Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview
18th C. 1770s 1780s 1790s 19th C. 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s
Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines
Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview Overview
20th C. 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 21st C. 2000s
Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines Timelines
   Back to USA menu
   Go to Matrixes

    Categories in This Page:
1. Political 2. Bus & Eco.
3. Sci. & Tech. 4. Mechanical
5. Education 6. Rel. & Spir.
7. Arts & Des. 8. Lit. & Pub.
9. Entertain. 10. Sports
11. Fashion 12. Lifestyles
Summary

horizontal chart thumbnail Kala. Chart horizontal
go to... History title small for decade
  1929 1930s 1940s 
Timelines - Decade
28y Physical 36y Emotional 44y Intellectual
American Cycles 1930s
Kalarhythms logo 110

    Cycles in this page:
    click to open folders

These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).


Note to readers: Work from the Kala-Rhythm archives is being offered here in the Timelines for the first time. We are allowing a view into the Timelines now by posting both the finished and the unfinished pages of the Timelines as editing from our references continues.  Unfinished pages (like this one) contain raw data from history sources to which we give credit in our "biblio/webography". Check back for updates to this and other pages.

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

THE GREAT DEPRESSION

 The double downward motion of this decade was especially hard felt in an industrial society. The physical cycle influencing manufacturing as well as the intellectual cycle influencing business in general. The emotional cycle which rose to a peak in 1928, bringing wild over speculation in the market, could hardly offset the difficult times of the Great Depression.

RAW^

 ACTS BY ROOSEVELT IN THE NEW DEAL:

1933: Emergency Banking act, Economy Act, Beer and Wine Act, Reforestation relied Act establishing the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), Federal Emergency Relief Act, Agricultural Adjustment Act creating the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Federal Securities Act, National Employment System Act that creates a US Employment Service, Home Owners Refinancing Act that sets up the Home Owner Loan Corporation (HOLC), the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) establishes the Public Works Administration (PWA) and the National Recovery Administration (NRA) - and the PWA supervised construction of roads, public building, and other porojects such as the Grand Coulee Dam, New York’s Triborough Bridge and almost three-quarters of the nation’s schools, the Farm Credit Act, the Banking Act of 1933 that sets up the Federal Bank Deposit Insurance Corporation, the National Labor Board, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, the Civil Works Administration (CWA) to provide millions of jobs, the Farm Mortgage Refinancing Act establishing the Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation, establishes the Export-Import Bank of Washington, the Civil Works Emergency Relief Act to provide funds for the Federal Emergency relief Administration.

1934: the Gold Reserve Act, the Crop Loan Act which continues the program of the Farm Credit Administration, the Tydings-McDuffies Act, Hones-Connally Farm Relief Act to extend the number of agricultural commodities to be controlled by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the Cotton Control Act (Bankhead Act), the Hones-Costigan Act, the Securities Exchange Act establishing the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), the Corporate Bankruptcy Act, the Farm Mortgage Foreclosure Act, the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act, the National Guard Act, the Communications Act establishing the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the Silver Purchase Act, established the National Labor Relation Board (replacing the National Labor Board of 1933), the National Housing Act establishing the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), the Taylor Grazing Act, the Tobacco Control Act, the Federal Farm Bankruptcy Act (Frazier-Lemke Act).

1935: the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act which sets up various programs including the Works Progress Administration (WPA) that builds thousands of miles of roads, constructing or repairing bridges, erecting thousands of pub structure such as schools and post offices and building everything from parks to airfields, and set up programs that provide employment for artists, musicians, actors, writers and scholars, established the Resettlement Administration (RA), establishes the Rural Electrification Administration, the National Labor Relations Act which sets up the National Labor Relations Board, the Social Security Act, the Banking Act of 1935, the Public Utilities Act, the

Revenue Act, the Neutrality Act.

1936:The Second Neutrality Act is passed, Congress also passes the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act to take place of the agricultural Adjustment Act (declared unconstitutional on Jan 6, 1936), Congress adopts the Robinson-Patman Act,  Congress passes the Merchant Marine Act establishing the US Maritime Commission, R sings the third Neutrality Acts of 1935, R sign the Miller-Tydings Enabling Act, R signs the Judicial Procedure Reform Act,

1938 R signs the Agricultural Adjustment Act, Congress adopts the Revenue Act of 1938, the Chandler Act is passed by congress, amending the Federal Bankruptcy At of 1898, Congress establishes the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA), Congress passes the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act to supersede the Pure Food Act of 1906, R sings the Fair Labor Standards Act, Congress passes the Flood Control Act.

1939 R signs the Administrative Reorganization Act,

5/16/39 A food-stamp plan is begun in Rochester, NY, w the intention of distributing the nation’s surplus food to the poor and needy.  Within the next two years, a similar plan will be adopted in some 150 Am cities.  (During WWII the food-stamp plan will be discontinued, but on Sept. 21, 1959, a similar plan to distribute surplus food will be reactivated.)

R signs the Hatch Act,

8/10/39 Pres R signs the Social Security Amendment, which moves up the date for starting monthly payments to Jan 1, 1940, and generally extends coverage in more generous terms.  This si but the first of many amendments to be adopted over the years to expand the Social Security System.

R signs the Neutrality Act of 1939

 SUPREME COURT COUNTER ROOSEVELT

5/27/35 In what is immediately recognized as a major setback to Roosevelt’s New Deal, the Supreme Court rules unanimously in “Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States” that the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 was unconstitutional.  The case itself seemed almost trivial, involving a small Brooklyn poultry firm charged with violations of a national recovery Administration code, but the Supreme Court ruled that Congress had given “vertually unfettered” powers to the NRA, and this was “utterly inconsist3ent” w the constitutional duties of Congress. This ruling is only one of many by the Sup Ct that will go against R’s plans and will lead to his “court-packing” proposal of 1937. 

1/6/36 In “US vs. Butler,” the Sup Cy rules 6-3 that the Agricultural Adjustment Act (of 1933) is unconstitutional on the grounds that the act did not levy a tax but an outright control over production and thus was exceeding the government’s responsibilities.  But the dissenting judges accuse the majority of substitution their own judgment for that of the legislators, and thus deepening the schism between the Sup Ct and the Am people.  OTHER - 1/24/36 Congress passes the Adjusted Compensation Act by overriding Pres R’s veto earlier in the day.  The bill allows for immediate cash redemption of the bonus certificates held by veterans of WWI.  R had vetoed a previous version of this bill on May 22, 1935, but now, w the recession underway, Congress asserts itself.

