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Summary

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  1775-1776 Eighteenth 19th Cent. 
Timelines - Century
28y Physical 36y Emotional 44y Intellectual
Cycles USA 1775-1800
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These Timelines are a detailed look at the time and the influence of Cycles. Significant events of the decade are analyzed through Twelve categories that serve as a kaleidoscopic lens through time, (see the clickable links above), as well as the position of Cycles at the time, (see the clickable folder links in the upper left corner). You can read and link up and down vertically through this Timeline, or, you can go any Category and link horizontally to the same Category in other Timelines (links are provided at the head of each Category). This cross linking is designed to provide a fast and easy way to make reading fun and interesting.

See the go to Overview here link near the top for a brief look at Cycles for this decade.

See the Matrix links above left for navigating through all Overviews and Timelines by Time, Subject, or Cycle as described in Introduction to Part II).


The political beginning of the United States came with the Revolutionary War in Spring, 1775. The emergence of new Cycles began a Three-way High from 1775. A new life needs this momentum to get started. Since then, political changes have reflected all three Cycles and their changes until today. Patrick Henry cried, "Give me liberty or give me death," in 1775. By the end of the year America had its own Continental Congress, its own army, navy and marine corps, and its own flag. We were a nation.

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1. Political  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1775 - 1789)

America Defeated the British in 1781 after six years of fighting the Revolutionary War. Many significant battles had power shifting both ways, but America was strong enough in its first Physical High to win its independence.

The Northwest Ordinance in 1787 provided for the governing of the Northwest Territory east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio River. This plan made in the Physical High called for dividing the territory into three to five states once the region had a greater population.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1782)

Armed Services Were Established in 1775. The Continental Congress established the Continental Army and George Washington was chosen to lead it. Congress established the Continental Navy and the Continental Marines later that year.

The Declaration of Independence was approved at the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia on July 4th 1776. This founding document in America's earliest Physical 1st Qtr. gives testament that we are a separate body. Each person has certain unalienable right and government derives its powers from the consent of the governed.

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1782 - 1789)

The Mason-Dixon Line Was Extended in the Physical 2nd Qtr. It was originally the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania as surveyed by Englishmen Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon. Andrew Ellicott surveyed and extended along the parallel 39 degrees and 43 seconds in 1785.

Physical Downward Crossover (March 21, 1789 - March 21, 1790)

Anti-Federalist Laborers Organized to form the Society of Saint Tammany in New York City in May 1789. This group of workers, tradesmen, and political activists formed their fraternal organization in the Physical Crossover as Federalists found new opposition.

Physical Low (1789 - 1803)

States Reduced Capital Punishment as enforcement lessened. Pennsylvania revised its state criminal code to abolish the death penalty for all offenses except murder in 1794. Virginia also reduced the numbers crimes that qualified capital punishment in 1796. A social trend led away from capital punishment in the Physical Low.

The Whiskey Rebellion Failed after breaking out in western Pennsylvania in 1794. Farmers violently opposed a federal excise tax on liquor passed in 1791. It was a use of force that came in a Physical Low. President Washington called out a militia force of almost 13,000 from Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The rebellion disbanded after less than two months.

Washington Warned Against US Involvement in Foreign Affairs in his "Fair well Address" in 1796. President Washington had also issued a neutrality proclamation in 1793. America was more reserved and less aggressive in the Physical Low.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1789 - 1796)

The Bill of Rights was adopted as the first ten Amendments to the US Constitution in 1791. It guarantees certain rights not mentioned in the Constitution such as freedom of worship, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly. This effort in our earliest Physical 3rd Qtr. produced one of the most significant reforms of the nation.

Resolutions Called for an Official Inquiry into the Condition of the Treasury and conduct of the Secretary of the Treasury. Alexander Hamilton in 1793. Charges of corruption and mismanagement were unsubstantiated and a call to censure Hamilton did not pass the House. Nevertheless, Hamilton's opponents in the Physical 3rd Qtr. of Reform believed that it was monied interests that ruled Congress. They called for a return to "genuine republicanism."

Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1796 - 1803)

President Washington Refused the Presidency for a Third Term in 1796. We sought alternatives in the Physical 4th Qtr. and some original aspects were on the way out. The ruling Federalists party would lose the following election to Democratic-Republicans as the nation ventured in a new direction.

1. Political  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

"Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death" is how Patrick Henry's concluded his moving speech at the Virginia Convention in 1775. It carried Emotional appeal for America's first Emotional High as impassioned colonists moved for independence.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1784)

The American Flag Symbolized the Heart of the Nation in its earliest Emotional 1st Qtr. It appeared in 1775 with thirteen alternating stripes of red and white. In a field of blue in the upper left corner were the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew. Our first flag bears a religious symbol. The flag was known by names as the Grand Union Flag and the First Navy Ensign. A circle with thirteen stars replaced the crosses in the field of blue in 1777, to represent the original thirteen colonies. We know this as the Stars and Stripes.

Emotional Downward Crossover (March 21, 1793 - March 21, 1794)

Jefferson Resigned as Secretary of State under President Washington in December 1793 to lead the anti-Federalist Democratic-Republican party. This split in party unity came as the Emotional High ended with a Downward Crossover. The Physical Cycle was already in 3rd Qtr. Reform and the Democratic-Republicans took a reformist platform against Federalist policies of central control in government.

A Group of Slaves Rebelled in Albany, New York and devastated the town by setting fires. This major outbreak of violence in November 1793, came with the Emotional Crossover.

Albert Gallatin was Barred From his Elected Seat in the US Senate in February 1794, on a trumped-up residence technicality put forth by Federalists who resented Gallatin's opposition to the whiskey tax. Gallatin was elected to the House of Representatives the following year, however, and went on to serve as the Democratic-Republican Secretary of the Treasury under President Jefferson in 1801. He still encountered the obstacle of an Emotional Crossover on the way.

Emotional Low (1793 - 1811)

Federalist "Reason" Defeated Republican "Idealism" as John Adams, a Federalist was elected to the presidency in 1796. The Intellectual Cycle was still High and the Emotional Cycle was Low. Not until the following election, when the Intellectual Cycle was also low, would the Federalists lose the presidency to reformist Democratic-Republicans.

Emotional 4rd Qtr. Review (1793 - 1802)

States Rights Resolutions Declared Alien and Sedition Acts Unconstitutional in 1798. Kentucky adopted a set of resolutions drafted Thomas Jefferson to protest federal use of power under the acts. Kentucky also drafted a second set of resolutions that were endorsed the following year. Virginia adopted resolutions written by James Madison that declared federal use of power under the acts was unconstitutional. These strong measures of reform came in the Emotional 3rd Qtr. President Thomas Jefferson went on to pardon all those convicted under the Sedition Act, and Congress restored all fines paid with interest.

1. Political  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1775 - 1797)

Congress passed the Federal Judiciary Act that created a six-man Supreme Court, a Chief Justice, and five Associated Justices in 1789. It also created thirteen district courts and three circuit courts. John Jay became the first Chief Justice. These Intellectual Foundations in our first Intellectual High set our judiciary standards that we might have a thinking nation to make judgements.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1786)

The Continental Congress Was Established in our earliest 1st Qtr. of the Intellectual Cycle. It came into being in May 1775 as the center of our nation's decision making process. The mind of the nation had its foundation.

Congress Adopted the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union in 1777 which was ratified in 1781. It was established in Triple 1st Qtr. of our beginning to organized powerful government that could be independent. It served as our constitution until the US Constitution superseded it in the following Intellectual 2nd Qtr.

Intellectual 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1786 - 1797)

The United States Constitution Replaced the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union in 1787. We created it to improve on its forerunner and solve problems such as how to provide fair representation for large and small states. A required number of states approved the Constitution and it was ratified the following year. Early Cycles entered a Triple 2nd Qtr. from 1786 - 1789. The US Constitution of 1787 is perhaps the most significant improvement in our nation.

