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Summary

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  1910s 1920-1929 1929 
Timelines - Decade
28y Physical 36y Emotional 44y Intellectual
American Cycles 1920-1929
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).


Note to readers: Work from the Kala-Rhythm archives is being offered here in the Timelines for the first time. We are allowing a view into the Timelines now by posting both the finished and the unfinished pages of the Timelines as editing from our references continues.  Unfinished pages (like this one) contain raw data from history sources to which we give credit in our "biblio/webography". Check back for updates to this and other pages.

THE ROARING TWENTIES

There has only been one time in American history when all three cycles reached a peak within a single ten year period. That is from the year 1918 to the year 1928. The decade of the 1920's has ever since been dubbed, "The Roaring Twenties." The Physical Cycle concluded its first quarter in 1922 and was in its second quarter until a downward crossover in 1929. The Emotional Cycle had an upward crossover in 1918 and was in its first quarter it peaked in 1928 and began its second quarter. The Intellectual Cycle reached peaked in 1918 and was in its second quarter until a downward crossover, also in 1929.

The combined effect of having all three cycles in the high half at once was to result in one of the most wild times in our history. Most, (though not quite all), boats rose on a tide of expansion, exuberance and prosperity. The nation had never seen such a time.  

The "Roaring Twenties" came to an end with a crisis. A stock market crash which precipitated the Great Depression of the 1930's. When the Emotional Cycle is near its peak, both the Physical Cycle and the Intellectual Cycle were at a critical crossover year. The nation's enthusiasm outran its own strength and common sense. This left the country set for crisis. That year was 1929. A year of a double crossover. Only three times in American history has year of double crossover occurred. Each time was significant. This year was perhaps the most significant.  

The decade of the 1920's began with a population of almost 204,879,000 people and a gross national product of $977.1 billion. More people lived in urban places than rural places for the first time. Metropolitan America would lead the way in the nation's development.

DAT^ 

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Warren G. Harding, a conservative Republican, succeeded Wilson as the 29th President of the United States in 1921. His pledge to "return to normalcy" was welcomed by an optimistic postwar nation who thought its had seen "The war to end all wars." In fact, the country was so comfortable with world stability, that in 1919, the U.S. Senate voted against American membership to the League of Nations. When the League held its first meeting in 1920, the Senate rejected membership a second time. Some Harding administration officials, however, faced scandals in their dealings with big business. Health complications led to Harding's  death in 1923, and he was succeeded by vice-president Calvin Coolidge. After re-election in 1924, Coolidge kept a low key on foreign affairs and had a laissez-faire policy on business. When he decided not to run again in 1928, Herbert Hoover was elected president, also a Republican. Hoover proved ineffective in ameliorating the country's problems after the stock market crash in 1929. He speculated that "prosperity is just around the corner," while the country went deeper into economic depression. Hoover lost the following election in 1932 to Franklin Roosevelt.

DAT^

1. Political  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1915 - 1929)

With the Physical Cycle high to build new things, and the Intellectual Cycle high to help provide the money for it, the government undertook massive construction. On December 21st, 1928, the Fed entered the field of hydroelectric power.This had previously been used only by private business. Congress passed Flood control Act on May 15th, 1928, to provide $325 million for flood control on the Mississippi River. The project went on for ten years. Congress also passed the Hones-White Merchant Marine Act on May 22nd, 1928, to provide subsidies to private shipping companies. On February 13th, 1929, the Cruise Act was passed as well to for the construction of 19 new cruisers and 1 aircraft carrier.

DAT^

Many American cities today show many dominant buildings erected during this decade.

DAT^

The Physical Cycle was high during this decade, having peaked in 1923. On February 7th, 1926, Congress established the Army Air Corps.

DAT^

1920  Water Power Act establishes the Federal Power Commission to regulate generation of electricity fr waterways on public lands and from navigable streams

RAW^

1920 National Labor Party , formed in 1919, changes its name to Farmer-Labor Party.

1920 Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge are elected Pres. and VP

1922 Oklahoma  is placed under martial law to control violence and curb KKK activity.

1924 Congr. passes act making all native-born Indians full US citizens.

1924 Quota Act of 1924 favored immigration from northern and western European countries.

[Progressive party revival 1924]

1. Political  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional Upward Crossover (March 21, 1919- March 21, 192)

In as much as 1919 was an emotional crossover year, the crossover period lasted from March 21st, 1919, to March 21st, 1920. Many forms of turbulent emotion can be pandemic at this time. Paranoia is no exception. On January 1st, 1920, Six thousand people were arrested as alleged Communists. The next day, two thousand more were arrested. Few charges were ever brought forth. The massive move was based more on emotion, than substance.

DAT^

1920 "Red scare" results in nationwide raids by fed agents, with mass arrests of "anarchists," Communists, and Labor agitators. [WHAT MO?

Emotional High (1919 - 1937)

Yin is of the Earth, female, dark, passive and absorbing. Yang is of Heaven, male, light, active, and penetrating. The level of the Emotional Cycle often affects the prevelence of Yin. The level of the Physical Cycle often affects the prevelence of Yang. The Intellectual Cycle may well be neutral.

DAT^

As the Emotional Cycle was in the first quarter in the 1920's, women saw emancipation and precedents flourish throughout the country. Here are some events that occurred while the Emotional Cycle was in the the quarter of Foundation from 1919 to 1928:

DAT^

The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution was passed by Congress in 1919 and ratified by the Senate in 1920. It granted women suffrage and gave them the right to vote for the first time, which they did in the 1920 presidential election. Susan B. Anthony had originally proposed the amendment in 1869, but was unsuccessful. It was re-introduced in 1878 and laid dormant. During that period the Emotional Cycle was not in its first quarter. In fact, it was low both times. It was not until the first year of an Emotional first quarter, did the amendment re-emerge and become passed.

DAT^

The Emotional Cycle went on rising after the Crossover and was high when President Harding died of health complications in August of 1923. The nation mourned his loss in a most heart felt manner. When his cortege passed from San Francisco to Washington, the New York Times described the public's response as, "the most remarkable expression of affection, respect and reverence in U.S. History."

