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Kalarhythms - The Cycles of Change

Special Report:

A View of Water-Related Events in
Changing American Cycles

This is a special report to look at how we as a nation have used and regarded our water resources since our birth as a nation in 1775. As the Cycles of Time influencing our nation have changed, so have our uses and protection of water supplies. The lessons we can learn from our own experience may guide us as we embrace our the great opportunities that lay before us. We live in a time of great productivity, and it is now that we must make decisions that effect generations to come.

If you have not yet read the Introduction to Kalarhythms (linked to from here and top of the left hand menu), then it is advised that you take a brief look at it now in order to better understand this report. Then go on to read the report below in a more enjoyable manner.

Kalarhythms of the United States
Physical Cycle 28-years     Emotional Cycle 36-years     Intellectual Cycle 44-years

The Cycles
28y Physical 36y Emotional 44y Intellectual
American Cycles 2000s

The Kalarhythms of 2000 - 2010 is generating an unusually high and rising level of energy in a Three-Way High of the Cycles. The Physical Cycle crossed up into its High half just before the decade began to enter its 1st Qtr. of Foundations and Precedents from 1999 - 2006. This brings the New Reality of our times in which advances endeavors with substance over unsupported ideas. After a peak in 2006, the Physical Cycle will be in its 2nd Qtr. until 2013, bringing widespread industrial expansion. The Emotional Cycle peaked in 2000 to increase speculation and morality as it began the 2nd Qtr. of Expansion and Variation which will last until 2009. Then a Downward Crossover of the Emotional Cycle with bring a moral crisis to those in power. The Intellectual Cycle is rising through a 1st Qtr. of new beginnings from 1995 - 2006. Both the Intellectual and Physical Cycles will peak simultaneously in 2006 and the nation will burst into a level on energies not seen in decades. As the Intellectual Cycle enters the 2nd Qtr. of Expansion, will be join by the Physical Cycles in a Double Physo-Intellectual 2nd Qtr. combined with an Emotional High that will spur remarkable advances to the science. This combinations of Cycles brings a Three-Way High that is building the greatest output of energy in the United States since the "Roaring Twenties" of the previous century.

Physical High   (1775 - 1789)

The Northwest Ordinance in 1787 provided for the governing of the Northwest Territory east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio River. This plan made in the Physical High called for dividing the territory into three to five states once the region had a greater population.

Captain Robert Gray Completed the First Circumnavigation of the Globe by an American Vessel after setting out on the journey in the "Columbia" from Boston in 1787. He carried goods to trade for furs with Indians of the Pacific Northwest which opened a trade route between New England and the Northwest which brought wealth to Northeastern merchants. This helped the United States to lay claim to the Oregon Territory. From there he set sail to Canton China with a load of otter skins trade, then returned to Boston in 1790. (He made a second voyage to the Columbia River in 1792).

Physical 1st Quarter Foundation.   (1775 - 1782)

The First Submarine and the First Torpedo were created by David Bushnell in 1776, with which he unsuccessfully attempted to sink the British ship, "The Eagle" in New York Bay off of Manhattan on September 9.

Sep. 6, 1776 Bushnell unsuccessfully tries to sink a British warship by attaching time bombs to the hull.  David Bushnell's submersible craft, "Turtle," was initiated unsuccessfully against Adm. Richard Howe's flagship "Eagle" in NY Bay off Manhattan Island. A 2nd attempt to sink Brit . Shipping later in Sept also failed.

Physical 2nd Quarter Improvement  (1782 - 1789)

The "Jet-propelled" Steamboat that shoots a stream of water through the stern was invented by James Rumsey in 1787.

Boats Became Steam Powered when John Fitch invented the steamboat in 1786 that sailed one on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787 as witnessed by the delegates of the Constitutional Convention. It reached a top speed of three miles per hour.

The Steamboat Utilized the Steam Engine, developed in the preceding 1st Qtr. by putting on water. John Fitch was first to build a steamboat in 1786, which he sequelled with an improved version the following year. James Rumsey built the second steamboat in 1787. Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston produced the first commercially successful steamboat, the "Clermont," in the following 1st Qtr. of the next Physical High.

Shipbuilding Expanded to the West Coast in 1788 when "Northwest America" was launched.

Physical 3rd Quarter Reform   (1789 - 1796)

The Yazoo River Territory Scandal resulted on January 7, 1795 as a corrupt Georgia legislature sold 35 million acres of Yazoo River territory (including most of Alabama and Mississippi) to four land speculation companies for a small sum. The new Georgia legislature, elected the following year, invalidated all sales, but confusion over claims resulted in a Congressional investigation and a Supreme Court ruling in 1810 that Georgia could not revoke its original act.