Intellectual Downward Crossover (March 21, 1797 - March 21, 1798)

The XYZ Affair With France was a crisis of international Relations in 1797. After France had interfered with US shipping, President Adams sent three agents to France to negotiate with their foreign minister, Tallyrand, to negotiate a commerce treaty. Tallyrand refused them audience, however, and sent three agents in his place whom the Americans later referred to as X, Y and Z in a report. Instead of negotiating a treaty, the agents attempted to negotiate $350,000 for Tallyrand. The US rejected this idea so strongly in the Crossover year, that all treaties with France were repealed and the Navy was ordered to seize all armed French vessels. It was Crossover time.

The US House of Representative Impeached Senator William Blount from Tennessee for conspiring to instigate a war with Spain and instigating a Cherokee insurgence against the US and Spanish possessions. The Senate expelled Blount, but they dismissed charges against him in January 1799 after the Intellectual Crossover was over.

Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review (1797 - 1808)

The Eleventh Amendment Limited Federal Judicial Authority Over the States in 1794. It countered a previous Supreme Court decision and repealed a section of the Constitution so that a citizen from one state to sue another state. Federal courts do not have jurisdiction over litigation between individuals of other states. It was a conceptual reform of the Intellectual 3rd Qtr.

1. Political  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

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2. Business & Economy  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1775 - 1789)

Trade Routes Expanded in the new Physical High. The "Empress of China" sailed around Cape Horn to open a Trade Route to China with a load of ginseng root for which they would pay enormous prices. The new trade route helped American merchants recover from a British blockade. Regular Stage Routes linked New York City, Boston, Albany, and Philadelphia in 1785 which connected our infrastructure. Virginia authorized America's First Turnpike, the Little Rover Turnpike, in 1785 and we were in motion.

Congress Adopted a Coinage System in 1786 based on the Spanish milled dollar as proposed by Thomas Jefferson the year before. It included ten dollar gold pieces, silver dollars, tenths of a dollar in silver, and hundredths of a dollar in copper. America now had a Physical medium for conducting its transactions.

The First Recorded Strike in the US was Successful as the Physical High empowered labor. The Printers of Philadelphia succeeded in obtaining a wage of $6 a week in 1786.

New Methods came with our first Physical High. The First Ice Cream was mad commercially in New York City. The Cotton Factory appeared as John Cabon and Joshua Fisher managed the first one in Beverly, Massachusetts in 1787. Our first Physical High was thrusting us into production.

2. Business & Economy  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

2. Business & Economy  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1775 - 1797)

The New York Stock Exchange Was Organized in at the Merchants Coffee House in New York City by twenty-four brokers in 1792. This development in the Intellectual High was of significant help to businesses then, and it is one the world's most significant institutions today.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1786)

Congress Established the Bank of North America in 1781. Congress could not tax under the Articles of Confederation, so that Bank was founded to supply the money for the federal government. It was means of exchange that played a role in the start up of the nation.

Intellectual High (1775 - 1797)

The Treasury Board Replaced the Office of Superintendent of Finances when Congress created it in 1784. It was a variation in the Intellectual 2nd Qtr. governed by a panel of three commissioners.

The Bank of the United States Formed in 1791, ten years after the Bank of North America. It was an improvement in the Intellectual 2nd Qtr. that opened branches the following year.

2. Business & Economy  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

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3. Science & Technology  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1775 - 1789)

The First Circumnavigation of the Globe by an American Vessel took place after Captain Robert Gray sailed from the "Columbia" from Boston Harbor in 1787. He carried furs to trade with Indians in the Pacific Northwest then went on to China with otter skins trekking some 42,000 miles. The new trade route brought wealth to New England merchants.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1782)

The Philadelphia Humane Society Was Established in 1790 during the Physical 1st Qtr. They taught the first aid of reviving drowning victims and Franklin proposed mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

3. Science & Technology  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

3. Science & Technology  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1775 - 1797)

Science Advanced in America's first Intellectual High. The Chemical Society of Philadelphia opened as the world's first of its kind in 1792. Thomas Cooper Published "Some Information Respecting America," on the state of Science in 1794.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 186)

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences Founded in Boston in 1780. The first Intellectual Cycle began with a High while Intellectual Foundations were set. The First Issue of "Memoirs" was published as the journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1785.