2/5/37 R has been increasingly impatient, even outrage, at the Sup Cr, composed of nine men - all over 60 and generally conservative - whom he had come to regard as a small group thwarting the will of the nation.  Emboldened by the extent of his victory at the polls,  R informs his Cabinet at a special meeting this morning that he will be sending a message to Congress that very noon proposing a reorganization of the fed judiciary sys.  Ostensibly it is designed to improve the efficiency of the entire system - by adding judges to all levels of the federal courts, by assigning judges to more congested courts, by adopting procedures to expedite the appeals process.  But the heart of the proposal  fools no one: it it that the Supreme Court should increase its membership by as many as six if any of the justices over 70 refused to retire.  The proposal incites instant controversy, and Roosevelt is accuse of wanting to “pack” the court and in so doing destroy the independence of the judiciary, to assert the supremacy of the executive branch, and thus to subvert the Constitution.  Even many of R’s longtime supporters will desert him on this issue as the debate moves into the Congress.

3/1/37 Congress passes the Sup Court Retirement Act, which simply permits the Justices to retire at 70 with full pay.  this is clearly a compromise, a not very subtle attempt to buy off the elderly justices and it will not lead to any immediate resignation.  Pres R signs the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act, extending the Trade Agreement Act of 1934 to June 1940 an allowing the Pres to negotiate foreign trade agreements. 

4/12/37 The Sup Ct, in a series of decisions by a narrow 5-4 majority, rules that the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner-Connery Act) of 1935 is constitutional.  This will take some of the steam out of Roosevelt’s move to revamp the court.

5/24/37 The Sup Ct, after considering three related cases, rules that the Social Security Act of 1935 is constitutional.  This is a crucial victory for R and takes still more steam out of his proposal to change the composition of the court.

1/30/39 The Sup Ct, in “Tessessee Electric Power Company v. Tennessee Valley Authority,” upholds the constitutionality of the TVA’s competition w private utility companies.

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

1932 FDR wins US pres election in Democratic landslide; 472 electoral votes over Herbert Hoover's 59.

1932 FDR and John Nance Garner are President and Vice-President for the Democrats.  Roosevelt's "New Deal" progress stresses Federal support for the economy and for social reconstructions.

11/8/32 Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the Demos win the election by a landslide; R gets 22,809,638 votes to Hoover’s 15,758,901, and the Demos take control of both houses of Congress.

11/3/36 In the election, R defeats Landon by a landslide-27,751,612 pop votes to 16,681,913, and w an even more dramatic majority in the electoral college votes, 523 to 8 (only Maine and Vermont going to Landon). The Demos also hold onto their majorities in the Senator (76-16) and House (331-89).

5/4/30 The Hawley-Smoot Tariff Bill is moving toward Congressional acceptance; this bill will raise duties on many items imported into the US and many people see this as a potential threat to international trade.  This very day, a petition signed by some 1028 prominent economists is made public;  they are protesting the passage of such a law and urging Hoover to veto it if it is passed.  Congress, however, will pass the Hawley-Smoot Bill and Hoover will sign it on June 17.

1. Political  1930s Physical Cycle top    

n 1902 American troops sailed for home. The following year the Platt Amendment was incorporated into a treaty between the US and Cuba. In 1934 the Platt Amendment was repealed as part of FDR's policy to improve relations between the US and Latin America.

1933 Tennessee Valley Authority created in US

8/30/35 Congress passes the Revenue Act.  It increases taxes on inheritances and gifts as well as on the higher incomes of individuals while adjusting taxes on corporations to favor smaller companies.  When R asked for such leg, he explicitly state, “Our revenue laws have operated...to the unfair advantage of the few, and they have done little to prevent an unjust concentration of wealth and economic power.”  The Revenue Act of 1935 clearly sets out to change that.

1937 FDR signs US Neutrality Act.

1937 Neutrality Act prohibits the exporting of munitions to nations at war and the use of US ships for carrying munitions into war zones.

7/14/39 President Roosevelt send a special message to Congress to ask for the repeal of the arms embargo.,  It is hardly a secret that R wants to be able to sell and send US arms to countries such as England in order to help them resist the Fascist nations.  On July 18 R and his Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, will take the next step and ask Congress to revise the neutrality law.  And on July 26 signed w Japan back in 1911.  All these actions will deepen the gap between the US and the totalitarian-militaristic states and in turn make these latter regard the USA as a potential enemy.

Physical Low (1929 - 1943)

12/28/33 President Roosevelt gives a speech in Wash DC, in which he states:  “The definite policy of the US from now on is one opposed to armed intervention.”

5/29/34 The US and Cuba sign a treaty releasing Cuba from the Platt Amendment (of May 22, 1903) that had effectively made Cuba a US protectorate.

8/6/34The last of the US Marines leave Haiti, where they have been stationed since 1915.

2/29/36 The Second Neutrality Act is passed, extending the act of 1935 to May 1, 1937 but adding a prohibition against granting any US loans or credits to belligerents.  Congress also passes the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act to take the place of the Agricultural adjustment Act (declared unconstitutional on Jan 6, 1936).  In this new version, farmer will be paid for withdrawing land planted w soil-depleting crops (such as cotton, tobacco, corn, wheat) and for efforts to control erosion and soil wastage (such as through planting soil-conserving crops).

6/22/36 Congress passes an act that grants the Virgin Islands, a US territory, the right to elect its own leg.

5/1/37 Pres R signs the third Neutrality Act, extending the Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1936, due to expire at midnight.  It not only continues the prohibition on exporting arms to belligerents and the prohibits these nations from selling their securities n the US, it also prohibits Am ships from carrying arms into the belligerents’ zones.  It also require that belligerent nations must pay w cash for certain non-military goods purchased in the USA and then carry them in their own ships-thus giving this the nickname of “the cash=and=carry law.”

9/14/37 By executive order, Pres R bars US ships from carrying arms to both China and Japan, engaged in war since Japan invaded China after a trumped-up incident in July.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1929 - 1936)

11/11/32 The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is dedicated in Arlington National Cemetery.

3/31/33 Congress passes the reforestation Relief Act, establishing the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC); its will provide work immediately for some 250,000 young med (18-25) in reforestation projects, soil erosion and flood control, road construction and developing the national parks.  Work camps soon spring up, at first under the direction of Army officers.  Those who participate are paid $30 per month (but part of this sum must go to any dependents).  By the time the CCC ceases in 1941, some 2,000,000 young men will have been involved in its projects.

1. Political  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1919 - 1937)

1/12/32 Hattie W. Caraway is appointed Senator from Arkansas to fill the unexpired term of her late husband; later this year she will become the first woman elected to the US Senate.