DAT^

1. Political  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

1. Political  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual High (1919 - 1929)

In the duality of the Emotional and Intellectual Cycles being High, and organization to further women's suffrage and educate women with politics was founded in 1920, The National League of Women Voters. Emancipation did not end with voting, women were also holding office for the first time. In 1921, Alice Robertson of Oklahoma became the first woman to preside over the House of Representatives, (for thirty minutes). In 1922, Rebecca L. Felton of Georgia became the first woman Senator. She was appointed by the governor to succeed Senator W. Watson after his death. It was a symbolic but precedent setting position which lasted only one day. In 1925, Nellie Ross of Wyoming became the first woman governor "Ma" Ferguson of Texas became the second. The tide was pervasive.

DAT^

Trirhythmic Absence of 3rd Qtr. Review (1908 - 1929)

While all three Cycles were High, none of them were in the third quarter, the period of reform. It is interesting to note, therefore, that when an attempt was made to legislate morality against substance abuse, it failed miserably. The 18th Amendment wet into effect on January 16th, 1920, while the Emotional Cycle was still in an upward crossover. The amendment was unpopular with much of the nation, to say the least, and enforcement was slight. It served more to give rise to gangsters profited from the sale of illicit liquor, than to reform the public. Seven years later, it was repealed after an ad populum dissent. To this day it is the only amendment to have been repealed.

DAT^

To look at the political practices during the 1920's, one would find some major scandals. But despite their magnitude, they never seemed to create any populist reaction or turn the public against the public. Here's a look at some of the scandals of that time:   

DAT^[move to 2. BUSINESS & ECONOMY]...... V

First there was the oil scandals. The "Teapot Dome Scandal" discovered by a St. Louis "Post-Dispatch" was the largest and was made public by Senators Thomas H. Walsh and Gerald Nye. On April 7th, 1922, Secretary of the Interior, Albert Fall, entered into a corrupt pact with the Doheny and Sinclair Oil interests. Together with the minor co-operation with Navy Secretary, Edwin M. Denby, they conspired to turn over valuable petroleum deposits, reserved for the Navy by President Wilson, to Doheny and Sinclair Oil. Fall leased the Teapot Dome oil reserve to Harry G, Sinclair, and later that year, he leased the Elk Hills reserve to Edward L. Doheny. A Senate investigation revealed that Sinclair had "loaned" $300,000 to Fall and Doheny had "loaned" him $100,000 without security or interest. In return, they built oil storage tanks for the Navy at Pearl Harbor. Both Fall and Denby were forced to resign, the oil leases were cancelled and $6 million was recovered by the government. Fall and Sinclair were imprisoned for short terms, no one else served time. The Supreme Court ordered the reserves returned to the government in [19??]. While Denby was an appointee of president Harding, Harding did not lose the affection of the public.

DAT^ 

Harding had other trouble within his administration. His appointee as custodian of aliendou property was convicted of criminal conspiracy to defraud the government after accepting a $50,000 bribe in for underselling German property confiscated during World War I. He was imprisoned for 18 months and fined $5,000.

DAT^

Then there was the Veteran's Bureau scandal. In 1925, Director of the Veteran's Bureau, Charles R. Forbes and his associates granted government contracts for the care of disabled veterans over to private interests. This made them millions. But it was followed by the suicide of Jess Smith, one of Forbes associates. It was brought to president Harding's attention, thereafter, that Forbes had been taking cuts on the building of hospitals and the sales of excess war materials. Forbes then resigned. In March of 1923, the principal legal adviser to Forbes also committed suicide. The president became very distressed at this then later fell ill from ptomaine poisoning and pneumonia, dying later that year of an embolism in San Francisco.

DAT^

Attorney General Harry Daugherty was dismissed for misconduct after the illegal sale of liquor permits, receiving money from liquor dealers who were evading prohibition laws and other malpractices involving Forbes and Miller. After a Senate committee found him guilty, however, the jury that tried him could not agree on a verdict of guilty. As Will Rogers put it, it was hard to convince a jury of criminal corruption in those lush times, because most of the jurors secretly admired people who got away with it. This was clearly not a time of reform. There were no third quarters. [what year?]

DAT^

The age of reform was long passed as was noticeable in the Coolidge Administration. Coolidge's appointed judges and members of regulatory commissions were selected in part because of their hands off policy on the nation's economic life. Regulation did become more lax. In 1927 a bill that would have raised prices of basic farm commodities was vetoed by president Coolidge because he saw it as countering a laissez-faire policy. He also vetoed the bill by Senator George W. Norris to develop the dam at Muscle Shoal in Tennessee which was owned by the Fed. He preferred that Muscle Shoals be sold to Henry Ford. Senator Norris led a senatorial block on that suggestion, however, and it was a stalemate.

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unempl 2,132,000; GNP $91.5 billion; fed.bud. $6.4 billion; nat.debt $23.7 billion; prime rate 5.4%; ave. salary $1,236 

[mention bio-medical events]

1921 mild assault on market? [P-sub down  1/21/21 to  1/20/22?]

        [I-sub up   11/21/21 to 12/20/22?]

1927 mild assault on market? [I-sub down  5/21/27 to  6/20/27?]

1929 There 513 Americans with annual incomes of over $1 million 

Overall, the national economy was booming during the 1920's. Improvements in machinery and management brought an increase of 50 percent in industrial productivity, while labor costs dropped 9.5 per cent. Production of automobiles and consumer durable goods rose dramatically; although the wealthy benefited most, loving standards of middle class and working people rose. Between 1922 and 1929 slaries increased 42 %; wages, 33 %; and consumer purchases, 23%. Corporate net profits rose 76%' dividends to stockholders, 108%. On the other hand, agriculture and several industries, such as textiles and bituminous coal mining, were seriously depressed, and after 1926 construction declined; thus the prosperity was not solidly based.

RAW^

 The economic boom of the 1920's was greatly realized. The GNP grew 40% from 1921-1929 with little inflation and low unemployment. Enthusiasm hit the market place and production increase heavily. The Dow Jones Average soared. While the rich reaped most of the benefit during the economic boom, middle and working classes saw a significant rise in the standards of living. Americans were quickening the change from being prosumers to being consumers during the time when all three cycles peaked.

DAT^

There were no real checks and balances at the time, however. The physical and Intellectual Cycles were in the second quarter and the Emotional Cycle was in the first. There was no third quarter effect. That is the quarter that brings reform. Corporations which employed 86.5% of all wage earners in industry as early as 1919 were expanding without control. Holding Companies were manipulated in such a way that outside investors who bought stock did not know how they operated, insiders profited. Harding's campaign slogan was, "Less government in business and more business in government." This was quite a contrast to the days of Roosevelt and the double third quarter. Exemplifying this was the case of "United States v. United States Steel Corporation", on March 1st, 1920. The Supreme Court found that the large Corporation was not an illegal monopoly. Trouble was to come at the double downward crossover of 1929.