Observation of an Eclipse came in the Intellectual 1st Qtr. when Samuel Williams gave the first description of spots sunlight around the moon's edge in the solar eclipse of 1780.

The Molecular Theory of Magnetism was described by Rittenhouse in 1786 as he experimented with diffraction gratings and light dispersion in the Intellectual 1st Qtr.

American Botany advanced as Manasseh Cutler published "Account" in 1785, the scientific Study of American Vegetables that became highly regarded. Humphry Marshall, a botanist, published "The American Grove" as a Systematic Catalog of Trees in 1785. John Fraser and Thomas Walter published "Flora Caroliniana" as a Description of Plants in the Carolinas in 1788.

Balloon Flight Came to America in 1784 when John Foulke, a physician, flew a small paper balloon, (the hot air balloon was not invented in America). Peter Carnes paid a 13-year-old boy to pioneer the first manned balloon flight that same year. Francois Jean Pierre Blanchard, a French balloonist, followed this up with a free-flight from Philadelphia to New Jersey in the following 2nd Qtr. of 1793.

Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review (1797 - 1808)

Revision Came to "The New Practical Navigator," an error-filled publication by J.H. Moore, with corrections from Nathaniel Bowditch in 1799. We had already begun correcting ourself in the early 3rd Qtrs.

3. Science & Technology  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1775 - 1789)

Medical Establishments Were Founded in the Physo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. The Massachusetts Medical Society was established by Cotton Tufts in 1781. Harvard Medical School Opened in 1782. Physician Hugh Maring proposed the use of a powder containing arsenic as a cure for cancer which became a common treatment. Other Medical practices began in the Physo-Intellectual High as Josiah Flagg opened practice in Boston as America's First Dentist in 1783. George Washington's dentists, John Greenwood, began using Porcelain for False Teeth in 1785. Benjamin Franklin invented Bifocal Spectacles in 1783. Dr. Benjamin Rush suggested that problems may be Psychosomatic Illness, physical ailments caused by maladies of the mind, which he published in his "Observations on the Cause and Cure of the Tetanus" in 1786. Pennsylvania Hospital Opened an Outpatient Dispensary that became a forerunner to free clinics in the Physical High - Intellectual 1st Qtr. in 1786. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia was founded as a professional organization in 1787.

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4. Mechanical  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1775 - 1789)

The Age of Steam began in America as John Stevens patented the Multi-tubular Boiler in 1783 and Oliver Evans developed the non-condensing high-pressure Steam Engine in 1787.

Physical 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1782)

The First Submarine Attack came in the Physical 1st Qtr. when David Bushnell's submersible "Turtle" attempted and attack against the British ship "Eagle" off Manhattan Island in 1776. Bushnell also invented the torpedo in 1777.

Physical 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1782 - 1789)

The Steamboat Utilized the Steam Engine, developed in the preceding 1st Qtr. by putting on water. John Fitch was first to build a steamboat in 1786, which he sequelled with an improved version the following year. James Rumsey built the second steamboat in 1787. Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston produced the first commercially successful steamboat, the "Clermont," in the following 1st Qtr. of the next Physical High.

Rumsey Patented an Improved Steam Boiler during the Physical 2nd Qtr. In 1791.

4. Mechanical  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

4. Mechanical  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1775 - 1797)

Eli Whitney Invented the Cotton Gin during the Intellectual High in 1793. This device greatly increased cotton production and reduced costs in the most expensive process of refining cotton.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1786)

The First American Book Printed With Movable Type, as opposed to being engraved, was "Lan Deo!," a collection of sacred music for schools in 1786.