Physo- Intellectual HIGH (1775 - 1789)

Advances Came to Industry in the Intellectual High. Oliver Evans invented The Card-Making Machine that could complete 150 pairs of cotton or wool cared from wire each day. Evans also invented the Automatic Production Line which he put into production at a flour mill near Philadelphia in 1785. It cut labor requirements in half. These developments of during the Physical High - Intellectual 1st Qtr. mechanical brought improvements with new inventions. Samuel Slater built America's first Steam-Powered Cotton Processing Machines in Rhode Island 1790. Many consider this development as the Beginning of the Industrial Revolution in America. Slater then reproduced Arkwright machinery when he used Water Power at Pawtucket, Rhode Island in 1791.

Oliver Evans Automated a Flour Mill Production Line near Philadelphia in 1784

Oliver Evans Improved Steam Engines in 1787 with the Non-condensing high-pressure steam engine.

Boats Became Steam Powered when John Fitch invented the steamboat in 1786 that sailed one on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787 as witnessed by the delegates of the Constitutional Convention. It reached a top speed of three miles per hour.

Shipbuilding Expanded to the West Coast in 1788 when Northwest America was launched.

The "Jet-propelled" Steamboat</b> that shoots a stream of water through the stern was invented by James Rumsey in 1787.

Physical 1st Quarter Foundation <  (1775 - 1782)

1787 James Rumsey invents a "jet-propelled" steamboat which shoots a stream of water through the stern (rear).

Physical 2nd Quarter Improvement  (1782 - 1789)

1784 Oliver Evans establishes an automatic production line in a flour mill near Phila.

1785-87 1st steamboats. Steamboat invented by John Fitch franchised for NJ waters 1786; launched on Del., 1787; patented, 1791. Second steamboat built by James Rumsey launched by on Potomac, 1787; patented 1791

1787 Oliver Evans Improved Steam Engines with the non-condensing high-pressure steam engine and Rumsey built the "Jet-propelled" steamboat that shoots a stream of water through the stern. . Fitch#39;s second improved model will reach a top speed of three miles per hour.  On Dec. 3 James Rumsey will demonstrate his steamboat on the Potomac R.

1786 The first steamboat in Am, built by John Fitch, sailed on the Del. R. on Aug. 22, 1787, Fitch ran his second and improved boat on the Delaware R.  It used a system of upright paddles at the sides of the boat and attained a speed of 3 mph

1787 First Am cotton mill opens in Beverly, Mass.

1787 James Rumsey invents a "jet-propelled" steamboat which shoots a stream of water through the stern (rear).

1788 "Northwest America," the first Am ship built on the west coast, is launched.


1822 Cotton mills begin production in Mass with water-powered machinery. By 1826, one plant in Lowell turns out 2 mil yards of cloth a year. A female labor force is used.

Physical High  (1803 - 1817)<

1803 Explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin exploring lands west of the Miss R. follow the Ohio, Missouri, and Columbia Rivers to the Pacific Ocean and by a similar route, a total of 8000mi.

1810 Transportation  New Yorker Cornelius Vanderbilt begins his career as as shipping magnate w the initiation of regular ferry service between Staten Island and Manhattan.  Vanderbilt will go on to control ferry lines between NY and NJ, across Long Island Sound, and on the Hudson R.  By mid-century he will establish a bi-monthly shipping rout between NY and San Francisco by way of connecting land route across Nicaragua, and a regular passenger and freight service between Am and Europe.  At the same time, he will build his railroad holdings into an empire.

The first steamboat to sail down the Miss. R. was owned by a Mr. & Mrs. Roosevelt.  After several interruptions, including an earthquake at New Madrid, Mo., and the birth of a baby to Mrs. Roosevelt, the boat reached New Orleans on Jan. 12, 1812, where it caused a sensation.  The boat commenced regular runs between New Orleans and Natchez, charging $18 for the downstream trip and $25 for the upstream trip.

Sep 10 1813 The Battle of Lake Erie was a significant Am naval victory.  an improvised Am fleet commanded by Oliver Hazard Perry decisively defeated the British after a bloody engagement.  During the battle Perry#39;s flagship, "Lawrence" was crippled and he had to continue the fight fr another ship.  He returned to the "awrence" to accept the British surrender, then sent to Gen Wm. Henry Harrison, commander in the west, the victory dispatch containing the words "We have met the enemy, and they are ours." The Americans gained control of Lake Erie, and the Brit were obliged to withdraw from Detroit, further strengthening the US position in the Great Lakes.

5/14/12 Congr. formally incorporates Spanish West FL, until recently the Republic of West FL, into the Miss. Terr. The area comprises the land south of the 31st parallel between the Miss. and Perdido Rivers.