DAT^

2. Business & Economy  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1922 - 1929)

In the seven year quarter of the Physical Cycle preceding 1929, salaries rose 42%, wages 33% and consumer purchases 23%. Improvements in machinery and management brought and increase in industrial productivity, particularly in automobiles and consumer durable goods. Net profits for Corporations rose 76% and dividends to stockholders rose 100%.

DAT^

 

While machinery improvements, increased production and working class wage increases are typical with a High Physical Cycle, not all boats rose with the tide. Agriculture, textiles and bituminous coal mining, which are also physically based, did not fare as well. There was also a construction decline after 1926. It is important to observe that even with the great industrial prosperity of the decade to corroborate the Physical Cycle theory, specific forecasting requires a search for fundamental support. 

DAT^

The popular Model A car by Henry Ford had sold 15 million from 1908 to 1927. Then the spin off developed in the form of the Model A [MODEL WHAT, HOW ABOUT MODE "T"] which appeared in four colors, including Arabian Sand). It was equipped with a self starter and other improvements. The Physical Cycle had reached the second quarter with an Emotional High.

DAT^

First regular commercial airline service in the U.S. begins, it connects Key West and Havana and takes approx. one hour. [what year?]

RAW^

2. Business & Economy  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1919 - 1928)

The main stumbling block facing eh women was the "solid South" with which the politically shrewd Wilson declined to tangle; its own "illegal" constitutions had effectively disenfranchised black males and it was not now prepared to give black females the vote instead. However, under the joint leadership of the able Corrie Chapman Catt and the fiery Alice Paul, Wilson's compromising policies backfired and in 1918, thanks in part to the women's vote, a Republican congress was returned to Washington. The new legislature agreed to submit the Amendment to the States for ratification so that grateful women might vote Republican in the 1920 Presidential election. Finally conflict centered on the decisive 36th State: Tennessee. To offset a Democratic Party defeat, Wilson pressed for ratification. at four in the morning on 8/2/20, Tennessee delivered the needed 36th and last certificate to Secretary of State Colby. with Wilson's belated blessing, Colby hastily announced the historic decision.

RAW^

A general euphoria reigned amongst investors who increased their investments during the Emotional High period. This was one of the more driving forces until 1925 when it rose to unprecedented heights. "Suckers" were more drawn into speculation as anyone might be out to make a "fast buck" in stocks after reading the newspapers. John T. Raskob, former top executive at General Motors and chairman of the Democratic National Committee said, "If a man saves $15 a week and invests in good common stocks....at the end of 20 years, he will have at least $80,000 and ....$400 a month. He will be rich. And because income can do that, I am firm in my belief that anyone not only can be rich, but ought to be rich."

DAT^

Speculative trading on margin also increased as brokers' loans to stock market margin investors reach a record $4 billion in 1928.  Loans to brokers for securities reached $8.5 billion by October of 1929. Unwise loans had become pandemic among banks in the United States. In the twelve months preceding the crash, new issues of common stock rose to and unprecedented $5.1 billion. It is fair to say that an Emotional High was reflected in the economy.

DAT^

As hopes for the future rose, warnings to the contrary could not stem the tide, as some noted figures of the time found out. William Z. Ripely and Roger W. Babson, Harvard economists, and Alexander D. Noyes, former financial editor of the New York Times, tried give their warnings and were labeled "scaremongers". President Hoover made statements such as his 1928 campaign comment, "We shall soon with the help of God be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from the nation." In 1929, before the crash, Hoover said, "This has been a twelvemonth of unprecedented advance, of wonderful prosperity....If there is any way of judging the future by the past, this new year may well be one of felicitation and hopefulness."

DAT^

Judging the future by the past of by the current trend has been a classic mistake. Things just don't keep on the way there going and never have, yet it often the basis for forecasting. A more reliable quote may be, "For every season, turn, turn. There is a reason and a time for every purpose under heaven."

[check accuracy of quote of refer to which book it comes]

DAT^

2. Business & Economy  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Foundation (1918 - 1929)

A High Physical Cycle by itself would not likely account for the economic boom of the 1920's. The intellectual high cycle provided better operation of industry, methods of mass production and expanded marketing techniques and advertising. Many of the best minds of the time were applying their wits to business.

DAT^ 

Labor costs by were reduced by 9.5%. by the standardization of methods used in the production of uniform goods. Industrial output increased by 50%. The proliferation of chain stores allowed for more effective marketing. Through the use of the installment plan, credit was extended to consumers who could now afford more. In the seven years preceding 1929 consumer purchases 23% salaries rose 42% and real wages (adjusted for inflation) were up 33% from 1914. The number of stockholders increased greatly as profits for Corporations rose 76% and dividends to stockholders rose by 100%. Business in general and industry were developing in tandem with the physo-intellectual effect of a double second quarter. More examples of integrated Kalarhythmic effect are given below.

DAT^

2. Business & Economy  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Emotional High (1919 - 1929)

In the mid-twenties there was a Florida land rush where many were eager for get-rich quick opportunities in a physo-emotional response. Thousands bought land with binders of small down payments and which they would soon sell for profit. The over speculative spirit remained undaunted even though latecomers bought swamp. The prospect of rapid wealth provided by the Great Bull Market of the late twenties was a "speculative fever" which griped the nation, the "New York Times" reported in 1929. The lust for worldly goods, namely land in this case, is but one of many of the time. 

DAT^

In 1925, the automobile and airplane put south Florida within reach of nearly anyone on the East Cost.  Speculators, lured by the vision of a vast beachfront playground, pushed south Florida land prices to the moon.

Downtown Miami lots jumped $10,000 an hour some days.

Real estate agents stood on street corners with maps and deeds, urging people to buy lots.

The madness stopped after visitors got a taste of south Florida summers - and a 1927 hurricane that left more than 400 people dead.

South Florida, obviously, is an ocean playground.

But few of the 1925 speculators made money.  “Land in Florida” became synonymous with wild-eyed mania.