4. Mechanical  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Intellectual High (1775 - 1789)

Advances Came to Industry in the Intellectual High. Oliver Evans invented The Card-Making Machine that could complete 150 pairs of cotton or wool carted from wire each day. Evans also invented the Automatic Production Line which he put into production at a flour mill near Philadelphia in 1785. It cut labor requirements in half. These developments of during the Physical High - Intellectual 1st Qtr. mechanical brought improvements with new inventions. Samuel Slater built America's first Steam-Powered Cotton Processing Machines in Rhode Island 1790. Many consider this development as the Beginning of the Industrial Revolution in America. Slater then reproduced Arkwright machinery when he used Water Power at Pawtucket, Rhode Island in 1791.

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5. Education  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

5. Education  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

5. Education  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1775 - 1797)

"Blue-Backed Spellers, a Grammatical Institute of the English Language" was issued in its first volume by Noah Webster in 1783. He released the other two volumes by 1785. Webster's "Speller" standardized pronunciation and spelling for American English and united American society with a common language during the Intellectual High. It became one of the best-selling American books of all time.

Samuel Slater Organized a Sunday School in 1793 to teach basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic to children laborers of his factory in Pawtuctet.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1786)

Firsts in Education came with the Intellectual 1st Qtr. The Phi Beta Kappa (national scholarship fraternity) was founded at the College of William and Mary College in Williamsburg, Virginia, as the first social fraternity in America with five students in December 1776. This 1st Qtr. Foundation has become an honorary fraternity of academic renown. William and Mary College Created Schools of medicine, law and modern languages and Established the Method of Student Choice of Courses under Thomas Jefferson. Philips Exeter Academy was Founded in Massachusetts in 1778 with a broader curriculum than the Latin Grammar School.

5. Education  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

Physo-Emotional Dbl. 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1784)

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, was founded in Boston in 1780, and is America's second oldest learned society in the US. Art and Science were founded together in the Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr.

Religious Schools Were Established in the Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. The First Catholic Parochial School was Founded by St. Mary's Catholic Church in Philadelphia in 1782 as religion and education were coming together in a foundation laid during the Emo-Intellectual 1st Qtr. The First Theological College in the US Was Established at New Brunswick, New Hampshire in 1784.

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

The First Sunday School in the U.S. was established by the Methodist leader, Francis Asbury, in 1786 in Hanover County Va.

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6. Religion & Spirituality  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

6. Religion & Spirituality  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

The Virginia Declaration of Rights established the "Free Exercise of Religion" the in 1776. This precedent in America's earliest Emotional High and 1st Qtr. brought disestablishment of the Church of England that followed in Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina and Georgia and South Carolina over the next fourteen years. An act in 1776 suspended payment of titles, Madison's "Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments" came out in 1784, and Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom passed in 1785. Religion was on a new rise in America's Emotional High.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1784)

The First Complete English Language Bible Published in America was done by Robert Aitkin, a printer, during the Emotional 1st Qtr. in 1782.

Establishment of Religions came with our earliest Emotional 1st Qtr. The First Universalist Congregation Was Established at Gloucester, Massachusetts in 1779 by John Murray. Reverend John Murray built the first Universalist Church in Gloucester in 1780. Ten fellow ministers at Woodbury Connecticut elected Dr. Samuel Seabury as the First Protestant Episcopal Bishop in America in 1783. He was consecrated by the Sottish bishops and Aberdeen in Moray in 1784, against the wishes of the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Emotional 2nd Qtr. Expansion (1784 - 1793)

Virginia's Ordinance of Religious Freedom followed its Declaration of Rights. This Ordinance in 1786 expounded upon its former Declaration in 1776 to guarantee than no on can be forced to attend or support any church, nor be discriminated against because of their religious preference. This was an Emotional 2nd Qtr. Improvement on its former, 1st Qtr. Declaration.