1815 Fulton launches America's first steam-powered warship, the "Demologos" (also called "Fulton the First" of "U.S.S. Fulton").

July-September 1815 The Treaties of Portage des Sioux are signed, effectively ending all Indian resistance in the Old Northwest, and freeing the territory below Lake Michigan for settlement.

5/10/15 In NY, Capt Stephen Decatur takes command of a ten-ship fleet setting sail for Algiers.  His mission is to end the raids of the Barbary pirates on Am commercial shipping in the Mediterranean.

6/17/15 In the Med Sea, Am Capt Stephen Decatur captures the Algerian 44-gun frigate "Mashouda," killing the renowned Algerian Admiral Hammida.  Two days later Decatur will capture the 22-gun brig "Estido." then tow both ships into Algiers harbor, and threaten to bombard the city.

6/30/15 The forceful actions of Capt Decatur lead the dey of Algiers to sign a treaty in which he agrees to cease hostilities against Am shipping, to free all Am prisoners without ransom, and to end all demands for tribute payments from the Am government.

8/5/15 In North Africa, Capt Stephen Decatur exacts a treaty from Tripoli, receiving a guarantee of the cessation of raids on Am commercial shipping in the Med, the release of Am prisoners without ransom and the dropping of all demands for Am tribute.  Tripoli must also compensate the US fro Am vessels seized by Great Britain as prizes, with the cooperation of Tripoli, during the War of 1812.

1815 US flotilla under Decatur captures two Algerian warships. Decatur forces the dey of Algiers to sign a treaty ending US tribute. He exacts similar treaties from Tunis and Tripoli, and the Algerian War is ended.

3/15/17 With the enthusiastic support of Gov De Witt Clinton, the NY state leg authorizes the of the Erie Canal, a $7 million project to be financed by the The planned toll waterway will give NYC access to the West, by way the Hudson R and the proposed canal between Albany and Buffalo, Canadian supremacy in trade on the Great Lakes The ground will broken for this project on July 4, and "Clinton's ditch" will open in. in 1825.

1817 Construction of the Erie Canal begins. It is designed by DeWitt Clinton, of NY to connect the Great Lakes with the Hudson R (and thus, the Ocean).

1818 The "Savannah," using its sails through most of the journey, becomes the first steam-powered ship to cross to Atlantic.

Physical 1st Quarter   (1803 - 1810)

1805 First important shipment of ice from New England is made by Frederick Tudor, who exports it to Martinique (West Indies). Shipping ice to the East, especially India, becomes a profitable business.

In 1807, Seth Thomas began a company in partnership with Silas Hoadley and Terry. Terry's interest in interchangeable parts, touted by Eli Whitney in his gun manufacture, influenced the development of the clock industry. They established a water-powered factory in Plymouth. In the first three of operation, it produced 4,000 clocks.

June 1809 The ""Phoenix"," a seagoing steamboat, completes the first ocean voyage made by a steam-powered vessel. Designed by John Stevens, the "Phoenix,"" travels from Hoboken, NJ, to the sea, and around southern NJ to the Del R near  The "Phoenix," is to travel successfully on the Del R for six. One of America's most successful inventor, Stevens was an ardent of Am patent law.; The inventor of a screw propeller in 1802, he went on to dev the railroad in NJ, to invent the Stevens plow, and to the Stevens Institute of Technology.

Physical 2nd Quarter Improvement   (1810-1817)

9/11/11 In Pittsburgh, Pa, the first Am inland steamboat, the "New Orleans" sets sail down the Ohio R, After an eventual four-month journey down the Miss. R, the vessel reaches New Orleans. This run initiates regular riverboat services on the Miss. R between New Orleans and Natchez. The fare for the downstream trip is $18, and for the upstream trip is $25.

1804 What was perhaps the first automobile was built by Oliver Evans, and Am inventor, who was commissioned by the Philadelphia Board of Health to build a steam engine from dredging the Schuykill River and cleaning the city docks.  His five-hp engine propelled a scow 12 ft. wide and 30 ft. long.  The scow weighed 15 � tons and was drive 1 � miles from its construction she, down Center St., much to the amusement of Philadelphians.  Evans offered to be an onlooker $3000 that he could build a steam-driven vehicle that would go faster than any horse in the world.  The scow's drive belt was shifted from its rollers to paddle wheels and it went steaming down the river against the wind, leaving all sailboats behind.  Despite this demonstration, the public was not much impressed w the principle of steam locomotive. [E/I low].

1811 First steamboat to sail down the Miss R reaches New Orleans, LA. (in January 1812), and causes a sensation. Boat then makes a regular New Orleans-Natchez run, charging $18 for the trip downstream and $25 for the trip upstream.