3/4/33 FDR is inaugurated as 32nd pres of the US, w John Nance Garner as ice-pres.  In his add, he declares (in words borrowed from Thoreau): “Le me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”   In fact, R inherits a country whose economy and social fabric are close to shred.  In particular, the nation’s banks had been closing as depositors began to withdraw gold; stopping this will be his first order of bus.

3/12/33 Pres. R broadcasts over the radio in the first of his “fireside chats” to the nation; his informal approach and personal assurance will do much to allay Americans’ “fear of fear itself.”

12/5/33 The 21st Amend, repealing the 18th Amend, goes into effect when Utah becomes the 36th state to ratify it.  The “noble experiment” of Prohibition has been ended.

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1937 - 1946)

1938 Congress establishes the House Committee on Un-American Activities to investigate Communist, Fascist, Nazi, and other "un-American" organizations.

1938 Congress enacts the Venereal Disease Control Act which provides federal funds for the prevention, treatment, and control VD.

1939 R admin consolidate many existing government agencies, many of them formed by the New Deal.

1. Political  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

1. Political  1930s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Review (1929 -1936)

1930 War Dept amends Army regulations to make any violation of the federal prohibition law a military offense.

1930 Congress establishes the Veteran's Admin to aid former servicemen and their dependents.

1931 Eickersham Commission reports that enforcement of the 18th Amendment is breaking down. It recommends revision, but not repeal of the law.

1931 Congress passes Veterans Compensation Act over Pres Hoover's veto. It permits cash loans equal to half the 1924 bonus allowances to soldiers.

1931 Sup Court rules that Minnesota's "Press Gag" Law is unconstitutional.

1931 NY state leg investigates charges of malfeasance and political corruption against Mayor Walker of NYC. Walker denies charges.

Hattie T. Caraway (Democrat-Arkansas) becomes the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate. 1932

1932 Fifteen charges of corruption are leveled at Mayor Walker of NYC, who resigns fr off.

Frances Perkins becomes the first female cabinet member when FDR appoints her secretary of labor. 1933.

2/20/33 Congress votes to submit the 21st Amendment to the states; it will repeal the 18th Amendment and thus end Prohibition.

New York attorney general Thomas Dewey convicts Lucky Luciano and 70 others of racketeering. 1935, Luciano sentenced to 30-50 years in 1936.

Numerous federal parks and fish and game sanctuaries are set up by the National Park Service; 600,000 acres are added to state preserves.       1936 Molly Dawson of the National Consumers League leads the fight for female federal patronage. More women postmasters are appointed. 1936

 1930 Federal Bureau of Narcotics is org.

1932 In May and June, 17,000 ex-servicemen arrive in Wash, DC, to ugr passage of law permitting cashing of their bonus certificates; bill defeated by Senate; governemnt offers expenses for return home, but troops led by Gen. Douglass Mac Arthur finally drive out last 2,000.

1932 First unemployment insurance law enacted in Wisconsin.

1932 20th amend to Const ratified.

1933 20 Amend to US Const.: pres inauguration on Jan.20.

1933 US Congress passes Agricultural Adjustment and Federal Emergency Relief Acts

1933 US Securities Act passed to protect investors by providing info on new securities issues.

1933 National Industrial Recovery Act and Farm Credit Act made law.

1933 Public Works Admin (PWA) created in US

1933 21 Amend to Const. repeals prohibition

1933 Pres R appoints Frances Perkins Sec of Labor, the first woman Cabinet member in the US.

1933 Congress enacts a wide program of anti-depression measures, including the Emergency Banking Relief Act, Economy Act, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Fed Emergency Relief Admin (FERA), and Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA).

1933 Civilian Conservation Corps. (CCC) employs 500,000 people to improve the environment 

1933 Fed Securitas Act requires sworn statements about all securities for sale to be files w the Fed Trade Comm. (FTC).

1933 Nat Recovery Admin (NRA) stimulates bus. and helps reduce unemployment. Nation Labor Board establishes the right of labor to bargain collectively. Public Worlds Admin (PWA) provides funds for the construction of public projects.

1933 Farm Credit Act helps farmers refinance mortgages

1933 Fed Deposit Ins Corp (FDIC) is established.

1933 Tennessee Valley Auth (TVA) is created to conserve area resources.

5/5/33 Pres R issues a proclamation declaring a four-day “bank holiday” throughout the nation, effective March 6; all banking transactions will stop and an embargo on the export of gold, silver and currency also goes into effect; this will have the desired result of stopping the panic “run” on the nation’s banks.  This same day r also summons Congress to a special session on March 9.

1934 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is set up to control the grading of securities and to correct violations in the market.

1934 Pres R initiates his "Good Neighbor Policy" w the Latin Am nations; it opposes armed intervention by any foreign power.

1934 Wheeler-Howard Indian Org Act returns to various Indian tribes reservation lands which had been for sale.

1934 Fed Communications Commission (FCC) created to regulate radio and wire communication.

1934 Congress establishes the death penalty for kidnapping across state lines, a result of the kidnap-murder of the 20-month old son of Charles A. Lindbergh in 1932.

1935 Soil Conservation Service is set up to stop soil erosion caused by the severe drought in the Great Plains (The "Dust Bowl").

1935 Federal Conservation Reserve Program returns 28 million acres of cropland to grassland and forests.

1935 Gov restrict public utility monopolies.

1935 Soil Conservation Service is stab to try to stop soil erosion in the Great Plains, where the most destructive drought ever known in the Midwest has turned the land into a dust bowl.

Physical 3rd Qtr. review with
     Emotional High
(1929 - 1936)

3/25/31 Nine black boys are arrested Scottsboro, Alabama, and are charged with raping a white woman; they will be found guilt in the course of three trials, but the Supreme Court with overturn the conviction on April 1, 1935.  “The Scottsboro Boys”  will become a “cause celebre” for all determined to obtain justice for black Americans.

Emotional High with
     Intellectual Low
(1929 - 1937)

3/5/33 President Roosevelt issues a proclamation declaring a four-day “bank holiday” throughout the nation, effective March 6; all banking transaction will stop and an embargo on the export of gold, silver and currency also goes into effect; this will have the desired result of stopping the panic “run” on the nation’s banks.  This same day R also summons Congress to a special session on March 9.