Variations and Spinoffs Came to Religious Institutions in the Emotional 2nd Qtr. The Methodist Church Organized in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1784 as a separation from the Church of England. Unitarianism Came to America as a Change From Episcopalian Liturgy in Boston in 1785. Protestant Episcopal Church Spun off the American Branch of the Church of England in Philadelphia in 1789 then adopted cannons, revised prayers, and altered "The Book Of Common Prayer."

The Roman Catholic Version of the Bible was Published in America in 1790 by Matthew Carey. This variation came in the Emotional 2nd Qtr. after the first English language Bible in American was published in the preceding 1st Qtr. (1782).

Emotional 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1793 - 1802)

Deism Gained Ground in 1794 as A rationalist view that the universe demonstrates the existence of God, so no formal religion is necessary. The writings of Thomas Paine furthered deism, but most notably ex-Baptist preacher Elihu Palmer and his "Principle of Nature" in 1797 countered the tenets of orthodox Christianity, in the Emotional 3rd Qtr.

6. Religion & Spirituality  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

6. Religion  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

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7. Arts & Design  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

7. Arts & Design  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual 3rd Qtr. Review (1797 - 1808)

New Orleans Was Rebuilt with Federal and Greek Revival Architecture after devastating fires in 1788 and 1794, and after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Both the Federal and Greek styles brought back older forms in the Intellectual 3rd Qtr.

7. Arts & Design  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

Emo-Intellectual Dbl. 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1784)

The Philadelphia Museum Was Opened in 1785 by Charles Wilson Peale, a portrait painter, with displays of animals, minerals, and art.

Emotional High with
Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation
(1775 - 1786)

The First Exhibition Gallery in the US Was Opened in Philadelphia by C. W. Peale in 1786. Arts expand in an Emotional High and the Intellectual 1st Qtr. contributed to the founding of the first place to show it in this manner.

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8. Literature & Publication  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1789 - 196)

Mb in the 1791. Boston clergyman and historian Jeremy Belknap founded the center in the Physical 3rd Qtr. to collect and preserve significant documents of American history.

8. Literature & Publication  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

Patriotic Poetry Caught On in the Emotional High. Philip Freneau, "Poet of the American Revolution," wrote biting satires against the British. Works such as "General George Soliloquy" poetically criticized the British in 1776. Francis Hopkinson's ballad, "The Battle of the Kings" satirized the British fleet in 1778. It was the most popular poem of the day.

All Scientists Wrote With the Spirit of the Romantic Movement as they recorded their travels across the vast with unique flora and fauna. This held true for all the scientific explorers whose records read like travel books. One noteworthy example is William Bartram, (son of John Bartram), who wrote "Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Mascoguiges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Choctaw" in 1791. His beautiful accounts of nature, written in the Emotional High, were an influence on great American authors such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

"Common Sense" by Thomas Paine Impassioned Patriots to end the union with England in 1776. Paine's eloquent style and heartfelt appeal set a precedent in the Emotional 1st Qtr. It sold more than 100,000 copies in three months. Paine also published "The Crisis" in 1776 which bolstered morale in the Continental Army. It began with the memorable sentence, "These are the time that try men's souls."

The First Periodical to Target Female Readers was "Gentlemen and Ladies' Town and Country Magazine" published in 1784.

Emotional High (1793 - 1802)

"American Poems, Selected and Original" Was Early Anthology of American poets published by Elihu Hubbard Smith in Litchfield, Connecticut. It included input from the "Connecticut Wits." It appeared as the Emotional Cycle entered the 3rd Qtr. in 1793.

8. Literature & Publication  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

Intellectual High (1775 - 1797)

Medical Publications Emerged with the Intellectual High. America's First Collection of Medical Papers appeared as the Medical Society of New Haven published "and Observations" in 1788. Benjamin Waterhouse, a Rhode Island physician, published "The Rise, Progress and Present State of Medicine" in 1792. Pennsylvania physician James Mease Reported on Rabies on 1792. Mitchell published "The Medical Repository" as America's First Medical Magazine in 1797.