Physical High - Emotional Crossover   (March 21, 1811 - March 21, 1812)

 11/5/11  In his message to Congress, Pres Madison calls for increased preparation for the National defense in face of the continued British and French harassment of Am commercial shipping.

3/3/17 The steamboat "Washington," designed by Henry Shreve, initiates a commercial route on the Ohio and Miss Rivers, between Louisville and New Orleans.

1819 The "Savannah," using its sails through most of the journey, becomes the first steam-powered ship to cross to Atlantic when it sets out from Savannah, GA, for Liverpool, Eng, in the first transatlantic passage of a steamship. After 80 hrs of the steam engine's use, the "Savannah's" coal supply is exhausted, and wind power is used to complete the voyage.

Physical Low  1817- 1831

1817 Rush-Bagot Agreement between the US and Brit limits naval forces on the Great Lakes.

Intellectual 1st Quarter Foundation   (1817  -1824)

1822: "The Pilot" by James Fennimore cooper was published and became a best seller.  Cooper's fourth novel, and the first with a maritime setting and theme, was a product of Cooper's determination to outdo Sir Walter Scott in the production of a sea novel.  The unnamed hero, known only as the Pilot, represent John Paul Jones, the foremost US Naval figure of the time.  The novel's action takes place during the American Revolution.  Cooper's novel was long popular.

1823 Cooper pubs "The Pioneer," a brilliant portrait of frontier life and the first of his "Leatherstocking Tales," and "The Pilot" the first of several sea novels.

1827 Cooper publishes "The Prairie," the third "Leatherstocking Tale," and "The Red Rover," a sea novel.

Physical Low   (1817 - 1831)

The first step in a process of mutual disarmament along the US-Canadian border was taken this year in the Rush-Bagot Convention, signed on Apr 28-29.  The agreement was contained in an exchange of notes in Wash DC, between Richard Rush, acting secretary of state, and Charles Bagot, the Brit minister to the US.  By its terms, each nation would have no more than four warships on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, and none would exceed 100 tons.  The Senate unanimously approved the agreement on Apr 16, 1818.  The agreement set a precedent for solving Anglo-Am disagreements by negotiation, although it was not until the Treaty of Wash of 1871 that complete mutual disarmament obtained along the US-Canadian border.

1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty between the US and Britain ends Northeast boundary dispute and establishes US-Canadian border from Main to Lake of the Woods (northern Minn.)

Intellectual High   (1829 - 1841)

The first transatlantic steamship service began w the arrival in NY harbor of the steamer "Great Western" after less than 16 days at sea.  The previous day the "Sirius" had arrived from England.  Both ships were British steam-sail packets. 

Physical High   (1831 - 1845)

1837 Thomas Cole produced a masterpiece of the Hudson River school of landscape artists, "In the Catskills."  A resident of the region, Cole as usual romanticized the rural setting.  In a clearing surrounded by trees, two figures rest by a winding stream that loses itself in the foliage of the background.  In the rear the mountains rise gently. 

1840 First steamship line with scheduled transatlantic sailings is established by Samuel Cunard, a Canadian.

1841 Earliest commercial use of oil begins about this time, "Tock oil" skimmed from the surface of streams in northwestern Pa is renames Seneca Oil," and sold as patent-or "Indian"-medicine.

6/10/42 Lieutenant Charles Wilkes has led his exploration team over 90,000 miles during the past four years in the Pacific and Antarctic oceans.; He returns NYC.

LAND, LUMBER AND BUSINESS   Forest and farm land were fast becoming big business. Forest land was called pine land if two or three of the valuable white Norway pines were to be found on and acres.  In Northern Wisconsin and on out to the Pacific Coast, acres with 16 to 20 fully matured trees could commonly be found.  Pine is straight-grained, light and strong. Being resinous, it resists bug infestation and rot and floats easily in the rivers and streams.  Demand for Wisconsin pine grew as whites settled the Plains.  Indians were forced to cede their primeval forests as early as 1836.  Starting in 1831 with Daniel Whitney#39;s sawmill in Wisconsin, mills appeared almost overnight.  By 1890 there were 1033 sawmills with an annual cut of approximately 4,000,000,000 board feet.  A mill could consume 200,000 board feet a day.  at 20,000 board feet an acre, one mill could chew up 10 acres or 400 large logs a day.  In 1857 some 2500 lumbermen found work in Wisconsin; by 1873, 7500 could find work, 1200 at the Knapp and Stouts mill alone.  This company, following the national trend, was quick to see the benefits of vertical organization, and was consolidating smaller businesses and outlets into its own structure.  Lumbermen were necessarily strong and courageous; they either died in the dangerous work or got rich.