Emotional 2nd Qtr. Expansion with
     Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review
(1929 - 1937)

The philosophy underlying both the Dawes Act of 1882 and the Burke Act of 1906-that Indians should adapt themselves completely to American society-was reversed in 1933 when Indian commissioner John Collier began to stress government interest in a revival of tribal arts and crafts. In 1934 Congress passed the Wheeler-Howard Act, fostering the efforts of tribes to govern themselves and to preserve their customs and traditions. Individuals could still seek a place outside the reservation, but tribal Indians were encouraged to cherish the heritage of their people.
RAW^

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

unemployment 4,340,000; GNP $90.4 billion; fed. bud. $5.46 billion; national debt $16.9 billion; prime rate: 3.6%;  average. salary: $1,368;  social welfare: $4.09 billion; CPI (1967 = 100) 50.0.

1933 In his message to Congress, President Roosevelt asks for $10,500,000,000 to advance his recovery programs during the next 18 months.

1934 US Gold Reserve Act authorizes the pres to revalue the dollar.

1935 CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations) org by John L. Lewis

1935 Committee for Industrial Organizations is founded by heads of eight unions in the Am Federation of Labor (AFL). Its goal is to dev industry-wide unions that including clerical and unskilled workers, as well as skilled workers who are eligible for the AFL.

1936 Ford Foundation established.

1937 US government statistics show that on half-million Americans were involved in sit-down strikes between Set 1936 and May 1937.

During winter of 1936-37, more than 500,000 workers quit their jogs; many engage in new, illegal sit-down strikes.

1938 Committee for Industrial Organizations expelled from AFL, creates independent group called Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO); leading unions are steel, auto, and mine workers John L. Lewis elected its president.

5/11/38 Congress adopts the Revenue Act of 1938, which reduces corporate income taxes - purportedly to stimulate the economy; refuses to sign it, but it becomes law on May 27.

1939 Sup Court rules that sit-down strikes are illegal.

8/10/39 Pres. R signs the Social security Amendment, which moves up the date for starting monthly payments to Jan 1, 1940, and generally extends coverage in more generous terms.  This is it the first of many amendments to be adopted over the years to expand the Social Security sys.

9/3/39 The Brit liner “Athenia” is torpedoed by a German submarine off the Hebrides Islands, and 28 Americans die.  this leads Sec of State Jull the next day to limit Americans’ travel to Europe to “imperative necessity.”  Pres R, in one of his fireside chats this evening, declares that “this nation remains a neutral nation,” and on Sept 5 the US will make an official proclamation of neutrality in the war now spreading across Europe.

11/4/39 R signs the Neutrality Act of 1939, repealing the general embargo on arms of the previous neutrality acts and allowing for the sale of arms to belligerents as long as they pay cash and transport them in non-American ships.  Again, although ostensibly a neutral plan, this is clearly designed by Roosevelt to allow the US to aid Britain, France, and their allies.

2. Business & Economy  1930s Physical Cycle top    

2. Business & Economy  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1919 - 1937)

First woman stock exchange member 1935. [check year!]

1937 US Sup Court rules in favor of minimum wage law for women.

Emotional Downward Crossover (March 21, 1937- March 21, 1938)

1937 - 1938 Stock Market Crash:
Just when investors thought the market was finally good again, following a recovery of almost half of the great depression losses, the market plunged again due to war scare and Wall street scandals.

2nd Worst Stock Market Crash:
Date Started: 3/10/1937
Date Ended: 3/31/1938

Total Days: 386
Starting DJIA: 194.40
Ending DJIA: 98.95
Total Loss: -49.1%

Emotional 3rd Qtr. Review (1937 - 1946)

FDR asks investigation of "immoral" tax evasion by the wealthy. 1937.

2. Business & Economy  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual Low (1929 - 1951)

6/17/30 Pres Hoover sign the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act, raising duties on many items, in some cases so high that they are effectively prohibitive.  as predicted by many economists, this soon leads other countries to raise their tariffs, setting off the economic warfare of the 1930s that intensifies the Depression and exacerbates nationalistic rivalries.

5/12/33 Congress passes the Federal Emergency Relief Act, which authorizes immediate grants to states for relief projects-unlike Hoover’s approach, which was to grant only loans.  Unemployment has now reached some 14,000,000-over one-quarter of the nation’s work force.  Pres Roosevelt also signs the Agricultural Adjustment Act to provide immediate relief to farmers by establishing party prices for certain agricultural products (with the government making up the diff) and by paying subsides to farmers who curtailed prod of crops that were in surplus.  The program is to be administered through the Agricultural Adjustment Admin (AAA); some results are the literal plowing under of planted crops, the killing of surplus pigs-will bring the New Deal its harshest criticism; and in 1936 some of its provisions will be declared unconstitutional by the Sup Ct.

8/14/35 Pres R signs the Social Security act-by any standards, one of the most far-reaching pieces of leg in American history.  It sets up the sys that will guarantee pensions to those retiring at 65 (starting in 1942), w contributions from both employees and employers.  The act also assists the states in providing financial and to dependent children, the blind and the aged who do not qualify for Social Security; beyond this, the act establishes a sys of unemployment insurance.  Although somewhat modified over the years, and occasionally attacked, this becomes the foundation of America’s aged’s security in the decades ahead.

8/23/35 Congress passes the Banking Act of 1935 that revises the operations of the Federal reserve System; generally making banks both more responsible and responsive to the needs of the pub.

2. Business & Economy  1930s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Emotional Low (1937 - 1943)

1932 Stock Market Crash:
This is the grand daddy of them all. Investors lost 86% of their money over this 813 day beast. This market crash combined with the 1929 crash, makes up the great depression.

If you had $1000 on 9/3/1929 (beginning of the 4th worst crash, it would have gone down to a whopping $108.14 by July 8th, 1932 (end of the worst crash) or an 89.2% loss. To recover from a loss like that, you would have to watch your portfolio go up 825%! The full recovery didn't take place until 1954, 22 years later!

Worst Stock Market Crash Ever:
Date Started: 4/17/1930
Date Ended: 7/8/1932

Total Days: 813
Starting DJIA: 294.07
Ending DJIA: 41.22
Total Loss: -86.0%

Physo-Intellectual Low (1929 - 1943)

1930 Pres. Hoover signs Smoot-Hawley Tariff, raising duties to an all-time high. US undergoes a sharp decline in international trade, and the Depression deepens.

1930 Pres Hoover asks Congress for $100 to $150 million for public works programs announcing there are 4,5 million people unemployed. Congress appropriates $116 million fro construction work and $45 million for drought relief.

1930 NY's Bank of the United States closes because of stack market crash. Bank has 60 branches and almost half a million depositors. During this yr. than 1300 banks are forced to close.

9/9/30 The State Department issues an order prohibiting immigration of virtually all foreign laborers because of the mounting unemployment throughout the nation.