Dobson's Encyclopaedia went to press in 1790 as an American edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica in eighteen volumes. Printing took seven years with special types and many fine engravings. It was heralded as the greatest achievement to date for American press and it was completed on the final year of the Intellectual High.

Intellectual 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1786)

The First Daily Newspaper in the US, "The Pennsylvania Evening Post," began publication in 1783 by Benjamin Towne in Philadelphia. "American Mercury" Was Established as a Weekly Newspaper in Harford, Connecticut by Joel Barlow in 1784. The "Pennsylvania Herald" Was Founded by Matthew Carey in 1785.

8. Literature & Publication  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1789 - 1796)

Joel Barlow Defended Human Rights Over Property Rights in his "Advice to the Privileged Orders" in 1792. This stand is a classic Emotional over Physical position with a reformist element provided by the Physical 3rd Qtr.

Physo-Emotional Dbl. 3rd Qtr. Review (1793 - 1796)

"A Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich" by itinerant Quaker minister John Woolman was a humanitarian essay that called fro sweeping social reform and the abolition of slavery in 1793.

A New Study of History Emphasized Social Forces over Military Events in 1795. This look back promoted by Vermont judge Nathaniel Chipman balanced the nation's Emotional fiber against Physically-based values while both the Emotional and Physical Cycles were in 3rd Qtr. Review.

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

"Mother Goose Rhymes" Appeared in its First Edition as published by Isaiah Thomas in 1785. These children's stories established in the Intellectual 1st Qtr. reflected the Emotional High.

Trirhythmic High (1775 - 1789)

The Federalist Papers were published as a series beginning in 1787. It is perhaps the greatest American works on political theory comprising eighty-five essays initiated by Alexander Hamilton who wrote fifty-one of them. The essays stem from the debate over the Constitution and were published with the intent of winning over New York and other state to ratify it. The first articles were by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay. The book form was published in two volumes in 1788 and was a crowning achievement that reflected the Three-way High of the beginning of a nation.

"Letters From an American Farmer" by J. Hector st. John de Crevecouer, (whose real name was Michel Buillaume Hean de Brevecouer), was a warm account of farm life, land and animals in America written in twelve letters with vivid detail in 1782. He espoused the idea of the Physiocrats who held that the goodness of man comes from his connection with the soil. This extremely popular work was a detailed account of beauty and goodness from living with the land. That view reflects a Physical, Emotional, and Intellectual High.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review with
     Emo-Intellectual High
(1789 - 1793)

"The Power of Sympathy; or the Triumph of Nature," written by William Hill Brown in 1789, dealt with such topics as incest, desertion. He wrote it "to expose the dangerous consequences of seclusion and to set forth the advantages of female education. A reformist position reflected the Physical 3rd Qtr., moral treatment of a woman's position reflected the Emotional High and advocacy of education reflected an Intellectual High.

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9. Entertainment  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

A Law Banning Theatrical Performances Was Repealed in Pennsylvania in 1789. A more permissive view came for the theater as it spread throughout the seaboard in America's first Emotional High. Frequent visits by George Washington helped legitimize it.

Emotional 1st Qtr. Foundation (1775 - 1784)

The First American Comedy Performed on a Regular Stage, "The Contrast" by Royall Tyler, opened at the John Street Theater in New York City during the Emotional 1st Qtr. in 1787 and was an instant success.

The New Exhibition Room Opened in Boston in the Emotional High and plays were presented as "moral lectures" in 1792.

9. Entertainment  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

9. Entertainment  18th C. Polyrhythms top    
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10. Sports  1790s Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1775 - 1789)

Sports in America has many early beginnings in America's first Physical High. Horse Racing was popular in colonial times and sprint racing between two horses on a quarter-mile took place around Charlottesville, Virginia. Horse racing in Long Island, New York, included Gentleman's Purse, Ladies' Subscription, and a race for women riders in 1780. A Golf Club was Established in Charleston, South Caroline in 1786. Sports developed rapidly as the nation burgeoned. The influence of Cycles, especially the Physical Cycle, will pervade through the times.