Fortunes were made in the early days of the lumbers business when land was given out almost fee and there were few restrictions on forest management and no conservation regulation of any kind.  The railroads soon threw in their lot with lumber interests and changed the industry, expanding its seasons beyond the winter months and making accessible prime timber growing far from river banks.  Between 1890 and 1900, Wisconsin lumber was a $70,000,000 business and one-fourth of all the State's wages went to lumbermen.  It was thoughtless exploitation of a vulnerable resource.  Some of the devastation can still be seen in what is called the Wisconsin Cutover where today nothing  grow at all.

1836 Construction beg on the Illinois and Michigan Canal.  It will connect the city of Chicago w the Illinois R and the Miss system of trans.  Meanwhile, the first load of grain shipped from Chicago to Buffalo is ready to move along the Erie Canal.

3/18/38 Charles Wickes was placed by Congress in command of a naval exploring and surveying expedition of the South Seas.  On Aug 18 his fleet of six ships left Hampton Roads, Va., to explore hundreds of islands of the Pacific; a large sector of Antarctic, later named Wickes Land; and the American Northwest coastline.  The expedition returned in July 1842.  Wicke's five-volume report was published in 1844.

Physical 1st Quarter Foundation  (1831 - 1845)/p>

1831 The first steamboat to make a trip on the upper Missouri River is the "Yellowstone," owned by the American Fur Company.

1831 "The Floating Theater," the first showboat, is built. Floating theaters in the form of showboats on the Miss and Ohio rivers in particular added to the entertainment.  The first showboat was built in Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1831.

A canal running from Cleveland, Ohio to Portsmouth on the Ohio R is completed.  Work begins on the Wabash Canal which will connect the Ohio R in Indiana w Lake Erie in Toledo; the canal, a total of 459 miles, will be completed in 1853.

1832 First of the famous Am sailing clipper ships, the "Ann McKim," is launched at Baltimore Md. Its structure is completely new, and its design is later preferred to all others.

Physo-Intellectual High  (1831 - 1841)

1838 Charles Wilkes began  six-ship, four-year voyage to gather scientific information about the Pacific and Antarctic oceans fro the US Navy. Oo a 6-vessle expedition to the Pacific Ocean and the South Seas. He led his team over 90,000 miles and discovered that the land in the Antarctic Ocean is actually a continent before returning to New York.

Physical 2nd Quarter Improvement   (1838 - 1845)

William Spencer Howe is the inventor who pioneered in the development of truss bridges in the US.  After he built a bridge over the Connecticut River at Springfield, his truss proved so successful that henceforth her was primarily a bridge builder. His design, a truss with wooden diagonal members and iron vertical ties, was the most popular bridge system in the US during the last half of the 19th century. In 1842 he obtained a patent for an additional improvement in the Howe truss, incorporating in the design a curved timber extending from each buttress to the center of the truss.

1840 First steamship line with scheduled transatlantic sailings is established by Samuel Cunard, a Canadian.

In the year 1842, having contracted to build for the United States government a steamer on this plan, Robert L. Stevens built his steamboat at Bordentown, for the sole purpose of experimenting on the forms and curves of propeller-blades, as compared with side-wheels, and, as already stated, worked many months. After some delay, the keel of an iron-clad was laid down. This vessel was to have been 250 feet long, 40 feet beam, and 28 feet deep. The machinery was 700 horse-power. The plating was proposed to be 4.5 inches thick, - the thickness adopted ten years later by the French.

1842 Matthew F. Maury, Va. oceanographer, charts ocean currents.

1845 A treat clipper ship, the "Rainbow," is built and launched by John W. Griffiths in NY.  It ushers in the era of huge clipper ships.

Emotional High   (1847 - 1865)

1851 Herman Melville pubs "Moby Dick," a novel which captures some of the romance, power and mysticism many Americans feel for the sea.


1849 Melville shows his love for the sea in the novels "Mardi" and "Redburn."

Physical 3rd Quarter Reform   (1845 - 1852)

 1850 Herman Melville writes a novel, "White Jacket," to reveal the poor conditions and inhumane treatment sailors receive on the US warships.

 Physical 1st Quarter Foundation  (1859 - 1866)

 1865 Compression Ice Machine invented by Thaddeus Lowe (1832-1913), who made 1st artificial ice in US an in 1873 invented carbureted water-gas process.

 1861 Union vessel "Monitor" and Conf "Merrimack" engage in first sea battle between ironclad warships Battle in inconclusive.

 2/17/64 In the first submarine attack of the war, the tiny Southern semi-submersible "H. L. Huntley" sinks a Federal ship in Charleston Harbor w a torpedo, but herself goes sown w all hands. 