Physo-Intellectual High (1915 - 1929)

One example of physo-intellectual development was demonstrated by Walter P. Chrysler. He took direction of Willy-Overland Company and of Maxwell Motor Company six months after resigning as president of Buick Motor Company in 1919. The company produced a successful new car with Chrysler's new design of a high compression engine. The Maxwell then disappeared. Then 1928 Chrysler purchased the Dodge Brothers Manufacturing Company and used it to introduce the Plymouth that same year. This development of a new internal combustion engine as well as the development of the new branches in the company to produce it came during the double second quarter influence of the physical and Intellectual Cycles. This is just one example of how intellectual development was applied to a physical product at a time that was market was ready for it. The company is still successful.

DAT^

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3. Science & Technology  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1922 - 1929)

Taking new achievement to their limit created quite a commotion in the twenties. Charles Lindburgh made the first nonstop flight from New York to Paris in 1927. Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic in 1928. Admiral Byrd made the first flight to the North Pole in 1926 and the first flight over the South Pole in 1929.

DAT^

3. Science & Technology  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1918 - 1929)

The first public radio began 1920 with the KDKA broadcast in Pittsburgh of the Harding-Cox election returns. Westinghouse opened a broadcasting station in 1920. Soon afterward, radio became a national obsession. [NOT SECOND QTR]

DAT^

The first electronic television camera, the iconoscope, was patented by Vladimir Zworykin in 1923. The first working television set was made by Charles David Jenkins in the 1924. The first all electronic television set was constructed by Philo T. Farnsworth in 1927. Bell Laboratories experimented with color Television in 1929.

DAT^ 

           A method of recording sound directly on film, fonofilm, was devised by Lee DeForest in 1923. A new recording technique known as "Electrola" was developed in 1926.[where?] Kodak introduced 16mm color movie film 1929.

DAT^

The existence of a subatomic particle was first postulated by William G. Harkins, of the University of Chicago in 1921. It was the neutron, a heavy particle having no electric charge. Other theories of atomic structure and absorption were proposed in 1921 by Irving Langmuir.

DAT^

Einstein's theory of relativity were supported in 1923 when astronomers measured the bending of the sun's rays during an eclipse.

[where?]

DAT^

Einstein arrived at Columbia University in New York where he delivered a lecture on relativity. He introduced "time as the fourth dimension" and changed the scientific community. While these theories where not developed outside of the US, it is interesting to note that the scientific community was ready to and did receive them at this time.

There have been discoverers who were slightly ahead of their time.

[Einstein's unified field theory 1928]

DAT^

 While Freud developed psychoanalysis near the end of the nineteenth century in Vienna, it was after World War I, mostly in the 1920's that Freudian theories became widely accepted by America. Then the Intellectual Cycle was high and strides were being made in American medicine in the treatment of mental dysfunction. The high Emotional Cycle may have also allowed for the theories of sexuality to be explored, but the theories are intellectually based and academic. 

DAT^

1922 Technicolor process successfully dev by Herbert T. Kalmus (1881- ).

1922-26 Telephoto. C. Francis Jenkins sent photos over telephone wires; transcontinental photo (1925); transatlantic service (1926).

1922-46 Radar. Based on studies of Hertz (1888), radio detection was 1st dev by Albert H. Taylor (1879- ) and Leo C. Young (1922) for the US Navy. True radar detection, using pulse-ranging technique, employed by Gregory Breit (1899- ) and Merle A. Tuve (1901- ) for ionospheric research (c.1926), and for naval detection by Taylor and Young (1930). Radar system dev by Naval Research Laboratory (1934-39) and US Army Signal Corps (1936-38). By 1935 Great Britain had 5 radar detector stations in operation. Research accelerated under National Defense Research Committee (Fr July 1940). During WW II radar was employed both to direct artillery fire and to detect enemy submarines and aircraft. Radar signals sent to the moon and reflected back (from Belmar, NJ., 10 Jan. 1946).

1923-28 Sound Films. Cameraphone, 1st sound moving picture, dev by Edison, 1904. Lee De Forest demo sound on moving picture film, 1923; 1st pub presentation of talking pictures. Auf. 1926; first full-length sound film, 1928.

1925-51 Television. Background work on television largely European (Senlecq, France; Nipkow and Braun, Germany; Rosing, Russia; Swinton, England) until Vladimir Zworkin invented the iconoscope, basis of the electronic television camera, and C. Francis Jenkins demo t4levsion w the Nipkow system (both in 1925). Radio Corp. of Am demo electronic transmission (using iconoscope and cathode ray tube, 1933). First transmission of television signals, NY to Wash. by Amer. Tel. & Tel. (1927). Full commercial television inaugurated 1941; British system, 1925). Peter C. Goldmark (1906- ) of Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) demonstrated "sequential method" of color television (1940). CBS and RCA evolved independent systems by 1949. Hearing by FCC (1949-50) found CBS system sufficiently advanced to permit general transmission; production curtailed in interest of national defense (1951).

3. Science & Technology  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual Dbl. 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1918 - 1929)

Insulin was discovered in 1922. [where]

Navy established a bureau of Aeronautics in 1921

1922 Philo T. Farnsworth, 15-year-old Idaho schoolboy, designs an image dissector system that is later developed into television

1922 Herbert T. Kalmus makes the first successful use of the Technicolor process; it is not widely used in motion pictures until 20 years later.

1922 First mechanical switchboard is installed in the NYC telephone system; exchange is called "Pennsylvania."

1923 Colonel Jacob Schick receives a patent for the first electric shaver.

1924 RCA demonstrates wireless telegraph transmission of photographs from NYC to London; process takes about 25 min. per photo

1925 American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) and General Electric (GE) jointly established Bell Laboratories for research in physics.

1925 First international radio broadcast is made between London and Maine.

1926 Michelson measures the speed of light as 186,284 miles per second, an error of less than 0.00001%

1926 Goddard launches the first liquid-fuel rocket

1926 Radio Corporation of American, American Telephone and Telegraph Company, and British General Post Office hold first successful transatlantic radiotelephone conversation between NYC and London.

1927 Mechanical Cotton Picker invented by John Daniel Rust (1892- ) and Mack Donald Rust (1900- )./

1928 "New York Times" mounts first animated electric sign in US around Times Building, Times Square, NY. Used to report election returns, it is called the "zipper" because of the way it encircles the building.