October 1930 Unemployment is now estimated to have reached at least 4,500,000,  but Pres Hoover persists in his determination “to Preserve the principles of individual and local responsibility.”  This month he appoints a Committee for Unemployment Relief, but it calls only for federal leadership of programs run by state and local agencies, not for much direct financial aid.

12/2/30 Pres Hoover, seemingly recognizing the crisis of unemployment, asks Congress to appropriate up to $150,000,000 for construction public works; Congress will appropriate $116,000,000 on Dec 20.

12/11/30 The Bank of the US, a major private NY bank with some 60 branches and 400,00 depositors, closes.  There have now been approximately 1300 US bank closures since the late fall of 1929.

1931 Unemployment is estimated at between 4 & 5 million. Bank panic spreads. In Sept. 305 banks close; in Oct, 522.

1/7/31 A report from the President's Emergency Committee for Unemployment Relief claims

1/7/31 A report from the Pres Emergency Committee for Unemployment Relief claims there are now between 4-5,000,000 unemployment; furthermore, the Depression is deepening daily.

6/20/31 President Hoover proposes that all rations declare a one-year moratorium on all inter-governmental debts and reparation.  Hoover is motivated in particular by the recent failure of a major Austrian bank that is beginning to have repercussions in international finance.  Hoover’s proposal will soon be accepted by all major nations and by July the moratorium is in effect.  At first it has the desired effect of helping the world’s stock markets and financial communities, but shortly the confidence wanes. [like “WIN” under Ford?]

Sept.-Oct. 1931Despite Hoover’s success in gaining the moratorium for debts and reparations, confidence in bank begins to slip again; this confidence further erodes when Great Brit goes off the gold standard on Sept 21.  Many Americans fear that the US will do the same and beg to withdraw their money from banks and hoard gold; in Sept and Oct, some 827 more US banks will close.

1932 Depression reaches low point; monthly wages are about 60% of 1929; industry operates at half of 1929 volume, more than 5000 banks have closed since 1920; average monthly unemployment is 12 million.

1932 First unemployment insurance law is passed in Wisconsin.

1932 Norris-LaGuardia act prohibits the use of the injunction in most labor disputes.

1932 US Federal Reserve System reorganized

1932 The unemployed in the USA reach a peak of some 13,000,000 by the end of the year; total wages decline to some 60 percent less than in 1929; bus losses are reported as up to $6,000,000,000; industry is operating at hafl the 1929 capacity; agricultural prices are dropping:  banks are closing.  The eco is close to rock bottom.

1/22/32 President Hoover signs the bill establishing a Reconstruction Finance Corporation (the bill having passed the Senate on Jan 11, the House on Jan 15); the agency will start operations on Feb 2 w $500,000,000 in funds and authorization to borrow up to $2,000,000,000 by tax exempt bonds.  The plan is for the RFC to lend money to such institutions as banks, insurance companies, building and loan societies, agricultural credit corporations, farm mortgage associations and railroads so that these bodies can in turn stimulate the economy.  This is Pres Hoover’s belated recognition that the US economy and work force need some government aid to get moving out of the Depression.

8/26/32 The Controller of the Currency declare a moratorium on foreclosures of first mortgages; increasing numbers of unemployed Americans are unable to keep up payments. [like Nixon’s price-wage freeze?]

1933[or 1935? Confirm yr.] A senate committee investigates the munitions industry and its role in instigating American involvement in World War I; several popular books, like Walter Millis's "The Road to War," indict the arms makers. 1935

In what was considered a necessary corrective measure after the economic collapse of 1929, the US went off the gold standard in 1933. Pres. Roosevelt who entered office that same year, enacted the "New Deal" to help the jobless. (i 3rd)

RAW^

3/20/33 Pres R signs the Economy Act, reducing the salaries of federal employees and of payments to veterans; it also calls for some reorganization of fed agencies in the interest of economy.

4/19/33 By Presidential proclamation, R takes the US off the gold standard for its currency.  The dollar inevitably declines sharply in exchanges abroad, while silver, commodities and stacks rise in the Am market.  But the net effect is to make money more availble to Ams and so stimulate the eco.

6/16/33 Congress passes the Home Owners Refinancing Act; it sets up the home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) to provide morttgage money and other aid to homeowners (as for taxes or even repairs).  The HOLC to provide mortgage money and other aid to homeowners (as for taxes or even repairs).  The HOLC will go out of business  in June 1936, but by then it will have given loans for some 1,000,000 mortgages.

1934 First general strike takes place in San Francisco in support of the 12,000 striking dock-workers.

From Sept. 1, 1936 to June 1, 1937, 484,711 workers have been   involved in set-down strikes.

U.S. abandons gold standard 1933

RAW^

1933 banks closed Mar. 6 - Mar. 9 by presidential order.

1933 Congress grant pres R wide powers.

1934 US Federal Farm Mortgage Corp org.

1934 Civil Works Emergency Relief Act passed in US.

1935 Social Security Act provides a federal-state program of unemployment compensation and a federal program of old-age retirement insurance.

4/8/35 Congress establishes the Soil Conservation Service as a section within the Dept of Agriculture.  Its primary mission is to promote better use of the farmlands, particularly those in the West, when erosion and dust storms have been driving farmers off the land.

Physo-Intellectual Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Review (1929 - 1936)

1935 New National Labor Relations Board is established to oversee collective bargaining by employees and to prevent unfair labor practices by employers and unions.

1935 Wealth Tax Act increases income tax rates for wealthy individuals and corps and raises gift and estate taxes.

1936 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act gives funds to farmers who practice soil conservation.

1936 Robinson-Patman Act forbids low pricing that reduces competition and encourages monopolies.

1936 Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act sets minimum employment wages for companies having og contracts. Eight-hour day, 40-hour week, and no child labor is enforced.

1938 Revenue Act reduces taxes on large corps while raising those on small companies.

1938 Temporary National Economic Committee investigates monopolies, price-fixing, and restraint of trade.

1938 FDA tightens regulations on food, drug, and cosmetics.

1938 Fair Labor Standards Act raises scale of minimum wages and lowers scale of maximum hours. It also forbids child labor in industries engages in interstate trade.

1937 Wall Street stock market decline signals serious economic recession in the US.

1938 Pres R signs Wage and Hours Act; raises min wage for workers engaged in interstate commerce fr 25 cents to 40 cents and hour. Hours limited to 44 a week the 1st year, to 40 after the 3rd.

1939 After 1938 recession, US economy begins to recover and, by autumn, is booming fr orders of European countries for arms and war equipment.

