Soul

In 350 BC Aristotle wrote On the Soul in which Book Idescribes our three parts as:
Vegetative Life: [kala. Physical] (not a scientific term for defining classes, but term for a part of the self), is the form by which we identify with plants via our reproduction, power of the organic body to receive nourishment, regulation of activity, growth, and aspects by which we determine to be a “good” or flourishing plant.

Senstive Life: [kala. Emotional] or animal life is form by which we identify with mainly with birds and mammals by responding selectively to external sensations of color, sound, smell taste, etc., while processing internal sensations such as pleasure and pain.

Rational Life: [kala. Emotional] is the form in which the human being is present with reason, speech beyond animal sensation, and the intellective self.

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Somatotypes:

Dr. William Sheldon (1898-1977)was an American psychologist who studied the range of human body types which he associates with human personality traits or temperament types. They are:
Mesomorph [kala. Physical] is focused on the musculature and circulatory system (mesoderm). Build is medium and muscular. Temperament corresponds with Somatotonia and contains courage, vivacity, assertiveness and aggression. They are their bodies, they rely more on sense and reality than fantasy, and seek risks while maintaining balance.

Endomorph [kala. Emotional] is focused on the stomach and digestive system (endoderm). Weight gain is a tendency. Temperament corresponds to Vicerotonia and is outgoing, gregarious, slower paced and jolly. They are their feeling, they seek comfort and luxury and have a tolerant nature.

Ectomorph [kala. Intellectual] is focused on the nervous system and the brain (ectoderm). Build is slender. Temperament corresponds to Cerebrotonia and may be pensive, artistic, and introverted. They are their minds, may be socially anxious emotionally reserved while viewing rational thought as their highest calling.

Four Personality Traits

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The Four Humors:

Hippocrates (c. 460 BC – 377 BC) proposed around 190 AD that it is the balance of bodily fluids, and not the stars or gods that determine our actions. Influenced by the relative abundance of the Four Humors of the body. Galen (C130-200) used this as the basis of more advanced studies on behavior that set precedents followed for more than a thousand years. Corresponding traits in Medieval times were known as the Four Temperaments.
The Four Humors The Four Temperments
Phlegm – mucus secreted in the respiratory passages Sanguine – confidently optimistic and cheerful
Yellow bile – once believed to be secreted by the liver Melancholic – subject to sadness
Black bile – once believed to be secreted by the kidneys or spleen Choleric – easily moved to anger
Blood Phlegmatic – showing little emotion

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Ptolemy: (85-165 AD) Astrology

Astrology received a precedent when Ptolemy held that the twelve signs of the zodiac can be classified by four basic elements, and that persons born under these signs will have corresponding influences on their temperaments. This belief system is maintained today in modern astrology. They four groups of signs are:

Fire– Aries, Leo, SagittariusEarth– Taurus, Virgo, CapricornAir– Gemini, Libra, AquariusWater – Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces

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Carl Gustav Jung: (1875-1961) Four Ego Functions

Sensoryfunction is percepction through the sense organs. Sensation personality types relates to physical stimuli.Feelingfunction is emotional, it evaluates between pleasant unpleasant and makes judgements based on the “heart.”Thinkingfunction is intellectual, theorectical, rational analysis.Intuitive function is discerned through the unconscious and brings about a consciouness that is apart from just feeling or thinking.

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Dr. David West Keirsey:

Dr. David W. Keirsey is a clinical psychologist who worked as a corrective interventionalist and trained therapists at California State University. He decribed four classic temperaments and associated each type with a God from Greek mythology as:

The Guardian [SJ] is in the present, stable, rock sold, loyal, literal minded.

The god associated with this type is Epimetheus.

The Idealist: [NT] is natural, open, verbal, benevolent, enthusiastic and sensitive.
The god associated with this type is Apollo.


The Artisan: [SP] is free-spirited, charismatic, adventurous, and creative
The god associated with this type is Dionysus.


The Rationalist: [NF] combines traits of both the Guardian and the Idealist and are future directed, realistic, private, autonomous, civic minded, and possesses ingenuity.
The god associated with this type is Prometheus.

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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:

Isabel Briggs Myers (1897-1979) constructed personality tests after lengthy observation and research. Beginning in the 1940s she extended the Jungian model of personality types with greater detail that sets precedents in pesonality style. Jung’s described Extroverts and Introverts and dichotomies of thinking/feeling and sensation/intuition functions. MBTI is a now widely used insturment for measuring a person’s personality type based on preferences they select from intricate questionnaires. These questions indicate one’s nature based on four polarities of:
(E)xtravert – (I)introvert
(S)ensory – i(N)tuitive
(T)hinking – (F)eeling
(J)udging – (P)ercieving

From the test a four-letter personality types can be assessed such as ENFP, for example, which indicates that one is Extroverted, Intuitive, Feeling and Perceiving. A person’s type who is ISTJ, on the other hand, is Introverted, Sensory, Thinking and Judging.