1928 First sound film, "The Lights of New York," is released by Warner Bros.

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1920 The US now has more than 265,000 miles of railroad tracks.

A noteworthy precedent was created in arms with the 1920 patent of the tommy gum by retired army officer John T. Thompson.

DAT^

1927 15 millionth Model T car is produced by the Ford Motor Co. and its production is discontinued.

[mention autos?] [mention trains?]

4. Mechanical  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1918 - 1929)

STEP PROGRESSION: The Intellectual Cycle is clearly marked with the discoveries and use of electricity. When the cycle entered the second quarter in 1918, the Physical Cycle was high. The physo-intellectual result was to electrify mechanical devises. Step progression can be seen when it is existing mechanical devises that become electrified.

The typewriter, invented on the first quarter of (i 1863-1874), became modified to the electric typewriter in 1920, (i 2nd & p 2nd).

[explore origin, was it a p 2nd derivative of another device?]

DAT^

4. Mechanical  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

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pub.ed. $1.04 billion

1926 National Spelling Bee started by the "Louisville (Ky.) Courier Journal."

 As the Intellectual Cycle rises, so does the education of the masses. The illiteracy rate reached a new low in 1920 when it became 6%.

Historians record the post war education boom to have peaked in 1927 with dramatic improvement from Kindergarten through the Universities.

DAT^

It was during an Intellectual Cycle high, while no third quarter retrospection prevailed that John T. Scopes challenged the fundamentalists with the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution. On May 5th, 1925, he was arrested in Tennessee and brought to trial in July. He was prosecuted by William Jennings Bryan and defended by Clarence Darrow and Dudley Field Malone. The country found the clash between science and religion amusing as it was debated whether we were descended from monkeys or made from Adam's rib. An emotional high, as there was, historically gives strength to religion. On July 20th, Bryan went on the stand and was questioned about his interpretation of the Bible. 1925 marks the first year in the 1920's that the Emotional Cycle was higher than the Intellectual Cycle. Scopes lost this classic confrontation and was fined $100. The conviction was later overturned by the state supreme court on technical grounds. Tennessee eventually permitted the teaching of Darwin's theory, which by then had become modified. The law remained on the books until being repealed on 5/18/1967 

DAT^

_Rewrite & reconsider^

5. Education  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

5. Education  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

5. Education  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

5. Education  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

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6. Religion & Spirituality  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

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Functionalism style of architecture demanded a complete break with the ornamental motifs of the past and a quickened response to form, proportion, line and texture. [probably did not catch on in the 20's yet]

[Art Nouveau into Art Deco?]

RAW^

The origins of country music in in the Southeast and that of western music is in the southwest and West. The styles are very similar, each depending on the guitar, banjo, and fiddle for its distinctive sound. The lyrics focused largely on tribulations, such as unrequited love and the economic hardships of poor whites. During the 1920's the two styles were increasingly mingle.

The 1920's was a heyday for the arts of all kinds. The Cleveland Institute was founded early in the decade. In 1925 the Metropolitan Museum of Art had a record attendance, 1,156,102 visitors.

DAT^

1922 Expressionist painter John Marin paints "Lower Manhattan" and "Off York Island, Maine."

1922 Charles Sheeler, Precisionist painter, completes the starkly realistic "Church Street 'El.'"

1926 Georgia O'Keefe paints "Black Iris," and abstract work in which the flowers assume human anatomical shapes.

With the introduction of sound in 1927 audiences at cinemas multiplied even faster until, by 1927, the movies were the fourteenth largest business in the country and Hollywood was known the world over.

RAW^

7. Arts & Design  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1928 - 1937)

One of the most noteworthy contributions to American art during the 1920's was the transition of photography into an art form. While photography developed around the 1840's [when?], it was the late teens and early twenties that one of the most prominent leaders of this movement, Alfred Steiglitz, produced his most renowned photographs.

These included views of Manhattan, studies of clouds and portraits of his wife, Georgia O'Keeffe.

DAT^

7. Arts & Design  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

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They also read the novels of Sinclair Lewis, which satirized the age, and those of F. Scott Fitzgerald, which made it glamorous.

RAW^

(Absence of third quarter) The "clean book" bill is defeated in the Senate; forty leading authors form the Committee for the Suppression of Irresponsible Censorship. 1928

RAW^

     Censorship was being tested everywhere from books, to radio to the theater.

DAT^

1922 e. e. cummings , poet, pubs "The Enormous Room," about his brutal treatment in a French detention camp.

1923 Thomas Wolfe, writer, pubs the play "Welcome to Our City."

1925 Fitzgerald pubs "The Great Gatsby"

1925 Ernest Hemingway, novelist, pubs "In Our Time."

8. Literature & Pub.  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

8. Literature & Pub.  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1919 - 1928)

The first quarter of the Emotional Cycle was also apparent. Most of the great poets rejected older and European styles in preference for innovations quite unlike anything ever called poetry. The traditional verse format of systematized rhyme and measured rhythm was forsaken for what became known as "free verse". Precedents in even syntax and punctuation were explored. Playwrights also sought new approaches for American drama. Such noteworthy writers include Sinclair Lewis, F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway. [did they all write plays?]

[mention D. H. Lawrence, E. Oneil, Wells]

DAT^

8. Literature & Pub.  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

1925 John Watson pubs "Behaviorism," a book that sparks popular interest in psychology.

1926 Book-of-the-Month club begins enrolling members, with 40,000 the first year.

1926 Book-of-the-Month club begins enrolling members, with 40,000 the first year.

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1918 1929)

The Intellectual Cycle which bottomed out in 1897 gave rise to new beginning which culminated in the second quarter influence of 1918 to 1929. Historians record that virtually all aspects of American art moved in courses that had been established during the late nineteenth century to World War I. The realism and naturalism established during the previous two decades was still the influence on American novelists refined the genres in the twenties. Sculpture and architecture also developed on the trends established since the intellectual rise. American painters, such as Edward Hopper, also worked of pre World War I precedents.

DAT^

Literature among African Americans also came fourth during the intellectual high in what was called the Harlem Renaissance, centered in the mostly black section of New York City. Three of the most noted writers were James Weldon Johnson, Countee Cullen, and Langston Hughes. [EMO-INTELLECTUAL HIGH?]

DAT^

8. Literature & Pub.  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

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movie attend. weekly 33 million

[Mention Gershwin]

[mention Copland]

1916 The Charleston became popular dance step with professional entertainers and the public. children dance it for pennies on side streets and in front of theaters at intermission.