1939 US Sup Court rules that sit down strikes are illegal.

1939 Coal strike by United Mine Workers demonstrates power of John L. Lewis.

1939  WPA workers are reduced.

Internal Aberration (XXX)

A severe dust storm blows an estimated 300,000,000 tons of topsoil from states such as Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, and Colorado, much of it being blown all the way to the Atlantic Ocean.  This is only one of many storms that have been stripping topsoil fr what becomes known as “the Dust Bowl” due to improper plowing and farming practices; many of the inhabitants-some known as “Okies” and “Arkies” - will abandon their farms, pack their belongings and families into vehicles, and go off to California.

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

1930 Clyde W. Tombaugh, astronomer, discovers Pluto.

1930 Vannevar Bush, electrical engineer, develops a differential analyzer, the first analog computer.  

1931 Ernest O. Lawrence, physicist, invents the cyclotron, a particle accelerator that is popularly known as an "atom smasher."

6/23/31 Wiley Post and Harold Gatty take off on what will be the first single-lane round-the-world flight; it will take 8 days, 15 hours, 51 minutes.

1932 Carl D. Anderson, NY physicist, discovers the positron, a positively charge electron and the first known antimatter.

1933 Armstrong develops frequency modulation (FM) radio broadcasting

1936 Chester Carlson produces the first xerographic copy using a modified form of inkless electrostatic printing.

1937 Grote Reber, astronomer, builds world's first radio telescope to receive cosmic radio waves.

1937 Theodosuis Dobzhansky pubs "Genetics and the Origin of the Species," a book that established evolutionary genetics as a science.

1937 Chester Carlson produces the first xerographic copy using a modified form of inkless electrostatic printing.

1939 Color television is demonstrated.

1939 Frequency Modulation (FM) invented by Edwin H. Armstrong (189-1954), who invented regenerative circuit (1912); superheterodyne circuit (1918).

3. Science & Technology  1930s Physical Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1930s Polyrhythms top    

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

1939 Sikorski devs a practical helicopter.

2/20/33 The first US aircraft carrier is launched at Newport New, VA; it is named the “Ranger,” after the ship commanded by the first Am naval her, John Paul Jones.

4. Mechanical  1930s Physical Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1930s Polyrhythms top    

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

pub.ed $2.32 billion

A revolt against progressive education is led by Robert M. Hutchins, president of the University of Chicago. 1936 (progressive is a fourth 1/4 event, but i was in 3rd)

RAW^

1936 Educator Robert M. Hutchins pubs "The Higher Learning in America," a statement of the movement against progressive education and the elective system in colleges.

1932 Experiment of progressive education on college level begins at Bennington College, VT. A school for women, it does not use usual methods of grading through credits. A similar project is under way at Teachers College, Columbia U., NYC, where graduation is based on over-all knowledge rather than on completion of certain required courses.

5. Education  1930s Physical Cycle top    

5. Education  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

5. Education  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

5. Education  1930s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual Low (1929 - 1943)

1933 Affected seriously by depression, 2000 rural schools do not open for the fall semester; 200,000 teachers are out of work; and about 2.3 million children are not in school; in addition, a number of colleges and Us are forced to close.

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

1930 American Lutheran Church formed at Toledo, Ohio, by union of 3 Lutheran groups fr NY, Iowa & Ohio.

1931 Jehovah's Witnesses formed from International Bible Students Association.

1932 Censorship of motion pictures is begun by the Catholic Legion of Decency.

1935 Neo-Orthodoxy, a synthesis of the social economic liberalism of the Social Gospel and a rediscovery of Biblical theology, w stress on the fall of man and the judgment of God, secured a wide following among Am. Protestants under the leadership of Reinhold Niebuhr.

1939 Methodist Episcopal Church, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the Methodist Protestant Church were reunited.

1939 Three branches of the Methodist Church, w about 7.5 million members, reunite after splits of main body in 1830 and 1844.

6. Religion & Spirituality  1930s Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1919 - 1937)

1930 The Federal Council of Churches of Christ of Am gives qualified approval to some measures of birth control; as this is a relatively conservative denomination, it represent a major step in Americans’ acceptance of this hitherto minority position.

3/20/31 The Fed Council of Churches of Christ of Ma gives qualified approval to some measure of birth control; as this is a relatively conservative denomination, it represent a major step in American’s acceptance of this hitherto minority position.

1933 In a major decision for free speech and the creative arts, Federal Judge John Woolsey in New York lifts the ban on the importation and sale of James Joyce’s “Ulysses” (banned from the US since its appearance n Paris in the 1920s); Judge Woolsey call it “a sincere and honest book...I do not detect anywhere the leer of a sensualist.”

6. Religion & Spirituality  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1930s Polyrhythms top    

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

German Functionalism was slow to establish itself in Europe and hardly affected American design until its leaders found refuge in the US from Nazi oppression. There the movement was brought to public attention in the mid-1930's by the need for new stimuli in the trough of economic depression, by the educational campaigns of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, and by the re-establishment of the Bauhaus teachings in the Institute of Design in Chicago.

RAW^

Regionalism in art c. 1930

1930 Popular songs: "Georgia on My Mind"; I Got Rhythm"; "Walkin' My Baby Back Home"

7. Arts & Design  1930s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1936 - 1943)

1938 Lyonel Feininger, Cubist painter, completes his most famous work, "Dawn."

7. Arts & Design  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual Low (1929 - 1951)

1930 Boston bans all works by Leon Trotsky.

Intellectual XXXward Crossover (March 21, 1000- March 21, 1000)

ZZZ 7. ARTS AND DESIGN INTELLECTUAL CROSSOVER DATA

7. Arts & Design  1930s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Review (1929 - 1951)

1930 Grant Wood, painter, exhibits his most famous work, "American Gothic."

1932 Ben Shahn paints the social commentary "The Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti."

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

1931 Kohn Dewey: "Philosophy and Civilization" / Oswald Spengler "Mankind and Technology"

1933 best seller: "Lost Horizon," by James Hilton

8. Literature & Publication  1930s Physical Cycle top    

8. Literature & Publication  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1919 - 1929)

1930 Sinclair Lewis becomes the first Am to win the Nobel Prize in Lit.

1930 T. S. Elliot: "Ash Wednesday" [Am?] / William Faulkner: "As I Lay Dying"  Robert Frost: "Collected Poems" / Nobel Prize for Lit: Sinclair Lewis, "Babbitt"     / C. S. Johnson: "The Negro in American Civilization" / F. R. Leavis: "Mass Civilization and Minority Culture"

1930 Dashiell Hammett, writer of detective fiction, pubs "The Maltese Falcon," which intros character Sam Spade. This work has a profound impact on mystery writers in the US and Europe.