1866 Steamship "Great Eastern" reaches US completing the laying of the second Atlantic cable between Eng and Am. First cable laid in 1858 was not effective. 

Intellectual 1st Quarter Foundation   (1863 - 1874)

1873 Louis Agassiz established the Anderson School of Natural History on Pekinese Island, Mass. This is the first Am school to concentrate its studies on oceanography.

1879 Alpheus Hyatt established an oceanographical laboratory at Annisquam, Massachusetts.

Physical 1st Quarter Foundation   (1887 - 1894)

 1894 Simon Lake, inventor, launches "Argonaut I," a small, hand-powered submarine.

 1895 "Field and Stream" magazine begins publication. 

Physical 2nd Quarter Improvement  (1894 - 1901)

 1897 Lake launches "Argonaut II," a 36-ft.-long gasoline-powered submarine with wheels for rolling along the ocean floor.

 1898 John Holland, "Father of the Modern Submarine," launches the "Holland," a 53-ft.long, cigar-shaped vessel. It is powered by electricity when underwater and by a gasoline engine when on the surface.

 1901 Lake launches the 60-ft.-long submarine, the "Protector."

 Physo- Emotional DBL. 3rd Qtr. Reform (1901 - 1908)

3/14/07 Members of The Inland Waterways Commission are appointed by Roosevelt. The Commission is to study and report on the rivers and lakes of the United States, their relation to forests, traffic congestion and other such matters. During Roosevelt's administration five national parks will be established including Crater Lake in Oregon and Mesa Verde in Colorado. In addition, under the National Monuments Act of 1906 he sets aside 16 national monuments and creates 51 wildlife sanctuaries. Devil's Tower in Wyoming is the monument to come under the Act.

During his presidency, Roosevelt conserved 148,000,000 acres of forest land to government reserve and 80,000,000 acres of mineral lands as well as 1,500,000 acres of water power sites to abate the dwindling of natural resources. The National Reclamation Act of 1902 allowed the beginning of federal programs of irrigation and hydroelectric development to the West. Five national parks would be created in his administration as well as two notional game reserves and fifty one wild bird refuges.

Intellectual 1st Quarter Foundation (1907 - 1918)

 1910 In "Future of Electricity," Steinmetz warns about air pollution fr. burning coal and water pollution fr. releasing untreated sewage into the rivers. 

External Aberration   (1914)

 World War I.

Intellectual 1st Quarter Foundation   (1907 - 1918)

 1912 U.S.S. Jupiter, America's first electric ship, is launched. 

Physical High  (1915 - 1929)

1920 Water Power Act estabs. the Federal Power Commission to regulate generation of electricity fr waterways on public lands and fr navigable streams

With the Physical Cycle high to build new things, and the Intellectual Cycle high to help provide the money for it, the government undertook massive construction. On December 21st, 1928, the Fed entered the field of hydroelectric power. This had previously been used only by private business. Congress passed Flood control Act on May 15th, 1928, to provide $325 million for flood control on the Mississippi River. The project went on for ten years. Congress also passed the Hones-White Merchant Marine Act on May 22nd, 1928, to provide subsidies to private shipping companies. On February 13th, 1929, the Cruise Act was passed as well to for the construction of 19 new cruisers and 1 aircraft carrier.  

External Aberration   (1944)

 1944 Major hurricane w winds up to 134 mph strikes the Atlantic coast from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Canada, killing 390 at sea and about 50 on land. Damage estimate at $50 million. 

External Aberration   (1941 - 1945)/p>

World War II. 

Physical 1st Quarter Foundation   (1943 - 1950)

 1942 Henry J. Kaiser industrialist, develops  techniques for building 10,000-ton Liberty Ships in four days. First ones launched in 1943. 

Physical 2nd Qtr. Improvement   (1950 - 1957) 

1954 America launched the largest warship ever built - the USS Forestal.

Intellectual 1st Quarter Foundation   (1951 - 1962)

 The US Nuclear Submarine, "U.S.S. Triton," circumnavigated the globe underwater. 

Physical 3rd Quarter Review   (1957 - 1964)

 Pesticide Research Led to Reform in 1963 while the Physical Cycle was in 3rd Qtr. Reform.  The president�s advisory committee called for the research and caution.  The US Public Health Service charged in 1964 that insecticides were the cause for thousands of fish dying in the Mississippi River since 1960.  It was time to amend.  

Intellectual 2nd Quarter Improvement   (1961 - 1973)/span>

 The Navy began Sealab Experiments to see if they could support human life under the sea for long periods.  A crew stayed under water for forty-five days in 1966.  