The physical peak of the decade was not hard to find in music. Record setting marathons became the craze. In on record setting session of 90 hours, Homer Morehouse, 27, dropped dead in the 87th hour.

The "Charleston" was taken north from Charleston, South Carolina by the all-black show, "Shuffle Along". It was popularized in 1925 by white dancers who picked it up at Texas clubs the year before. Dance was also furthered by the organization of The American Ballet in 1924 by Michael and Vera Fokine.

DAT^

Musical comedy rose rapidly during this decade. This may be result of the rise in the Emotional Cycle.

DAT^

The second quarter influence of a high Intellectual Cycle was exemplified by the incorporation of the Juilliard Musical Foundation in 1920. The school began with the foundation of the Institute of Musical Art in 1905, while the Intellectual Cycle was in the first quarter. Orchestral music and opera continued at a high level during the decade.

DAT^

Jazz, has gone through many phases in history. In the 1920's it took on new forms when Louis Armstrong developed his own style. Landmarking these times are his famous recordings from 1925 to 1928. The status of the performer was advanced at this time from being just a team player to gaining the spotlight with wild solo improvisation. The Chicago style of jazz was also developed at this time. By the mid 1920's, the Chicago style, New Orleans style and the improvisational techniques invented by Armstrong rose in combined form. These forms evolved from Dixieland jazz which was created around 1915 when the Physical Cycle crossed up into the first quarter. The double second quarter influence of the decade combined with an emotional high accounted for this most energetic form of music development. The physical provided the beat, the emotional high provided the mood and the intellectual high provided the counterpoint. Counterpoint, which is the occurrence of more than one melody at a time, is a phenomenon of and intellectual high cycle because of the mental prowess required to follow it. During an intellectual low period, counterpoint is often viewed as being too many notes. Dixieland and New Orleans styles of jazz declined in the late 30's and 40's.

DAT^

Blues had been previously been given birth in the South by African American Musicians. In the north it was nurtured and debuted to the public in the 1920's. As far as the public was concerned, it was a precedent. Bessie Smith was the first renowned blues vocalist of that time. Her famous "Mama's Got the Blues" set the standard. The popularity of the blues may be an advent of the Emotional Cycle. Sad though they may be, they are very emotional and are popular when the Cycle is high. As second quarters of the cycle came, so did development of the blues.  DAT^

 

1923 George Gershwin and his lyricist brother Ira collaborate on the score for the show "Lady Be Good," which includes the songs "Fascinating Rhythm" and "The Man I Love."

1923 Paul Whiteman commission G. Gershwin to write the symphonic jazz-style "Rhapsody in Blue."

1923 Oscar Hammerstein II, author and lyricist, produces the show "Rose Marie"

1923 O'Neil pubs "All God's Chllun Got Wings" and "Desire Under the Elms"

1923 William Faulkner, poet and novelist, pus "The Marble Faun."

1921 Rudolph Valentino, actor known as the 'great lover," stars in his first successful film, "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse."

1927 Warner Bros. on Oct 6, 1927, premiered "The Jazz Singer" (w songs and some dialogue) and in July 1928 the first all-talking feature.

1928 Walt Disney releases first Mickey Mouse cartoon, "Plane Crazy;" he also produces "Steamboat Willie," first animated film to use sound.

1928 Station QGY, Schenectady begins scheduled television broadcasts.

The times were reflected in the increasingly popular modes of entertainment of the time. Censorship was tested with everything from women in theater in transparent robes to the language used on radio. Radio was the new craze and held the public attention with the comedy of "Amos 'n' Andy", sports broadcasts and jazz shows. Movies were already popular and became more so with the advent of sound. Festive Americans laughed at Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd. Romanticism was portrayed by Rudolph Valentino and Clara Bow. 

The first public radio began 1920 with the KDKA broadcast in Pittsburgh of the Harding-Cox election returns. Westinghouse opened a broadcasting station in 1920. Radio as entertainment then made several firsts in 1922. There was the first Presidential broadcast as Harding made a dedication, the first World Series broadcast and the first "network" broadcast, involving WJZ of New York City and WGY of Schenectady, New York. Once again an electronic invention was being put to new use during the intellectual second quarter, and with the emotional high, it was becoming popular almost as quickly as it was being developed. There were 13 million radios in use by the end of the decade.

DAT^

Movies became very popular during the emotional high, drawing over 50,000,000 a week during the decade. As legendary heartthrobs prevail during an emotional high, neither the twenties or the this new form of entertainment were any exception. Rudolph Valentino became the leading man of the time. During the intellectual second quarter a significant development in the entertainment field was made with the advent of sound being introduced to moving pictures. "The Jazz Singer" with Al Jolson came out in 1927 as the first successful full-length talkie. By 1929 there were 20,500 movie theater in the United States. The number with sound increased from 1,300 to 9,000 that same year.

DAT^

1923 Samuel Goldwyn and Louis B. Mayer form the film co. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

1926 RCA orgs the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) as the first nationwide entertainment radio broadcasting network; Columbia Broadcasting System is set up in 1927.

9. Entertainment  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

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1920 Chicago Grand Jury indict 8 members of the Chicago White Sox for fixing the World Series between the White Sox and the Cincinnati Reds. In 1920 the players are found not guilty of the charge, but they are not allowed to play baseball again.

 Sports was at a height of popularity as the Physical Cycle peaked. Sports figures became heroes, such as baseball's Babe Ruth, football's Red Grange, boxing great Jack Dempsey and swimming star Johnny Weismuller. When the cycle is high, the hero are more famous.

DAT^

the formation of the National Football League in 1920

Sports enthusiasm peaked the decade where the Physical Cycle peaked in 1922 during a high Emotional Cycle. The American Professional Football Association was formed in 1920 while the cycle was still in the first quarter. with some of the greatest names of sports coming from this time. Red Grange brought his great college fame to football a drew unprecedented crowds when he played 20 games in 17 days. Other sports greats such as Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, Johnny Weissmuller and Lou Gehrig rose to fame during this time. Professional athletes became big business.