10. Sports  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

10. Sports  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

10. Sports  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

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11. Fashion  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

Physical 4th Qtr. Alternatives (1796 - 1803)

Previous Fashions Were Abandoned in men's fashions. Powdered wigs, knee-length pantaloons with buckles, silk stockings, and low-cut shoes, were on their way out of fashion by 1800.

11. Fashion  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

Elegance in Fashion was recognized in our earliest times. A French traveler reported the elegance of Annapolis, Maryland in 1781 to note the elegance of women, richness of coaches and refinement of balls and dinners. He stated that, "A French hairdresser is a man of importance..., and it is said, a certain dame here hires one...at a thousand crowns a year salary." A Boston printer wrote on the style of men's clothing in around 1785 to say: "He wore a pea-green coat, white vest, nankeen small clothes, white silk stockings, and pumps fastened with silver buckles which covered at least half the foot from instep to toe. His small clothes were tied at the knees with ribbon of the same colour in double bows, the ends reaching down to the ankles. His hair in front was loaded with pomatum, frizzled or craped and powdered. Behind, his natural hair was augmented by the addition of a large queue called vulgarly a false tail, which, enrolled in some yards of black ribbon, hung halfway down his back."

Emotional High (1793 - 1811)

Use of Powder on Men's Hair Went out of Fashion in 1794. They simply braided or tied hair with a black ribbon in the more conservative times of an Emotional Low.

11. Fashion  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

11. Fashion  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

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NUMBERS: They estimated the US population at around 2.7 colonial Americans in 1780. Population reduced to an estimated 2.4 million in by 1783 due to war deaths. Our first nation census in 1790 counted four million, including 698,000 the Middle States and 50% in the South. Virginia was the most populated state. Cities in descending order of population were Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charleston, and Baltimore.

12. Lifestyles  18th C. Physical Cycle top    

Physical High (1775 - 1789)

The Building of Routes helped to found a new nation in our first Physical High. Regular stage routes linked New York City, Boston, Albany and Philadelphia began in 1785. A trade route to China opened brought trade to New England after Captain Robert Gray sailed the "Columbia" as the first American Vessel to circumnavigating the world in 1787 that bought goods to and from New England.

Physical 3rd Qtr. Review (1789 - 1786)

Reform Came to Prisons in our earliest Physical 3rd Qtr. The Society fro Alleviating the Miseries of the Public Prisons began in 1790. It was headed by Tenche Coxe, William Howard, and Benjamin Rush who lobbied successfully for prison improvements. Prisoners received more adequate clothing, greater privacy, religious instruction, protection from guards and were separated by type of crime. The Walnut Street prison in Philadelphia introduced solitary confinement to bring "moral regeneration" through "enforced meditation."

History was Commemorated with the First Celebration of Columbus Day on October 12, 1792. This review of the discovery of America by Columbus that took place three hundred years before was initiated in our earliest Physical 3rd Qtr.

12. Lifestyles  18th C. Emotional Cycle top    

Emotional High (1775 - 1793)

Use of the Scarlet Letter for Adulterers Was Discontinued in New England in 1782. Times are less restrictive in an Emotional High, (as opposed to the more conservative Low period when 3rd Qtr. Reform prevails).

A State Liquor Tax Was Opposed in a town Meeting in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1782 because they felt that liquor was needed for the morale of farm workers. Use of mood altering substances has historically increased with an Emotional High.

Thanksgiving Day Was Celebrated as a National Holiday for the first time in 1789. This thanks to God for the bounties of the earth is a celebration that settlers adopted from Native American Faith, during the Emotional High.

12. Lifestyles  18th C. Intellectual Cycle top    

12. Lifestyles  18th C. Polyrhythms top    

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A fugue of rhythms began in 1775 that quickly developed with characteristic patterns. Highs and Lows, Seasons of Change and Crossovers in each Cycle continue with consistent clockwork consistency through today. Changing times come from waves that sprang from a vortex in time that we call the American Revolution.

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