Physo-Intellectual High   (1951 - 1957)

 The First in a Fleet of Nuclear Powered Submarines was "The U. S. S. Nautilus" launched in 1954. This was another precedent of power that traveled 1800 miles under the north polar ice cap four years later. The second nuclear submarine, the "Sea Wolf," was launched in 1955, and third one, the "Skate," was launched in 1957. Intellectual 1st Qtr. Precedents emerged with power during the Physical High. 

Physical Low   (1957 - 1971)

 Urban Infrastructures Proved Less Adequate after waning during the low.  New York City had a water shortage in 1965, and a large blackout.  Other cities had resources in need of repair and overhaul.  Despite the financial prosperity of the time, major reconstruction of inner cities would not take be pervasive until the Physical High of the 1970s.  

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review   (1957 - 1964)

 The "Mayflower II" glorified the days of yore when it duplicated the original voyage of the Pilgrims crossed Atlantic Ocean in 1620. It arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts on June 13, 1957, after leaving England 54 days earlier. 

Physical Low - Intellectual High   (1957 - 1971)

 President Johnson signed the Clean Water Restoration Act that required states to set antipollution standards for interstate water in 1966.

 Restraints Came to Industry Over Environmental Concerns.  We were less likely to out-build our own sense.  Congress established the Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) in 1970 to oversee the fifteen federal agencies addressing pollution.  The National Air Quality Control Act of 1970 demanded a 90% reduction in automobile emitted pollutants.  Some twenty million Americans took part in Earth Day activities on April 22 to support environmental concern.  President Nixon and Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau came to agreements to amend pollution of the Great Lakes in April 1972.  The EPA banned the chemical pesticide, DDT in June.  

Physical High   (1971 - 1985) 

Health food stores and bottled water also increased across the nation by 1977. Health food sales went from $140 million to $1.6 billion during the decade. 

Vital Shipping Lanes were protected by US Military around the world during the Cold War.  Namely, the Panama Canal and military-political conflict in neighboring Nicaragua, the Island of Grenada, the Strait of Hormuz, around the horn of South Africa. 

President Carter Reinstated the Draft and Expressed Willingness to Fight after the Soviets attacked Afghanistan and advanced toward the Persian Gulf in 1980. The Persian Gulf has a narrow seaway at the Straight of Hormuz through which huge shipments of an oil pass on their way to the West. Carter announced that we would go to war to prevent a Soviet takeover of the region. To back this up, the President signed a 1980 bill that required 19 and 20-year-olds to register for the draft. America's resolve to fight is often greater during a Physical High. 

The US invaded the Caribbean Island of Greneda after the Soviets launched a bloody coup against the existing regime in October 1983. A seaway by Greneda is another vital shipping lane for oil. The Soviets were building a landing field for high speed fighter jets on Grenada with technical aid from Cuba. The length of the landing field revealed Soviet intentions. President Reagan combined 7,000 US troops with other forces for a paratroop invasion of the Island just six days after the Soviet coup. American efforts liberated Grenada from communist aggression and protected 1,100 Americans on the island. We are more defensive in a Physical High. This move received the support of Congress and the public alike.  

The Navy test Tomahawk was a Sea-Launched Cruise Missile (SLCM) which had a high-explosive warhead.  The Air-Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) could confuse restrictions between strategic and conventional nuclear weapons.  They were developed in 1977 as the limited nuclear war advance that leaves most buildings intact but kills all living things within a certain radius. 

Physical 1st Quarter Foundation   (1971 - 1978) 

New Action and Adventure Films came onto the scene in the Physical 1st Qtr.  Irwin Allen produced the first in a series of disaster films, "The Poseidon Adventure," a disaster at sea film released in 1972. 

Intellectual Low   (1973 - 1995) 

The US Attempted a Grain Embargo Against the Soviet Union and halted cultural exchanges to dissuade Soviet advances in the Persian Gulf.  The Carter administration also halted cultural exchanges.  The Soviet Union had invaded Afghanistan that year and was one step closer to the Persian Gulf.  Huge westbound oil shipments from the oil rich Middle East pass through the Persian Gulf and its narrow choke point, the straight of Hormuz.  President Carter did take the courageous stand that further advances would mean war, but the grain embargo was ineffective and consequential.  The Soviets still got all the grain they needed by buying it from other nations.  American farmers suffered huge losses in sales and the only ones hurt by the embargo.  

Emo-Intellectual Double 2nd Quarter Improvement   (1964 - 1973) 

Water beds started on the West Coast in 1968 and spread across the nation.  

Physical Low-Intellectual High   (1971 - 1972) 

Clean Water Restoration Act that required states to set antipollution standards for interstate water in 1966. 