DAT^

10. Sports  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

10. Sports  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

10. Sports  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

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Clothes showed the times in the 20's, from men's low-crowned, flat-topped hats with turned up brims, bell bottomed trousers and raccoon coats. Women wore long-waisted dresses that were cut above the knee with rolled down stockings. With something of a middle class opulence, there were styles that cut across classes as "looks" and status symbols became more attainable. Here are some looks at fashion throughout the years of the Decade:

DAT^

In 1920, the "bachelor girl" gave up corsetry, hoops and bustles. The hour glass look was abandoned for loose, straight and casual styles. Short hair was brought forward to the cheeks in a Dutch boy look. The boyish look and angularity that was in fashion in the early twenties are typical of a physical high which brings masculinization into play. Style were becoming decorated in 1923 embroidery and prints and the seamless stocking made the leg look naked. Coasts were broad at the shoulder in 1924, brighter styles were coming in, such as orange lips, and striped and paisley patterns. It was not until 1925 when the Emotional Cycle became higher than the Physical Cycle that there was a feminization of style. It was in 1925, the first year that the Emotional Cycle was the highest of the three, that the "little girl look" was popularized. "Little girl frocks", saucer eyes, bee stung mouth as well short dresses with Peter Pan collars or floppy bow ties with ankle strap or buckled shoes came in. Underwear came in light colors, flowers and prints, sometimes no underwear at all was worn. Even cars came in new colors such as Cream, and violet, and line and style became more important. Feminization had become apparent.

DAT^

The shortest skirts of the decade were found in 1926 as the Emotional Cycle neared its peak. They came to just below the knee and were often pleated. Long necklaces and striped sweaters became popular. Evening dresses became colorful and elaborately decorated and the cocktail dress debuted. Sex appeal prevailed. As noted in the "American Chronicle" by Lois Gordon and Alan Gordon stated, "the "debutante slouch" emerges; hips thrown forward, as the woman grips a cigarette holder between her teeth." Many are nearly new under the lighter clothing of the flapper look.

DAT^

Men wore flat-topped hats, bell bottomed trousers and long raccoon coats in the 20's. Further masculinization was noted in the padded shoulders of men's suits in 1921. 1924 striped, paisley and spotted patterns for bow ties. Double breasted suits and vests were popular. Men wore bow ties in 1924, spats, double-breasted suits and vests and spotted patterns. In September of 1927, "Vanity Fair" reported on "sartorial practices" of the youth. Square-cut jackets, with bold, checked patterns came in style for men in 1928.

DAT^

More body curves began to appear in women's clothing in 1929 as the hem of evening dresses came to the floor. V necks and backless, sleeveless frocks with V necks came in. The unmistakably emotional high fashion of the bosom came in with the corset which had "breast pockets". Clothing became a more racy in general. The lively ice cream suit came in style for men this year.

[what years were wide ties in style]

DAT^

CARS 1925: Cars appear for the first time in such colors as Florentine cream and Versailles violet; bodies are lower with balloon tires; a new interest in line and style appears.

1926 - Skirts, shortest of the decade, stop just below the knee with flounces, pleats, and circular gores that extend from the hip; they are worn with horizontal-striped sweaters and long necklaces. Short and colorful evening dresses have elaborate embroidery, fringes, futuristic designs, beads, and appliqués. The cocktail dress is born, and Clara Bow's "look" replaces Mary Pickford's. The new sex appeal extends from the bee-stung mouth and tousled hair to a new focus on legs, with silk stockings rolled around garters at rouged knees. The "debutante slouch" emerges; hips thrown forward, as the woman grips a cigarette holder between her teeth. Mothers and daughters are flappers, many nearly nude beneath the new, lighter clothing.

1927 - September "Vanity Fair" reports the "sartorial practices" of "a certain flamboyant youth," the Harvard, Yale, or Princeton collegian who moves "like a darting elephant":

1928 - The more mature man, in his square-cut jacket, wears bold, checked patterns,

1929 - The flapper look passes as hems begin to fall and more body curves appear. Jean Patou drops the evening hen to the floor; backless, sleeveless frocks with panels or drapes lengthen to the ankle; all have a V neck. Undergarments change: flowery slips with bra tops appear, some with a shaped band at the waist and attached knickers. The bosom makes its reappearance in the corset with "breast pockets." In addition to the unisex "sun tan bathing suits" (black, one piece, with buttons up the back), women buy the new backless style, cut in front with an X halter, or the racy white or orange jersey-top suit with black taffeta trunks. Beauty shops open for facials and pomades; face lifting is popularized.

men: The ice-cream suit in husky diagonal tweeds for Ivy Leaguers.      [there were probably some wide ties in there too somewhere]

11. Fashion  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

11. Fashion  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

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pop. US almost 106 million

marriages/1,000: 12.0    divs/1,000: 1.6

pop. 106,491,000; life exp m 53.6  f 54.6; births/1,000: 27.7  deaths/1,000: 13.0  ; CPI (1967 = 100) 60.

1922 Marriages in US 1,126,000; divorces, 148,000.

1923 About 13.3 mil autos are registered, almost triple the number in 1917.

1924 There are 2.5 mil radios in the US; in 1920 there were only 5000 sets, used mostly by professionals.

1928 Stock market begins its decline.

1928 Before the stock market crash, 60% of US citizens had annual incomes of less than $2000, estimated as the bare minimum for the "basic necessities of life."

It was the "Jazz Age", the "Roaring Twenties", a time still celebrating the war to end all wars. A time of a high and rising Emotional Cycle. Victorian repression was left behind as were the cumbersome garments of the time, flappers came in. Bootlegging filled quenched the thirst of Americans who were out for fun. Speakeasies sprung up everywhere in secret locations with previously unlikely mixes of people gathering side by side. They had sliding panel doors and one required the proper password to get in. This popularity for underground fun allowed some crime figures as Al Capone to be mythologized in the eyes of the public.

DAT^

Nothing illustrates the new urban dominance better than the vaunted "prosperity" of the 1920's. It was wholly a metropolitan phenomenon. Everywhere skylines shot upward; over a million housing starts a year were concentrated almost exclusively in urban areas; governments built more than 600,000 miles of roads to accommodate the growing popularity of the automobile with its largely middle class ownership; old municipal boundaries could no longer contain the population growth and new suburbs sprouted up beyond the city limits. The "progress of the age" centered in the metropolis. The automobile, radio, movies, endless electrical appliances and the other symbols of American technological superiority reached the countryside only much later. Meanwhile metropolitan Americans enjoyed what seemed like a permanent prosperity.