1931 Pearl Buck, novelist, pubs "The Good Earth," the Pulitzer Prize winning story of a Chinese peasant and his wife.

q1931 Faulkner pubs "Sanctuary," his first successful novel.

1931 Ogden Nash, writer of humorous poetry, pubs his first collection, "Hard Lines."

1932 Aldous Huxley: "Brave New World"  / William Faulkner: "Light in August"  / Ernest Hemingway: "Death in the Afternoon"

1935 F. Scott Fitzgerald: "The Crack-Up"

1936 Margaret Mitchell, author, published her only book, "Gone With the Wind," about the Civil war.

1936 Eugene O'Neill becomes first Am playwright to win the Nobel Prize in Lit.

1936 Luce pubs "Life," weekly photographic news and feature magazine.

1937 Ernest Hemingway, "To Have and Have Not" / John Steinbeck, "Of Mice and Men"

8. Literature & Publication  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review (1929 - 1940)

1939 Steinbeck pubs "The Grapes of Wrath."

1939 Sandburg's 4 volume "Abraham Lincoln: The War Years," wins 1940 Pulitzer Prize.

8. Literature & Publication  1930s Polyrhythms top    

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

1932 Johnny Weissmuller appears in his first "Tarzan" film.

1932 Cole Porter: "The Gay Divorcee," NY

1938 Glen Miller forms a jazz band band which soon is world famous.

1939 World Fairs in NYC and San Fran attract million of visitors. They see wonders of the future, and line up to take "death-defying" rides on the roller coaster and the parachute jump.

9. Entertainment  1930s Physical Cycle top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1929 - 19363)

Congress passes, and Hoover signs, the act that designates  “The Star Spangled Banner” as the national anthem; it was composed by Francis Scott Key during the bombardment of fort McHenry on September 13-14, 1814.

9. Entertainment  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1919 - 1937)

1930 The Marx Bros star in the comedy film "Animal Crackers."

1931 Marx Bros. "Monkey Business"

movie attend. (weekly) 90 million

1931 "Star-Spangled Banner" is officially made US anthem.

Various forms of the Jitterbug continued to develop during 30's & 40's and evolved into the "swing" and "jive" steps of the big bands in the 1940's. [or is this E 2nd?]

RAW^

Swing, both the rhythmic impetus of jazz music and a specific jazz style prominent between about 1935 and the early 1940's-years sometime called the swing age. Musically, swing represents a partial dilution of the jazz tradition, for it organized musicians into larger groups (up to 16) and required them to play a far higher proportion of written music than was previously thought compatible with jazz. It was also the first successful attempt to make jazz truly commercial-to market it on a national and eventually international scale. The swing age also marked a sociological change for jazz, which had until that time been associated in the public mind either with immorality (the brothels of New Orleans) or illegality (the gin mills of Chicago). With swing's move into the ballrooms of the Roosevelt era, jazz became respectable.

The musical technique used in the big bands was relatively simple. Sections were played off against each other, sometimes in counterpoint, sometimes in musical dialogue. Another popular device was the riff, a simple musical phrase reiterated until by sheer power of repetition it became almost hypnotic.

The greats of swing creators include Count Basie and Duke Ellington, Chick Webb and Jimmie Lunceford. Other big names in swing include Benny Goodman, Harry James, Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey, and Glenn Miller.

RAW^

1932 Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, early film comedy team, star in "The Music Box."

1933 Jimmy Dorsey, clarinetist and saxophonist, and his bro Tommy, trombonist, form a greatly successful jazz orchestra.

1933 In the film "She Done Him Wrong," Mae West intros her classic line "Come up and see me sometime."

1933 Eugene O'Neil: "Ah, Wilderness," comedy, stars George M. Cohan (NY prod) and Will Rogers (San Fran prod).

1933 pop songs: "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes": "Stormy Weather"; "Easter Parade"; "Who's Afraid of the Big, Bad Wolf?".

1933 pop song "Begin the Beguine"

1934 "King of Swing" Benny Goodman, clarinetist, orgs one of the first swing bands, which, during its ten year existence, brings great popularity to jazz dance music.

1934 Shirley Temple, actress, stars in the film "Bright Eyes," in which she sings "On the Good Ship Lollipop."

1938 "Invasion from Mars," a radio play produced by actor Orson Welles, causes panic when listeners think account of an attack from Mars is an actual news broadcast.

10/30/38 Orson Welles broadcasts a radio play, “Invasion from Mars,” that sounds so realistic (even though it was framed by announcements) that it leads many listeners to take to the highways in panic.

1939 films; "Gone With the Wind," Academy Award (Szelnick); "Good-Bye Mr. Chips", the Wizard of Oz" "Stagecoach"

1939 "The Wizard of Oz"

9. Entertainment  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1930s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Review (1929 - 1936)

Gangster films, like "The Public Enemy," with Jean Harlow and James Cagney, 1931, surpass westerns at the box office; this one of the first to portray gangsters as the spawn of social problems. (i & P 3rd).

"Scarface" with George Raft in 1932.

1932 score for the show "Americana," by composer Jay Gorney and lyricist E. Y. "Yip" Harburg features the Depression era song "Brother Can You Spare a Dime?"

"The Roaring Twenties" with James Cagney, Priscilla Lane and Humphrey Bogart 1939.

1935 pop songs "I'm an Old Cowhand (from the Rio Grand)"  / "Pennies from Heaven"

1935 Mazwell Anderson pub "Winterset," a poetic drama based on the Sacco and Vanzetti case.

Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Review (1937 - 1940)

In 1937, the crossover year bringing a new e 3rd: Among the many films on social themes are "They Won't Forget" (anti-mob violence), "Black Legion" (anti-KKK), "White Bondage" (on sharecroppers), "Make Way for Tomorrow" (on old age), and "Dead End" (about slums).

Physical Low with
     Emotional High
(1929 - 1937)

10/10/35 “Porgy and Bess,” an opera by George Gershwin (based on a novel by DeBose and Dorothy Heyward) opens at the Alvin theater in NYC (after a short tryout in Boston).  It will run for 16 weeks in NY before a road tour of 3 months.  With its story of black Americans and its music of indigenous rhythms and motifs, “Porgy and Bess” will gradually established itself as arguably the greatest truly American opera.

1935 George and Ira Gershwin collaborated on their masterpiece, the opera "Porgy and Bess."

1936 Benny Goodman becomes the first bandleader to integrate racially his band when he hires pianist Teddy Wilson and vibraphonist Lionel Hampton.