Various Studies

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Self Directed Search (SDS)

Dr. Holland was a classification interviewer with the U.S. Army who created a six-category personality typology that he revised and developed over twenty five years. The American Psychologicy Association presented Dr. Holland with the Distinguished Contribution to Knowledge award in 1995 for his work and he is a professor emeritus at Johns Hopkins University. Wide application of his tool has proven helpful in making careers choices by guiding people toward occupation. that match their types, which he describes as:
Realistic: a Doer. [kala. Physical, Driver]Robust, practical, physically strong, aggressive, and skillful, frank, curious, concrete, stable, mechanical, athletic, reserved and ambitious.Artistic: a Creator. [kala. Emotional, Expressive]Artistically oriented, creative, emotional , epxressive, sensitive, open, intuitive and imaginative.Investigative: a Thinker. [kala. Intellectual, Analytical]Inquisitive, scholarly, scientific, precise, logical, reserved, task-oriented, abstract thinkers, and observant.Enterprising: a Persuader. [kala. PhysoEmotional, Facilitator] Adept with words, can sell, dominate, and lead, are enthusiastic, adventurous, self-confident, popular, ambitous, optimistic, impulsive, dominant and sociable.

Conventional: an Organizer. [kala. PhysoIntellectual, Organizer] Good at verbal and numerical activities, organized, methodical, conscientous, practical, persistent, accurate.

Social: a Helper. [kala. EmoIntellectual, Amiable] Friendly, cooperative, responisible, helpful, insightful, patient, idealistic, and understanding.

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Enneagram

The enneagram is a personality typing system that uses nine differents types that was developed by Richard Riso & Russ Hudson (“ennea” means “nine”). Many believe that we are born to our type. Sometimes one may have share some characteristics of an adjacent type, or a “wing.” A type 7, for instance, have traits in common with a type 6 or 8, if so, this would be written as, 7w6 or 7w8. If one does not have a dominant wing, then the wings are balanced. The nine types are described as:


1. The Reformeris a responsible perfectionists looking to improve things and bring order out of chaos, must do things the right way.2. The Helperneeds to be needed and judge their worth by their helpfulness to others, altruistic, outgoing.3. The Acheiverseeks validation and admiration through pursuits, is hard working, focused and goal oriented, must suceed.4. The individualist builds their identity on perceptions of themself as unique, feels set apart from the mass which they regard as a blessing and a curse.

5. The Investigator is a thinker who may withdraw and observe, are intellegent, read and lot and specialize in areas of interest, needs to understand the world.

6. The Loyalist may feel ambivelent and skeptical – that there is nothing to hold onto, until trust is proven, then is steadfast and loyal.

7. The Enthusiast is a pleasure seeker looking for the distraction of adventure, is restless and future oriented, looking for greener pasteurs, quick, energetic, open, planning and creative.

8. The Challenger takes to charge so that they are not controlled, strong willed, decisive, pratical, energetic may be domineering and must be strong.

9. The Peacemaker maintains peace and harmony by avoiding conflicts above all and may be introverted.

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Related Links

 

Triadic Personality

Sanskrit & Personality Types:
http://www.holistic-online.com/ayurveda/ayv-basis-tri-dosha.htm
http://www.nettally.com/krivera/other3.html

Somatotypes:
http://www.innerexplorations.com/psytext/3.htm

Quaternity & Personality:

Astrology:
http://www.trans4mind.com/personal_development/astrology/LearningAstrology/triplicities.htm
http://astrology.about.com/library/weekly/aa122000a.htm

Keirsey:
http://keirsey.com
http://www.personalitypage.com/four-temps.html

Myers Briggs:
http://www.myersbriggs.org/
http://www.knowyourtype.com/
http://www.knowyourtype.com/mbti.html
http://skepdic.com/myersb.html
http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/mb-types/mb-types.htm
http://www.geocities.com/lifexplore/mbintro.htm

Aristotle:
http://www.msu.org/ethics/content_ethics/lecture_notes/aristotle/Aristotle_lecture_notes2.htm

Driver, Expressive, Analytical, Amiable:
http://www.peterursbender.com/quiz/swtable.html
http://www.partnerbuilding.com
http://macdl.org
http://www.ebizlogic.net/s4types.php
http://www.text.worcestervts.co.uk

Various works on Personality Types:
http://psy.rin.ru/cgi-bin/eng/razdel.pl?r=28
http://www.ylcf.org/you/personality-equivalents.htm
http://globeandmail.workopolis.com
http://www.peterursbender.com
http://www.isarastrology.com/articles/munkasey.htm
http://www.wilderdom.com
http://www.infj.com/INFJ_Temperament.htm
http://www.theintrovertzcoach.com/sanguine_melancholic_choleric_phlegmatic.html

Various Studies

Self Directed Search
http://www.self-directed-search.com/Holland.html
http://hrnt.jhu.edu/cmp/HollandTypes.cfm
http://www.couns.msu.edu/self-help/holland.htm
http://www.twc.state.tx.us/news/tjhg/s1exercise6.html

Enneagram
http://www.eclecticenergies.com/enneagram/introduction.php

Personality Tests

Myers-Briggs:
http://209.15.29.56/myersbriggs/personhome.htm
http://www.datehookup.com/content-personality-test-resource-center.htm

Driver, Expressive, Analytical, Amiable:
http://www.bender.ca

Enneagram
http://www.eclecticenergies.com/enneagram/test.php
http://www.enneagraminstitute.com/dis_sample_36.asp
http://www.enneagramcentral.com/testa.htm

Various works on Personality Types:
http://similarminds.com.html
http://www.howtostudy.org/resources/learn
http://www.librarysupportstaff.com/4personaltest.html#career

Philosophy:
http://www.utm.edu/research/iep
http://www.msu.org/intro/content_intro/review.html