RAW^

Improved industrial output and a rising economy brought more people to the cities. The prosperity of the physical high cycle was to change the lifestyle of the American people. It is there that the large factories of standardized and centralized mass production were at work. America had been mostly rural in 1890, but by 1930 it was urbanized. Almost half the population live within commuting distance of a town of 100,000 or more. Construction boomed and the advent of the car made commuting feasible to work, supermarkets and movie theaters. There 9 million cars in 1918, ten years later there were 26 million with four million a year being sold. Paved roads, traffic lights, signs and gas stations and motels sprang up. The home was less demanding on housewives who became consumers of labor saving devices. The new prosperity and consumerism went beyond euphoria and into a "speculative fever." America was booming.

DAT^

Intellectual energy ran high as Freudian psychology became a fad. Public attention was held by precedent setting trials, (such as the Scopes trial for one). Intellectuals who made statements on American lifestyle became popular, such as F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway and William Faulkner.

DAT^

12. Lifestyles  1920-29 Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1915 - 1929)

Physical fitness had surely become a national fad, as will happen during a physical high. French psychologist Emil Coue arrived in the US on January 4th, 1923, and began a health fad. His popular method of self-suggestion was to repeat daily: "Every day in every way I am getting better and better."

DAT^

As sectarianism seems to rise and fall in the US with the Physical Cycle, so it rose in during the Physical high from 1915 to 1929. By 1920, the Ku Klux Klan had become increasingly violent in the South. A conference on unemployment was held on September 26th, 1921, where Herbert Hoover presided. A corollary to the unemployed mass, led by a renewed KKK, spread violence. African American veterans who had found a new dignity during the war, however, were not so willing to return to oppression. In addition to targeting African Americans, they were anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic, anti-foreigner and addressed alcohol use and adultery. Settlement-house workers wanted a reduction in the growing numbers of unassimilated immigrants. Bigotry has a tendency to increase during the physical high, it is a form a territorial enforcement.

DAT^

The state of Oklahoma was placed under martial law by governor J.C. Walton on September 15th, 1923, in order to suppress the terrorism of the KKK, who were trying to affect the politics of the mid-West. In 1923, 200,000 members of the KKK showed up for a massing in Indiana and 1924 they almost took the state over. There influence spread in the North and the West and they elected governors in Oklahoma and Oregon.

Both presidential conventions in 1924 were faced with whether of not to condemn the KKK. Neither took the step.

DAT^

The Klan began to decline after the conviction of "Grand Dragon" David Stephenson was convicted of raping and causing the death of the young woman who was his secretary in 1925. It was also revealed that he made millions out of membership fees and the sale of nightshirts. This internal accidental precipitated the decline of the Klan that might not have begun until the downward physical crossover in 1929.

DAT^

The KKK was not the only hate group of the time. There was Palmer's witch hunt against the "red menace" in and around 1920. "Hundred per cent Americanism" was promoted by some who were against anyone unlike themselves. Anti-Semitism became more open and was nourished by none other than Henry Ford. The Dearborn newspaper he controlled printed supposed proof in 1920 of a Jewish conspiracy to destroy civilization called "The Protocol of the Elders of Zion". A book either written by or compiled for Ford that same year, called "The International Jew", blamed everything, including the war, on the Jews. Anti-Catholic pamphlets were also circulated in which the Knights of Columbus were accused of practicing obscene rites.

DAT^

12. Lifestyles  1920-29 Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1919 - 1937)

Physical fitness had surely become a national fad, as will happen during a physical high. French psychologist Emil Coue arrived in the US on January 4th, 1923, and began a health fad. His popular method of self-suggestion was to repeat daily: "Every day in every way I am getting better and better."

DAT^

As sectarianism seems to rise and fall in the US with the Physical Cycle, so it rose in during the Physical High from 1915 to 1929. By 1920, the Ku Klux Klan had become increasingly violent in the South. A conference on unemployment was held on September 26th, 1921, where Herbert Hoover presided. A corollary to the unemployed mass, led by a renewed KKK, spread violence. African American veterans who had found a new dignity during the war, however, were not so willing to return to oppression. In addition to targeting African Americans, they were anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic, anti-foreigner and addressed alcohol use and adultery. Settlement-house workers wanted a reduction in the growing numbers of unassimilated immigrants. Bigotry has a tendency to increase during the physical high, it is a form a territorial enforcement.

DAT^

The state of Oklahoma was placed under martial law by governor J.C. Walton on September 15th, 1923, in order to suppress the terrorism of the KKK, who were trying to affect the politics of the mid-West. In 1923, 200,000 members of the KKK showed up for a massing in Indiana and 1924 they almost took the state over. There influence spread in the North and the West and they elected governors in Oklahoma and Oregon.

Both presidential conventions in 1924 were faced with whether of not to condemn the KKK. Neither took the step.

DAT^

The Klan began to decline after the conviction of "Grand Dragon" David Stephenson was convicted of raping and causing the death of the young woman who was his secretary in 1925. It was also revealed that he made millions out of membership fees and the sale of nightshirts. This internal accidental precipitated the decline of the Klan that might not have begun until the downward physical crossover in 1929.

DAT^ 

The KKK was not the only hate group of the time. There was Palmer's witch hunt against the "red menace" in and around 1920. "Hundred per cent Americanism" was promoted by some who were against anyone unlike themselves. Anti-Semitism became more open and was nourished by none other than Henry Ford. The Dearborn newspaper he controlled printed supposed proof in 1920 of a Jewish conspiracy to destroy civilization called "The Protocol of the Elders of Zion". A book either written by or compiled for Ford that same year, called "The International Jew", blamed everything, including the war, on the Jews. Anti-Catholic pamphlets were also circulated in which the Knights of Columbus were accused of practicing obscene rites.

DAT^

12. Lifestyles  1920-29 Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1918 - 1929)

General-interest and special-interest magazines appeared and flourished during the intellectual high cycle of the 20's. Photographs and illustrations were added with effective impact. Reader's Digest, was begun in 1922, became one of the most popular. It was a pocket-sized monthly that condensed articles from other periodicals. Time began in 1923 and became the weekly news magazine which influenced that beginning of Newsweek and U.S. News and World Report which both began in 1933.

The Saturday Review of Literature began in 1924 and The New Yorker began in 1925. America was reading more and was more interested.

DAT^

12. Lifestyles  1920-29 Polyrhythms top    

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