1936 Count Basie, pianist and composer, orgs a band featuring Lester Young on the tenor saxophone.

1939 Victor Fleming directs the film "Gone With the Wind," starring Vivien Leigh, Clark Bable, Leslie Howard, Olivia deHavilland, and Hattie McDaniel (who becomes the first black to win a major Academy Award).

Trirhythmic Effect (XXX)

But the most vital aspect of Kansas is that during the late 1920's and 1930's the first pitched battles between "hot" and "cool" occurred there. The alto saxophonist Lester Young, father of the cool conception, was based in Kansas City; and the city is especially associated with the emergent Young and the birth of the cool, as also with Count Basie and the four-beats-to-a-bar rhythm section, and with the fine subdivisions of time that enable a soloist to lag microscopically behind the beat and thus create an aura of superb, almost indolent relaxation.

RAW^

1932 pop songs: "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?"

1936 Orson Welles, actor, director, and producer, directs an all-black cast in "Macbeth" for the Negro People's theater, part of the Federal Theater Project.

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

1936 At the summer Olympics in Berlin, staged by Hitler and his German supporters to enhance their image, the black Am Jesse Owens wins four gold medals in field and track, somewhat discrediting Nazi theories of Aryan superiority.

6/22/37 Joe Louse becomes World Heavyweight Boxing Champion by knocking out James J. Braddock in the 8th round in Chicago.  Louis is the second black man to hold this title; he will retain the championship until his retirement in 1949.

10. Sports  1930s Physical Cycle top    

10. Sports  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

10. Sports  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  1930s Polyrhythms top    

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

11. Fashion  1930s Physical Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1930s Polyrhythms top    

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

1930 life exp. 61 yrs. One of every five Americans owns an automobiles.

pop. US almost 123 million

marriages/1,000: 9.2   divs/1,000: 1.6

 It is hard even for American in the 1980's who have witnessed unemployment of over ten percent to comprehend the desperate conditions of 50 years before. No government agencies kept even approximate figures, but unemployment seldom fell below 25 percent; in some cities it was double that. Farmers armed themselves to prevent the foreclosure of mortgages, Sporadic rioting in cities accompanied eviction. Illness related stress multiplied; suicides soared. In a grim joke, Amos and Andy, radio's favorite comedians of the era, had a hotel clerk as a customer who sought a room, "Is it for sleeping or jumping?" There was starvation and unprecedented want. And as the months and years dragged on there was a dangerous shortage of hope that things would ever really improve.

RAW^

1932 Aviator Amelia Earhart is first woman to fly alone across Atlantic. Her flight from Newfoundland to Ireland takes 13 1/2 hrs. and covers 2026 miles.

5/20/32 Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to make a solo transatlantic flight; she flies from Newfoundland to Ireland, 2026 miles in 13 ½ hours.

6/10/35 Alcoholics Anonymous is formally organized in NYC.

1937 Amelia Earhart lost on Pacific flight.

1937 Dirigible "Hindenburg" explodes near mooring at Lakehurst, NJ, killing most passengers and crew.

7/2/37 On her round-the-world flight, the noted Am aviator Amelia Earhart vanishes over the Pacific Ocean after radio contact w her suddenly stops.  Despite endless speculation and rumors, no trace of her plane or of her will ever be found.

1938 Floods and landslides cause 144 deaths in Southern CA. thousands of homes are destroyed; nearly $60 million in property lost.

1938 Tropical hurricane strikes without warning in New England, taking an estimated 460 lives; property damage, $150 million.

12. Lifestyles  1930s Physical Cycle top    

Physical  3rd Qtr. Review (1929 - 1936)

10/17/31 The notorious gangster Al Capone, who has been able to evade prosecution for the many crimes he is alleged to have been involved in, is found guilty in the Fed Ct in Chicago of income tax invasion.  He will be sentenced to 11 years in prison and a $50,000 fine; he will be released from prison in 1939 due to his weakened health, and will die in 1947.

12. Lifestyles  1930s Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1919 - 1937)

5/24/30 The Hawley-Smoot Tariff Bill is moving toward Congressional acceptance; this bill will raise duties on many items imported into the US and many people see this as a potential threat to international trade.  This very day, a petition signed by some 1028 prominent economists is made public; they are protesting the passage of such a law and urging Hoover to veto it if it is passed.  Congress, however, will pass the Hawley-Smoot Bill and Hoover will sign it on June 17.

3/1/32 Charles A. Lindbergh Jr., the 19-month-old child of Colonel Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, is kidnapped from the family’s home in Hopewell, New Jersey.  A note demanding a ransom of $50,000 is received and the sum is paid as directed but the infant is not returned; instead, he is found dead on May 12.  Bruno Hauptmann is found with some of the ransom money, he will be convicted of murder and electrocuted on April 3, 1936 although he protests his innocence to the end.  The Lindbergh case will lead to Congress’s adopting the death penalty in kidnapping cases that involve crossing state lines.

1934 In Ontario, Canada, five girls are born to the Dionne family; they becomes the first quintuplets known to survive and are immediately adopted by the world.

A "Fortune" article notes: "As for sex...the campus takes it more casually than it did ten years ago...It is news that it is no longer news." 1936

A "Fortune" poll indicates that 67 percent favor birth control. 1936

A "Fortune" poll reports that 50 percent of all college men and 25 percent of all college women have had premarital sexual relations; two-thirds of the women "would for true love." 1937

RAW^

1938 Orson Welles' radio production of H. G. Welles' "War of the Worlds" causes considerable panic.

12. Lifestyles  1930s Intellectual Cycle top    

12. Lifestyles  1930s Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Review (1929 - 1936)

1931 Alphonse ("Scarface Al") Cpone, Chicago gangster, who has a yearly income of at least $20 million, is improsoned for income tax evasion.

1935 Alcoholics Anonymous org in NYC.

Alcoholics Anonymous is organized in New York 1935

A federal hospital for narcotics addicts is opened in Lexington, Ky. 1935

Internal Aberrations (XXX)

4/21/30 Acting upon its discussion with Pres Hoover to deal with the mounting unemployment problem.  Congress adopts the Public Building Act factually supplementing and act of 1926.  it calls for $230,000,000, to be used for erecting public buildings.

5/6/37 The “Hindenburg,” the great German dirigible, while tying up at Lakehurst, New Jersey, explodes, killing 36 persons.  This ends commercial airship traffic.

top      drop down to navigate category in other decades:     
      prev. next        

...

============

top