Emo-Intellectual Double 2nd Quarter Improvement  (1964 - 1973) 

The Navy began Sealab Experiments to see if they could support human life under the sea for long periods. A crew stayed under water for forty-five days in 1966. 

Emo-Intellectual Double 3rd Quarter Review  (1973 - 1982) 

Other Reforms in government were far and wide during the Emo-Intellectual 3rd Qtr.  The Safe Drinking Water Act was Passed in 1974 to set water pollution standards.  Testing of drinking water throughout the nation revealed cancer causing chemicals in every sample.  

The Anti-Nuclear Movement Gained Momentum after the Internal Aberration at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.  On March 28, 1979, a partial meltdown occurred at a reactor when a cooling valve failed to operate, allowing the radioactive core to overheat.  A secondary failure occurred as a pressure relief valve stuck, causing cooling water levels to fall, and precipitating the partial meltdown. Clouds of radioactive steam were released into the atmosphere, and radioactive water was later released into the surrounding river.  No fatalities resulted, but the governor ordered pregnant women and children out of the area.  Many feared the long term effects of the invisible threat of radiation.  The anti-nuclear movement,  already in swing before the accident, emerged in groups like the Clamshell Alliance that had been organizing protest rallies.  The nuclear accident that came during a Dbl. 3rd Qtr. thrusted the movement forward.  Anti-nuclear rallies picked up throughout the country and members of an outraged public demanded an end to nuclear power.  Especially large rallies were held in Washington, D.C. and New York City.  Science had its own techigates.  Americans felt the need to reform technology ever more. 

Physical Low   (1985 - 1999) 

The Federal Base-Closing Commission voted to terminate 17 military bases, including the huge Philadelphia Navy Shipyard, and Seven Facilities in 1991. Clark Air Base in the Philippines, one of its oldest and largest overseas installations, closed in 1991. More base closings came in 1993 when the Pentagon unveiled a five-year defense plan to greatly reduce U.S. military and go more high-tech in defense. 

Physical 3rd Quarter Review  (1985 - 1992) /p>

Nuclear Reform marked the Physical 3rd Qtr. as well. The history of nuclear plant operations came under scrutiny in September 1988 when it was discovered that they did not reveal accidents at the Savannah River plant in South Carolina for thirty-one years. The Energy Dept. shut down the plutonium processing plant near Boulder for safety reasons in October. It was also discovered that tons of radioactive uranium waste were released into the air by a plant near Fernald, Ohio, but not revealed by officials for decades. All plants supplied materials for nuclear weapons. 

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Brought Backlash as Exxon Corp and Exxon Shipping received incitements on 5 criminal counts for the spill at Valdez, Alaska. Exxon pleaded guilty and agreed to pay $100 million fine in a $1.1 billion settlement for the 1989 spill. Former Exxon Valdez Captain Joseph Hazelwood was sentenced to help clean up Prince William Sound and pay $50,000 in restitution. Consumers across the nation boycotted Exxon stations and revenues for the company fell. The U.S. District Court levied $5.3 billion in damages against Exxon in September, 1994. 

The US Oil Pollution Act was Passed in 1990 to require double hulls on new tankers sailing through US waters that old tankers be so equipped by 2015. 

A 1990 study by the US National Academy of Sciences Concluded That Shrimp Fishing Caused the Death of 50,000 Sea Turtles in U.S. waters each year. 

The US Oil Pollution Act was Passed in 1990 to require double hulls on new tankers sailing through US waters that old tankers be so equipped by 2015. 

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation   (1991 - 2000) 

The Paradise Cruise Ship debuted in December, 1998, as a 70,000 ton, 2,040 passenger vessel. 

The 2nd Disney Cruise Ship, Disney Wonder, debuted in December, 1998, as an 85,000 ton cruise vessel. 

Physical Low- Emotional High   (1991 - 2000) 

The Film "Titanic" earned more that $600 million in 1997 and went on to break box office records. The huge success of the high quality production is due mostly to its Emotional appeal revolving around the love story of two people who were on the ship. At the end of the story, the heroine takes her jewel necklaces of enormous values and casts it into the sea in memory of her lost love (Physical Low - Emotional High). 

Internal Aberrations 

A drought in western US states caused the biggest grasshopper invasion in 50 years hitting Nebraska worst of all in July of 2002.

The federal government increased the flow of water into the Klamath River from Upper Klamath Lake in Oregon on September 27, 2002, afer a die-off of approximately 12,000 salmon in northern California.

External Aberrations 

1993: Heavy Rains and Flooding of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers in July, 1993 left seven states stricken and in need of federal relief aid.


The American Rivers environmental group listed the most endangered US rivers on April 1, 2002 which included the Missouri, Big Sunflower (Mississippi), and Klamath (California) which ranked in the top 11.